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Sukolrat Boonyayatra DVM, MS Clinic for Ruminants
What’s mastitis ?
Inflammation of one or more quarters of the udder
Mammae = breast -itis = Latin suffix for inflammation
Swelling pain warm redness
Intramammary Infection (IMI):
Bacterial infection Mycoplasmal infection Mycotic (fungal) infection Algal infection
Mechanical trauma Thermal trauma Chemical insult
Predisposes the gland to IMI
Mastitis accounted for 26% of the total cost of all dairy cattle diseases. Losses from mastitis were twice as high as losses from infertility and reproductive diseases. Sources of loss
Reduced milk production Discarded milk Early cow replacement costs Reduced cow sale value Drugs Veterinary services labor
Determinants of Mastitis
Timing of infection and stage of lactation
High Pressure in the gland Bacteria inside the gland Teat dipping ceases. Phagocytic efficiency Increasing of immunoglobulins and lactoferrin cannot override the problems noted above. Dry cow treatment can not reduce coliform IMI during active involution. Reducing the period of active involution by infusing colchicine (disrupts milk secretion mechanisms) decreases IMI during the active involution phase.
Antibiotic concentration Teat dipping .Timing of infection and stage of lactation Peripartum period Fluid volume in the gland increases Citrate concentration rises and lactoferrin is low Phagocytic cells efficiency High immunoglobulin concentrations in the gland at this time are not effective in preventing new IMI. IgG1 is not normally an effective opsonin in the mammary gland.
Timing of infection and stage of lactation Early lactation Metabolically stressed Mastitis is sometimes associated with high concentrate feeding which accompanies early lactation. .
decreased prevalence of IMI at calving Vit E Vit A β-carotene Cu Zn Decreased SCC Moderated glucocorticoid levels Increased bactericidal function of phagocytes Increased mitogen-induced proliferation of lymphocytes Deficiency decreased neutrophil killing capability Deficiency increased susceptibility to bactericidal infection Deficiency decreased leukocyte function Deficiency increased susceptibility to bacterial infection .Nutrition and Mastitis Micronutrient Se Observation Decreased efficiency in neutrophil funtion Improved bactericidal capabilities of neutrophils Decreased severity and duration of mastitis Increased neutrophil bactericidal activity Decreased incidence of clinical mastitis In combination with Se.
Phagocytosis and destruction of bacteria 7. Tissue repair . Swelling 5. Vasodilation 3. Diapedesis 6. Increased vascular permeability 4.Inflammation of Mammary gland 1. Multiplication of bacteria in mammary gland 2.
Development of mastitis and the cow’s defense against the infection .
The major routes of bacterial transmission .
Mastitis Clinical Syndromes Categorized based on Severity of Immune Response Peracute Mastitis: sudden onset. and occurrence of serous milk/fibrin clots. decreased production. Systemic signs are similar but less severe than for the peracute form. Acute Mastitis: sudden onset. and serous milk-Systemic illness often precedes the symptoms manifested in the milk and mammary gland. severe inflammation of the udder. moderate to severe inflammation of the udder. .
Mastitis Clinical Syndromes Subacute Mastitis: mild inflammation. and the milk may have an off-color. There are no systemic signs of illness. but there generally are small flakes or clots in the milk. . Treatment usually involves treating the clinical flare-ups. no visible changes in udder. Chronic Mastitis: Chronic mastitis may persist in a subclinical form for months or years with occasional clinical flare-ups. or culling the cow from the herd.
Mastitis Clinical Syndromes Subclinical Mastitis: the most common form of mastitis. decreased production and decreased milk quality Elevated Somatic Cell Count . 15x40 X more common than clinical mastitis. no gross inflammation of the udder and no gross changes in the milk.
Abnormal Milk .
Abnormal Udder .
000 cells/ml: the likelihood of infection increase Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Chiang Mai may be exceed 80%.000-200.000 cells/ml >200. 1 clinical mastitis : 15-40 subclinical mastitis .Somatic Cell Count ~98-99% White Blood Cell + 1-2% Epithelial cells from milk-secreting tissue Cow’s natural defense mechanism Normal or uninfected cow: 50.
