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Employee Training & Management Development
Training & Development
“Training is the act of increasing the knowledge,
skill of an employee for doing a particular job”
“Development includes all activities which bring a growth of personality, helps individuals in the progress towards maturity & actualization of their potential capacities so that they become not only good employees but also better men & women”
Training & Development Training is effective when…. • Training is tied to business strategy and the bottom line • Top management is committed • Commitment to invest resources – Time – Money • Comprehensive and systematic .
Training • Specific • Specifictechnical technical && mechanical skills mechanical skills imparted imparted • To • To improve improve performance performance on current on current job job • Short • Short–– term. term. mental & conceptual • Grooming for growth & to handle future responsibilities • Continuing phenomenon • External & self motivated • Generally for managerial staff 9/11/2013 ICFAI . After After fixed fixed time intervals time intervals • External • External Resource Resource person person • Generally • Generallyfor for non-managerial nonstaff managerial staff Development • Broad range of skills. personal.
Need for Training • Improving quantity & quality of workers output • Updating knowledge & avoiding obsolescence • Promote economical use of resources • Improve efficiency & effectiveness in the organization • Motivating employees • Promote human relationship at work 9/11/2013 ICFAI .
Areas for T&D • Specific skills training • Human relations training • Company policies & procedures • Managerial & decision making • Problem solving techniques • New employees – Induction/Orientation training • Existing employees – Refresher training 9/11/2013 ICFAI .
Trainability • May be an appropriate “KSAO” • Largest cost of training is paying employees during training • Trainable employees may be the most costeffective people to train • Trainability may be able to be assessed – Ability to learn – Motivation to learn .
Training Process Needs analysis Instructional design Preparing the Learner Implementation Performance Evaluation & follow-up 9/11/2013 ICFAI .
human resources 9/11/2013 Focus on the individual – His knowledge. attitude & performance ICFAI .Assessing Training Needs Thayer & McGhee Model Organization Analysis Operation Analysis Focus on the Task Operator Analysis Focus on the organization strategy. skill. structure.
Assessing Training Needs • Organization analysis – Begins by consulting strategic plan and reviewing organizational objectives – Analyze external and internal environments – Where within the organization is training needed? .
Assessing Training Needs • Operation analysis – What training content is needed – Heavily based on job analysis – Systematic data collection about how jobs are done – Standards of performance for jobs – How tasks should be performed to meet standards – KSAOs necessary to perform the tasks .
attitude surveys. tests . interviews.Assessing Training Needs • Individual analysis – What does an individual employee need to improve job performance? – Difference between actual and desired performance – Data can be gathered from performance appraisals.
Training & Development Methods On the Job Job instruction Apprenticeship Coaching Job rotation Committee assignments Multiple Management Understudy 9/11/2013 ICFAI Off the Job Lectures Seminars Simulation Programmed Instructions Transactional Analysis Sensitivity training Conferences College programs .
Job Instruction Training • Usually the knowledge being transferred or the skills being taught are fairly restricted and specific. • Four step process: – Prepare trainee for instructions – Present instructions clearly – Let trainee try out – Encouraging questions & follow up 9/11/2013 ICFAI . • Training through Step by step learning • Listing all necessary steps showing what is to be done • Key points with each step show how it is to be done & why.
9/11/2013 ICFAI .Apprenticeship • For training in skilled crafts & trades • Long training period from 1 to 5 years • Formal training under experienced employees before joining regular jobs.
daily operating problems and long term strategic issues. • Trainees allowed to take up senior’s responsibilities temporarily or permanently. 9/11/2013 ICFAI . • Involves discussion of both.Understudy • Training by senior managers to help trainee assume duties & responsibilities in future.
• Observes. criticism & suggestions. • Coach sets mutually agreed upon goals. advice.Coaching • Superior acts as a guide & instructor. follow up suggestions. tells trainee what is to be done. 9/11/2013 ICFAI . suggests how it should be done. • Coach gives guidance in the form of direction. and correct errors. analyses & attempts to improve performance of trainee.
