# Group - 4

Aakash B. Pathak (PB1101)
Abhishek Mandloi (PA1101)
Anamika Singh (PA1117)
Kuntal Chatterjee (PA1118)
Rohit Sharma (PA1129)
Shalinee Pujari(PA1133)
Sumit Kumar(PB1117)

Introduction
 Linear programming (LP, or linear

optimization) is a mathematical method for
determining a way to achieve the best outcome
(such as maximum profit or lowest cost) in a
given mathematical model for some list of
requirements represented as linear
relationships. Linear programming is a specific
case of mathematical programming
(mathematical optimization)

Terminology
 Objective Function(Zmax/min):The solution of

a linear-programming problem reduces to
finding the optimum value (largest or smallest,
depending on the problem) of the linear
expression called the objective function.
 For example, in our problem the objective function is:

Z(min)=125X1+121X2+118X3+132X4+124X5+119X6+130
X7+126X8+129X9+123X10+ 125X11+129X12+
0.X13+0.X14+0.X15+ 0.X16

The set of candidate solutions that satisfy all constraints is called the feasible set. X3.. a constraint is a condition that a solution to an optimization problem is required by the problem itself to satisfy. Constraint: In mathematics. . X1. There are two types of constraints: equality constraints and inequality constraints. X2.  Decision Variable: in our equation. X16 are the decision variables.….

1 Formulate the primal model .W1 W2 W3 W4 Supply P1 125 121 118 132 400 P2 124 119 130 126 300 P3 129 123 125 129 500 P4 0 0 0 0 600 Demand 200 300 700 600 Q.

X16  X2+X6+X10+X14=300  Where.2. Supply Constraints:  X1+X2+X3+X4=400  X5+X6+X7+X8=300  X9+x10+X11+X12=500  X13+X14+X15+X16=600 +118X3+132X4+124X5 +119X6+130X7+126X8 +129X9+123X10+ 125X11+129X12+ 2. Xi ≥0.X13+0.  X3+X7+X11+X15=700 i = 1.X14+0. Demand Constraints: 0.3.X15+  X1+X5+X9+X13=200 0.…16  X4+X8+X12+X16=600 .Primal Solution Objective Function  Z(min)=125X1+121X2 Subject to Constraint 1.

2 Solve the LP using Solver .W1 W2 W3 W4 Supply P1 125 121 118 132 400 P2 124 119 130 126 300 P3 129 123 125 129 500 P4 0 0 0 0 600 Demand 200 300 700 600 Q.

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=C4*C14+D4*D14+E4*E14+F4*F14 +G4*G14+H4*H14+I4*I14+J4*J14+ K4*K14+L4*L14+M4*M14+N4*N14 +O4*O14+P4*P14+Q4*Q14+R4*R14 This one is the formula for the highlighted cell .

=C5*\$C\$14+D5*\$D\$14+E5*\$E\$14+ F5*\$F\$14+G5*\$G\$14+H5*\$H\$14+I5 *\$I\$14+J5*\$J\$14+K5*\$K\$14+L5*\$ L\$14+M5*\$M\$14+N5*\$N\$14+O5*\$ O\$14+P5*\$P\$14+Q5*\$Q\$14+R5*\$R \$14 This one is the formula for the highlighted cell .

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Procedure to Solve using solver – STEP BY STEP “FOLLOW THE POINTER” .

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THIS IS THE OPTIMAL SOLUTION .

46.Here. Zmin = 1.000 .

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3 Write the Dual Model For the primal & report the Solver solution .Q.

Dual Solution Objective function  Z(max)=400U1+300U 2+500U3+600U4+ 200V1+300V2+ 700V3+ 600V4 Subject to constraint          Where the dual variables Ui & Vj are unrestricted in sign.2.3.4         U1+V1≤125 U1+V2≤121 U1+V3≤118 U1+V4≤132 U2+V1≤124 U2+V2≤119 U2+V3≤130 U2+V4≤126 U3+V1≤129 U3+V2≤123 U3+V3≤125 U3+V4≤129 U4+V1≤0 U4+V2≤0 U4+V3≤0 U4+V4≤0 .4  j = 1.  i = 1.2.3.

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=C4*C22+D4*D22+E4*E22+F4* F22+G4*G22+H4*H22+I4*I22+J 4*J22 .

=C6*\$C\$22+D6*\$D\$22+E6*\$E\$ 22+F6*\$F\$22+G6*\$G\$22+H6*\$ H\$22+I6*\$I\$22+J6*\$J\$22 .

Procedure to Solve using solver – STEP BY STEP “FOLLOW THE POINTER” .

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THIS IS THE OPTIMAL SOLUTION .

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000 It indicates that our both model is equal to each other. Zmin value from dual model is 1.Here. .000.46.46. Also. Zmin value from primal model is 1.