000. .Effects on Milk Quality Subclinical mastitis results in INCREASES in undesirable milk components and DECREASES in the desirable components.000 has a significantly longer shelf-life than products made from milk with a somatic cell count above 500. Pasteurized milk that is processed from raw milk with a somatic cell count below 250.
fat and yield Reduced . Lactose (good) Total proteins (good) Casein (good) Immunoglobulins (bad) Solids not fat (good) Total solids (good) Fat (good) Lipase (bad) Sodium (bad) Chloride (bad) Calcium (good) Phosphorus (good) Potassium (good) Trace minerals (bad) Cheese (good) Heat stability (good) Decreased 5 to 20% Decreased slightly Decreased 6-18% Increased Decreased up to 8% Decreased 3 t0 12% Decreased 5 to 12% Increased rancidity Increased Increased Decreased Decreased Decreased Slight increase Decreased curd strength.
What are the health concerns of mastitis ? Animal health Loss of functional quarter Lowered milk production Death of cow Poor quality milk antibiotic residues in milk Human health .
How severe can mastitis be ? Subclinical Mastitis Clinical Mastitis ~ 90 -95% of all mastitis cases Udder appears normal Milk appears normal Elevated SCC (score 35) Lowered milk output (~ 10%) Longer duration ~ 5 .10% of all mastitis cases Inflamed udder Clumps and clots in milk Acute type major type of clinical mastitis bad milk loss of appetite depression prompt attention needed Chronic type bad milk cow appears healthy .
What causes mastitis ? Bacteria ( ~ 70%) Yeasts and molds ( ~ 2%) Unknown ( ~ 28%) physical trauma weather extremes .
Where do these organisms come from ? Infected udder Environment bedding soil water manure Replacement animals .
surgery) Nutrition Organisms Environment .How does mastitis develop ? Cow Predisposing conditions Existing trauma (milking machine. injury) Teat end injury Lowered immunity (following calving. heat or cold.
Process of infection Organisms invade the udder through teat canal Migrate up the teat canal and colonize the secretory cells Colonized organisms produce toxic substances harmful to the milk producing cells .
The cow’s immune system send white blood cells (Somatic cells) to fight the organisms recovery clinical subclinical .
Organisms Contagious microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus agalactiae Mycoplasma bovis Corynebacterium bovis Environmental streptococci Coliform Staphylococcus spp. (CNS) Pseudomonas aeruginosa Actinomyces pyogenes Nocardia Species Environmental microorganisms Opportunistic microorganisms Others .
Bacterial Infection: Streptococci Environmental Contagious S. dysgalactiae S. equinus S. agalactiae More subclinical mastitis Environment Predominant early and late lactation Clinical mastitis Resides in the milk and on the surface of the milk channel Cannot invade the tissue Accumulate Neutrophils Ducts and acinar epithelium damage Inter-alveolar tissue fibrosis loss of secretory function Treated easily with penicillin . uberis S.
difficult to eliminate Found normally on skin Lowers milk yield Elevated SCC Easily responds to antibiotics Relapse frequently seen .Bacterial Infection: Staphylococci Staph aureus Other staph Gangrenous mastitis: alpha toxin Spread by milking equipment and milker’s hands Fibrous tissue replacement low production Poor response to ABO Dry cow therapy Persistent.
660 . HE. Mammary parenchyma from which coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was isolated.Fig. showing the presence of mononuclear cells. 1.
Mammary parenchyma from which coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was isolated. HE. showing the presence of neutrophils within the alveolar lumen. .Fig. 660 . 2.
showing the micro-organisms within the alveolar lumen. . 660 . Mammary parenchyma from which Prototheca sp. 3. was isolated.Fig. HE.
The cocci in the lesions of the mammary glands show a positive reaction to antibody against Staph.aureus (ABC X 200) .
showing a thick cell wall. which forms a capsule (TEM. around the bacterial cell wall.X 250.000) b. Fibrous material (arrows) stained by ruthenium-red. characteristic of gram-positive bacteria (TEM. The bacteria were round or oval in shape. X 40.000) .a.
intralobular duts and alveoli (Azan x 30).Severe necrosis of interlobular and intralobular ducts The lesions affected the intralobular duct. .
Bacterial clumps(arrows) surrounded by alveolar epithelial cells undergoing necrosis Thrombus(*)is seen in the blood vessel(He x 100). .
bedding. Klebsiella. coli. barns.Bacterial Infection: Coliforms Groups of organisms E. and inflamed quarter Watery milk with clots and pus Toxemia The udder can be gradually return to normal without fibrosis . Enterobacter Environmental source (manure. floors and cows) Coliforms cause acute clinical mastitis Multiply rapidly with low SCC Endotoxin releasing High temp.