• Trainees rotated over various routine jobs in a department. turning specialists into generalists. 9/11/2013 ICFAI .Job Rotation • For Broadening knowledge base. division or unit before they take up managerial positions.
to learn by watching others & delve into specific organizational problems.Committee assignments or Multiple Management • Juniors asked to participate in deliberations of Boards & Committees. 9/11/2013 ICFAI . • Trainees get an opportunity to share in managerial decisions making. • Ad-hoc or permanent committees.
• Classroom instruction is not appropriate. • Work in progress cannot be interrupted 9/11/2013 ICFAI .Guidelines for Using On-theJob Training Managers Should Select OJT When: • Participatory learning is essential. • Five or fewer employees need training. • One-on-one training is necessary. • Taking employees out of the work environment for training is not cost-effective.
Off-the-job Training & Development 9/11/2013 ICFAI .
film shows. demonstrations. role plays. concepts. • For very large groups to be trained in a short time. • Enlivened with discussions. theories etc. 9/11/2013 ICFAI .Lectures • Formal organized talks for imparting knowledge of facts. principles.
Seminars/ Conferences • Participative development group centered method of • Individuals confer to discuss points of common interest to each other. • Learning facilitated by building up on the ideas contributed by the conferees 9/11/2013 ICFAI .
Seminars/Conferences • Conducted in many ways – Paper presentations followed by critical discussions – Based on statement prepared by experts – Readings distributed followed by analysis & discussion by participants – Working material provided followed by detailed discussions 9/11/2013 ICFAI .
Simulation – – – – – – – – Case Experiential exercise Computer modeling Vestibule training Role playing Incident In basket exercise Business games 9/11/2013 ICFAI .
group Training To increase participants’ insight into their own behavior and that of others by encouraging an open expression of feelings in a trainer-guided group. 9/11/2013 ICFAI .Sensitivity Training Laboratory/ T.
Transactional Analysis “The TA theory outlines how we have developed and treat ourselves. how we relate & communicate with others and offers suggestions which will enable us to grow and change” TAUGHT CONCEPT OF LIFE THOUGHT CONCEPT OF LIFE 9/11/2013 ICFAI FELT CONCEPT OF LIFE .
9/11/2013 ICFAI .
“How do you like going to college?” • The natural child--"It's boring. so I'm trying to do as well as I can." • The critical parent--"Well." • The little professor--"I'm doing really well. I just can't make myself work. But I may have to drop out because my money is running out (so how about a donation or a loan?). I never get to bed before midnight (feel sorry for me)." • The nurturing parent--"I realize that a good education is priceless and can never be taken away from you." . I goof-off a lot and I'm not a good student anyway. but I 9/11/2013 ICFAI need good grades to get a scholarship. I feel real good about doing well in college. I hate it. thank you" or "I have to work so hard." • The adaptive child--"It's going fine." • The adult--"Some parts are enjoyable and some are not. One teacher told me I was the best student he had ever had. I want to travel" or "Classes are dull but the parties and the classmates are great.
computer. or the Internet • A step-by-step self-learning method that consists of three parts: – Presenting – Responding – Feedback 9/11/2013 ICFAI .Programmed Learning • Also known as programmed instruction • The medium can be a textbook.
Electronic Training • Distance and Internet based – Tele-training – Videoconferencing – Internet training 9/11/2013 ICFAI .
• Videoconferencing: allows for distance teaching or training 9/11/2013 ICFAI .Tele-training/ Videoconferencing Tele-training: A trainer in a central location teaches groups of employees at remote locations via television hookups.
Training For Special Purposes • • • • • • • • Global business training samples Language training Diversity training Better cross-cultural sensitivity Customer service training Team building Decision making Communication 9/11/2013 ICFAI .
Evaluating Training Programs • Questions that should be answered in the evaluation process – Did change occur? – Is the change due to training? – Is change positively related to achieving organizational goals? – Will new participants in training experience similar changes? .
Four Levels of Change Measurements • Reaction – How do participants feel about the training? • Learning – Have participants learned what was taught? • Behavior – Have on-the-job changes occurred? • Results – Have bottom line outcomes resulted? .
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