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PERT is a method to analyze the involved tasks in completing a given project, especially the time needed to complete each task, and identifying the minimum time needed to complete the total project. PERT was developed primarily to simplify the planning and scheduling of large and complex projects. It was developed by Bill Pocock for the U.S. Navy Special Projects Office in 1957 to support the U.S. Navy's Polaris nuclear submarine project.

The Program (or Project) Evaluation and Review Technique, commonly abbreviated PERT, is a statistical tool, used in project management, that is designed to analyze and represent the tasks involved in completing a given project. PERT can be considered as a roadmap of a particular project in which all major events have been identified and relationship among events clearly indicated

Project management technique that shows the time taken by each component of a project, and the total time required for its completion. PERT breaks down the project into events and activities, and lays down their proper sequence, relationships, and duration in the form of a network. Lines connecting the events are called paths, and the longest path resulting from connecting all events is called the critical path. The length (duration) of the critical path is the duration of the project.

PERT event: a point that marks the start or completion of one or more activities. It consumes no time and uses no resources. When it marks the completion of one or more tasks, it is not reached (does not occur) until all of the activities leading to that event have been completed. predecessor event: an event that immediately precedes some other event without any other events intervening. An event can have multiple predecessor events and can be the predecessor of multiple events. successor event: an event that immediately follows some other event without any other intervening events. An event can have multiple successor events and can be the successor of multiple events. PERT activity: the actual performance of a task which consumes time and requires resources (such as labor, materials, space, machinery). It can be understood as representing the time, effort, and resources required to move from one event to another. A PERT activity cannot be performed until the predecessor event has occurred.


optimistic time (O): the minimum possible time required to accomplish a task, assuming everything proceeds better than is normally expected pessimistic time (P): the maximum possible time required to accomplish a task, assuming everything goes wrong (but excluding major catastrophes). most likely time (M): the best estimate of the time required to accomplish a task, assuming everything proceeds as normal. expected time (TE): the best estimate of the time required to accomplish a task, accounting for the fact that things don't always proceed as normal TE = (O + 4M + P) 6

Steps involved in PERT

Preparation of the list of all activities necessary to complete the project. determine the proper sequence of activities Design the actual PERT network relating to all activities to one another in a proper sequence. Estimate the time schedule for each activity Determine the critical path Update the PERT chart as the program progresses

Examples In the following example, the Project manager know succesion of the project activities and the optimistic, pesimistic and most likely time (in weeks) for the following activities
Activity Description Predecesors Optimistic time (0) Pesimistic time (P) Most likely time (M) Expected time (0+4M+P)/6

Select administrative and medical staff.




Select site and do site survey.



Select equipment. Prepare final construction plans and layout.







Bring utilities to the site.





Interview applicants and fill positions in nursing support staff, maintenance, and security.



Purchase and take delivery of equipment.





Construct the hospital.

Develop an information system. Install the equipment. Train nurses and support staff









E, G, H

F, I, J


A= meeting to finalize the idea of setting up an ICU B = planning the infrastructure C = prepare the list of articles needed to the unit and put tender notice d =finalize the tender G =order for the articles aa E = prepare the budget, both capital and operating F = draw the plan of ICU, and estimate the cost H- give the work to the contractors to start the work I get the materials like cemnt gravel tiles electric and plumbing materials J = start the project

Benefits of PERT
It provides information about the
expected project completion time probability of completion before the specified date the critical path activities that directly impact the completion time the activities that can slack time activity start and end dates

Weakness of PERT
Is probabilistic in nature Is time and labor intensive Time estimate is subjective Despite the well planned time distribution the actual plan may be different Any delay in any activity can alter the path and cause delay in the progress Mostly used in large complex projects

Estimates the time needed for each activity, the longest possible time . a cost estimate is figured for both normal and crash operating conditions

Critical path method (CPM)

CPM is the most versatile planning and controlling technique used in business. It was first employed in USA in 1958 by E.I. du Pont de Nemous Company. Unlike PERT it is applied in those projects where activity timings are relatively well known. It is used for planning and controlling the most logical sequence of activities for accomplishing the project

CPM techniques are used to guide project managers in making resource allocation decisions CPM enhances a manager's ability to use resources in an efficient way by providing a strategy for determining which activities can be expedited to minimize total project costs. during the life of a project.

Definition of CPM
Its a mathematical based algorithm for scheduling a set of project activities, which is a set of sequential task upon which the project completion date depends or the longest full path. For an evaluation the managers observe the critical path and compare with the progress

Utility value of CPM

To construct a model of the project A list of activities required to complete a project Time duration that each activity will take to completion Dependencies between activities Also make use of PERT in CPM

CPM in health care

First CPs in hospital was developed by nurses for nursing care alone Then it was adopted by multidisciplinary team Helps the Management to plan in such a way that displays goal for clients and provide the corresponding ideal sequence and Provide timing of the staff actions to achieve those goals with optimal efficiency

Need for CPM in nursing field

Increased competition in he medical and nursing field Need to reduce cost while maintaining the quality of care Reduce the resource utilization while maintaining the quality of care Develop the ideal sequence and timing of staff actions achieving client centered goals with optimal efficiency

Goals of CPM in nursing administration

Selecting the best practice when the practice styles vary unnecessarily Define the standards for the expected duration of hospital stay and use of test and treatment Examining and co-coordinating the various steps in the care process to find ways to time spend Developing a common game plan from which to understand the role of different staff in the overall care process

Goals of CPM in nursing administration

Providing a frame work for collecting data on the care process Decreasing the nursing and medical documentation burden Improving the client satisfaction with the care by educating and involving the client and family fully in the care implementation process

Format of CPM
Outline the patient care process based on time matrix List the components of care in one column, cross aligned with columns pertaining to time Give specific actions for each day of hospitalization Mark transition points of patient progress Layout a co-ordinated map of staff activites to achieve the transitions in the most effective way as possible.

Prepare the CPM Developing a CPM CPM development

Step 1 evaluate the current process of care Step 2 evaluate the med-surg evidence and current practises Team composition multidisciplinary local nurses, physician, hospital administrator

Topic selection - hospital care associated with high volume, high cost diagnosis and procedures, particulary those with inefficient variation in care process

Named after its developer, Henry L Gannt . Highly developed schedules that allow one to visualize multiple tasks that have to be done


For planning and scheduling projects, because they allow you to indicate actual progress versus planned progress directly on the chart To monitor the project development, resource allocation and progress Allow managers to start, track and report projects Show immediately that what should have been achieved at ant point of time Shows how remedial action may bring the project back on course Also used in IT to represent data that has been collected.

Strength of Gannt chart

Easily created and maintained Displays the status of each task at a glance Also used as a reporting tool Easily understood

Weakness of gannt chart

Unwidely used for projects with more than about 30 activities Focus is primarily on scheduled management Relatively little information per unit area of display All activities planned shows to have work load as equal Does not show the magnitude of a behind schedule condition Large number of dependencies may cause clustered chart



Collect information ME Type report ME Revise report Submit report