Out breaks of clinical mastitis Most common in Europe Actinomyces pyogenes + Peptostreptococcus indolicus Non-lactating heifers and cows at pasture in the summer months and more common during wet weather Fly borne ?? Severe systemic reaction and Loss function Abcess develop Serratia Summer mastitis .Bacterial Infection: Other organisms Pseudomonas aeruginosa Out breaks of clinical mastitis or subclinical mastitis Similar pathogenesis to coliform mastitis Severe endotoxaemia can occur.
Normal secretion in the early stage of infection Flaky material settles out leaving a turbid Whey-like supernatant fluid Very high SCC . Long-term persistence in udder (up to 13 mths) Some cows can shed the organism without clinical signs.Bacterial Infection: Other organisms Mycoplasma mastitis Clinically severe mastitis Rarely systemic involvement All ages & all stages of lactation Post calved cows show more severe signs.
How is mastitis diagnosed ? Physical examination Cultured Analysis Signs of inflammation Empty udder Differences in firmness Cowside tests California Mastitis test The most reliable and accurate method Unbalanced quarters .
give NSAIDs Seek veterinary assistance Subclinical mastitis Questionable Treatment with penicillins .Treatment Clinical mastitis Strip quarter every 2 hours Oxytocin valuable high temp.
กล้ามเนื้อหูรูด รู หว ั นม .
สอดปลายเข็มยาว1/8 – 1/4 นิ้ว ผ่านทางรู หว ั นมเท่านั้น ปล่อยยาบางส่ วนที่ตาแหน่งติดรู หว ั นม และปล่อยยาที่เหลือทั้งหมด ที่ตาแหน่งห่างออกไป .
Partial Insertion เข็มสั้น ห้ามสอดเข็มยาวเข้าจนสุ ดรู หว ั นม เพราะจะทาลายไขที่ปิดรู หว ั นม ทาให้เชื้อภายนอกมีโอกาสเข้าสู่เต้านม ได้ง่ายยิง ่ ขึ้น เข็มยาว .
straw and bedding Strip each teat into a stripcup Dip teats with an approved pre-dip Allow the pre-dip to react for at least 30 sec. straw and bedding Strip each teat into a stripcup Dip teats with an approved pre-dip Dip 3-4 cows Allow the pre-dip to react for at least 30 sec. Wear Gloves Wipe off excess dry manure.Standardized Milking Procedures Stanchion/ Tie stall Parlor Ware gloves Wipe off excess dry manure. .
Standardized Milking Procedures Stanchion/ Tiestall Parlor Clean teat and teat ends using single paper towel or individual towel clo Return to the first cow and The teats must be dried for at least 15 clean sec teat and teat ends Attach milking machines immediately after teats are dried using a single paper towel Dip teats with post-dip immediately after or milking individual towel cloth The teats must be dried for at least 15 sec Attach milking machines immediately after teats are dried Dip teats with post-dip immediately after milking .
Detection of Mastitis Visualization Detection and palpation of the udder of Somatic Cells California Mastitis Test N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) .a lysosomal enzyme which increases in milk when mastitis is present .
Indirect chemical tests to detect mastitis Electrical conductivity: Sodium and Chloride ions A radial immunodiffusion test : Serum albumin concentration increases if epithelium damage is present. . An anti-trypsin test: Anti-trypsin activity tends to naturally high at the beginning of a lactation the values are high only if serum anti-trypsin has leaked through damaged mammary epithelium.
. Read the test quickly as the reaction tends to disintegrate after about 20 seconds. B. A circular rotating to thoroughly mix the contents. A plastic paddle having four shallow cups marked A. Rinse the paddle thoroughly with water and it is ready for the next test.California Mastitis Test (CMT) The CMT reagent reacts with genetic material of somatic cells present in milk to form a gel. An equal amount of the CMT reagent is added to the milk. C and D for easy identification of the individual quarter. Approximately 1/2 teaspoon (2 cc) of milk is. Score in approximately ten seconds while still rotating.
. Environmental temperature changes have little effect on the CMT as long as the milk has been refrigerated and is not over two days old. Easy clean-up after each test--simply rinse with water. it can also be used on "bucket" and "bulk tank" milk samples. Foreign material does not interfere with the test. Herd mastitis levels can be estimated from tank CMTs.Advantages of CMT Fairly accurate in measuring SCC in milk Primarily developed for sampling quarters. A CMT of 2 or 3 on tank milk indicates a probable high percent of infected cows. It is inexpensive. and little equipment is needed. simple.
False positive reactions occur frequently on cows that have been fresh less than ten days. acute clinical mastitis milk will not score positive due to the destruction of leucocytes by toxins (poisons) from the infecting organism. Occasionally. Scores represent a range of leucocyte content rather than an exact count. or on cows that are nearly dry.Disadvantages of CMT Scoring the test may vary between individual testers. It is necessary to be as consistent as possible to insure uniform results. These animals should be tested closer to the middle of the lactation. .
000 30-40% neutrophils 400.000 60-70% neutrophils Strong positive Viscosity greatly increased.000. >5.Correlation between the California mastitis test result and the somatic cell count.000-1.000 0-25% neutrophils T 1 Trace Weak positive Slight precipitation Distinct precipitation but no gel formation 150.000 Strong gel that is cohesive 70-80% neutrophils with a convex surface. .000. CMT Interpretation score 0 Negative Visible reaction Milk fluid and normal Total cell count (/ml) 0-200.500.000 40-60% neutrophils 2 3 Distinct positive Mixture thickens with a gel formation 800.000-500.000-5.
Steps involved in employing HACCP-based concepts for establishing proper milking procedures Step 1 Educate owners and milkers about implementing a standardized milking procedure (Benefits !!!!!!) IF a dairy farm initiates and shows sustained interest Establish ground rules They will have to be proactive and adopt changes TEAM EFFORT !!! .
facilitator) Mission statement Goals and timeline Written Procedures Protocols Critical Limits ( SCC > 250. end of 1 hr of milking Sanitation Recording Keeping Schedule team meetings to review the process .000) Milking time/milking Bulk Tank Temp. veterinarian. milkers. STEP TWO Establish a team ( owner.
STEP THREE Train milkers and owners in implementing the standardized milking procedure Monitor the application of the standardized milking procedure Floor tests (each step is a critical point !) Laboratory tests (SPC or BTSCC) Monitor records Establish corrective actions to be implemented if milk quality critical limits have exceeded. STEP FOUR STEP FIVE .
Factors Affecting Somatic Cell Counts 1. Technical factors 10. Age of cow 5. Teat or udder injury 3. Mastitis (Udder infection) 2. Stress 8. Day to day variation 9. Management factors . Stage of lactation 6. Season 7. Number of quarters with mastitis 4.
Culling . Milk Culture and Sensitivity Testing 2. Drying Cows Off Early 4. Treatment During Lactation 3.Uses of SCC on Individual Cows for Management Decisions 1.
1. Milk Culture and Sensitivity Testing High SCC >500.000 cells/ml Very useful when: High SCC two or more tests Beginning of lactation .
agalactiae infection Very few cases of subclinical mastitis High SCC vs culture vs sensitivity . Treatment During Lactation Strep.2.
3. Drying Cows Off Early The best method of eliminating infection High SCC and relatively low production There is evidence to suggest that a repeat dry treatment 3 weeks after the first therapy could increase success rate. Teat dipping for 10 days after lasting milking and for 10 days prior to calving .
Milk production .4. aureus or Mycoplasma spp. Culling Persistently high SCC from lactation to lactation Staph.
Milking Routine High SCC cow could be milked last or the milking machines could be sanitized after milking. .5.
teat dipping. contaminated bedding from milk of infected cows Cow-to-cow by contaminated udder wash rag. dry cow treatment. and common towels. using bulk tank and cow culturing to monitor herd status and clinical cows. Use separate towels to wash/dry. Teat dipping. Careful purchasing of replacement cattle. milk infected cows last. Or the bacteria can move from a respiratory tract infection to the udder or joints. often from infected purchased cows/heifers Cow-to-cow by hands of milkers. milker’s hands contaminated milking equipment . Teat dipping. equipment. cull any positive clinical case. Aerosol transmission from animals with respiratory signs may also occur. .Mastitis Bulk Tank Culture Report Interpretation Type of Bacteria Strep agalactiae Usual Infection Cause Infected udders of other cows in herd Major Means of Spread Cow-to-cow by contaminated udder wash Mastitis Control Use separate towels to wash/dry. cull chronically infected cows Staph aureus Infected udders of other cows. eradicate in special cases Use separate towels to wash/dry. and improperly functioning equipment Mycoplasma Infected udders of other cows. milk infected cow last. dry cow treatment. dry cow treatment.
Improve stall and lots sanitation. milking machine air slips Environment of the cow by.Mastitis Bulk Tank Culture Report Interpretation Type of Bacteria Non-ag Streps Usual Infection Cause Environment of cow Major Means of Spread Environment of the cow by. milk clean dry cows. poor cow prep. milking wet cows. Keep cows standing after milking. Poor teat dip coverage. and more frequent bedding change. milk clean dry cows. avoid air leaks and liner slips. avoid air leaks and liner slips. milking machine air slips. poor cow prep. adequate cow prep. Hot humid weather. changes bedding frequently. old bedding. Consistent teat dipping. contaminated bedding. milking wet cows. contaminated bedding. wet dirty lots. Coliforms Environment of cow Staph species Environment of cow . changes bedding frequently. Keep cows standing after milking. wet dirty lots. Mastitis Control Improve stall and lots sanitation. poor cow prep.
Check Foremilk and Udder for Mastitis 3. Attach Teat Cups within 1 min. Stress-Free Environment 2. Use a Premilking Teat Dip (Optional) 5. Shut Off Vacuum Before Removing Teat Cups 9. 7. Provide Cows with a Clean. Dip Teats with a Safe and Effective Teat Dip 10. Wash Teats and Lower Surface of the Udder with a Warm Sanitizing Solution 4. Dry Teats Thoroughly 6.Good Milking Procedures 1. Disinfect Teat Cups Between Cows (Optional) . Adjust Milking Units as Necessary 8.
fieldman.Problem Herd Handling Problem Solving Techniques One or more specialists: vet. extension agent or milking machine dealer A visual inspection of the general environment Good detectives Specific approach .
.Problem Herd Handling High Incidence of Clinical Mastitis and High SCC Detection and discarding of visibly abnormal milk. Not milking fresh cows with cows that have clinical mastitis Collection of milk samples and culturing in a diagnostic laboratory. environmental streptococci. Drying off of selected cows and dry treating. especially those infected with Streptococcus agalactiae. particularly those caused by Staphylococcus aureus. and Mycoplasma species. Culling of cows with chronic infections. Nocardia asteriodes. Treatment of selected cows. Correction of deficiencies in management and environment.
. or Mycoplasma species. Arranging for fresh feed to be available when cows exit the milking parlor or barn so they will be encouraged to stand for at least 1 hour after milking to provide time for the teat canal to close tightly. Streptococcus agalactiae. Improvement in the manner in which milking machines are used. Initiation of predipping. particularly if the problem is caused by contagious microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus. Strengthening of postmilking teat dip procedures.Problem Herd Handling (Continued) Upgrading of milking equipment Correction of deficiencies in milking hygiene. Initiation of backflushing. Segregation of infected cows.
Streptococci >75% Infected Udder Streptococci < 25% Improper Cleaning of Milking Equipment. >15.000 /ml of Staphylococci Poor cooling of milk High coliform counts Broken teat cup liners.000 /ml. Poor Udder Preparation and Poor Cooling of Milk High Streptococci & High Staphylococci + Coliforms + Spore Formers + Other Organisms A dual problem of infected cows and poor udder preparation. and environmental streptococci Faulty cooling of the milk .Problem Herd Handling High Bacteria Counts >10. staphylococci. milkstone on milk-contact surfaces and failure to use correct chemicals for cleaning milking equipment Large number of coliforms. low water temperature.
Prevent transfer of pathogens from cow to cow during milking. dry teats and teat ends. milk quality Impact: Mastitis. milk out. Impact: Contagious mastitis. Prevent injury to the teats during milking. environmental mastitis. milk out and parlor throughput 2. Impact: Milk quality. .Mastitis Prevention Principles 1. liner slips. parlor throughput 3. Milk cow with clean.
Mastitis Prevention Principles 4. Provide an environment that allows the cows to remain clean between milking. culling Impact: Success of treatment. Proper use of medications. chronic infections. residues in milk and meat 6. cow comfort 5. milk quality. Impact: Response to treatment. parlor throughput. . cost control. Early detection of new infections (clinical and subclinical). Impact: Environmental mastitis.
Monitor mastitis status. Assume all purchased replacements are infected. Impact: Decreased prevalence. 10.Mastitis Prevention Principles 7. 9. Raise mastitis free replacements. reduced herd prevalence 8. culling information Impact: Permit culling for production. Impact: Control introduction of new pathogens . decreased culling Impact: Prevent outbreaks. Control duration of infections.
Impact: Control new infection rate Impact: Teat end injury. new infection rate Impact: All areas of mastitis prevention and control. Assigned responsibilities for all areas of mastitis prevention. improved compliance .Mastitis Prevention Principles 11. Impact: Job knowledge. shared responsibility. milk quality 12. Provide adequate nutrition to preclude increased susceptibility to mastitis. 13. Fly control. Provide routine milker training 14.
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