.4 Obtain the optimal solution by LCM & UV method.W1 W2 W3 W4 Supply P1 125 121 118 132 400 P2 124 119 130 126 300 P3 129 123 125 129 500 P4 0 0 0 0 600 Demand 200 300 700 600 Q.

of supply constraints : 4 TOTAL no. of demand constraints : 4 Problem Table is D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply S1 125 121 118 132 400 S2 124 119 130 126 300 S3 129 123 125 129 500 S4 0 0 0 0 600 Demand 200 300 700 600 .Solution of Transportation Problem Using Least Cost Method TOTAL no.

Allocate At [4][1] = 200 Step = 1 D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply S1 125 121 118 132 400 S2 124 119 130 126 300 S3 129 123 125 129 500 S4 0(200) 0 0 0 400 Demand 0 300 700 600 .

Allocate At [4][2] = 300 Step = 2 D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply S1 125 121 118 132 400 S2 124 119 130 126 300 S3 129 123 125 129 500 S4 0(200) 0(300) 0 0 100 Demand 0 0 700 600 .

Allocate At [4][3] = 100 Step = 3 D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply S1 125 121 118 132 400 S2 124 119 130 126 300 S3 129 123 125 129 500 S4 0(200) 0(300) 0(100) 0 0 Demand 0 0 600 600 .

Allocate At [1][3] = 400
Step = 4

D1

D2

D3

D4

Supply

S1

125

121

118(400)

132

0

S2

124

119

130

126

300

S3

129

123

125

129

500

S4

0(200)

0(300)

0(100)

0

0

Demand

0

0

200

600

Allocate At [3][3] = 200
Step = 5

D1

D2

D3

D4

Supply

S1

125

121

118(400)

132

0

S2

124

119

130

126

300

S3

129

123

125(200)

129

300

S4

0(200)

0(300)

0(100)

0

0

Demand

0

0

0

600

Allocate At [2][4] = 300
Step = 6
D1

D2

D3

D4

Supply

S1

125

121

118(400)

132

0

S2

124

119

130

126(300)

0

S3

129

123

125(200)

129

300

S4

0(200)

0(300)

0(100)

0

0

Demand

0

0

0

300

Allocate At [3][4] = 300 Step = 7 D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply S1 125 121 118(400) 132 0 S2 124 119 130 126(300) 0 S3 129 123 125(200) 129(300) 0 S4 0(200) 0(300) 0(100) 0 0 Demand 0 0 0 0 .

Final Allocation Table is D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply S1 125 121 118(400) 132 400 S2 124 119 130 126(300) 300 S3 129 123 125(200) 129(300) 500 S4 0(200) 0(300) 0(100) 0 600 Demand 200 300 700 600 .

Here m + n . of basic cell ∴ The solution is feasible. (m+n-1) = No. of basic cell=7 Hence. Total Transportation cost = 118 × 400 + 126 × 300 + 125 × 200 + 129 × 300 + 0 × 200 + 0 × 300 + 0 × 100 + = 148700 ---------------------------------------------------------The least total transportation cost = 148700 -------------------------------------------------------- .1 = 4 + 4 .1 = 7 & No.

UV / MODI / PENALTY method Find Ui and Vj Formula: Ui + Vj = COSTij D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply Ui S1 125 121 118(400) 132 400 118 S2 124 119 130 126(300) 300 122 S3 129 123 125(200) 129(300) 500 125 S4 0(200) 0(300) 0(100) 0 600 0 Demand 200 300 700 600 Vj 0 0 0 4 .

FORMULA: Pij = COSTij – (Ui + Vj) D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply Ui S1 125[7] 121[3] 118(400) 132[10] 400 118 S2 124[2] 119[-3] 130[8] 126(300) 300 122 S3 129[4] 123[-2] 125(200) 129(300) 500 125 S4 0(200) 0(300) 0(100) 0[-4] 600 0 Demand 200 300 700 600 Vj 0 0 0 4 .Calculate penalties(Pij) for all non-basic cell.

minimum penalty cell is considered as „Home cell‟. D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply Ui S1 125[7] 121[3] 118(400) 132[10] 400 118 S2 124[2] 119[-3] 130[8] 126(300) 300 122 S3 129[4] 123[-2] 125(200)(+) 129(300) 500 (-) 125 S4 0(200) 0(300) 0(100)(-) 0[-4](+) 600 0 Demand 200 300 700 600 Vj 0 0 0 4 .Here. Cell S4D4 is home cell.

• Substract 100 from all (-) and Add it to all (+). • Find Ui and Vj D0 D1 D2 D3 Supply Ui S0 125 121 118(400) 132 400 122 S1 124 119 130 126(300) 300 126 S2 129 123 125(300) 129(200) 500 129 S3 0(200) 0(300) 0 0(100) 600 0 Demand 200 300 700 600 Vj 0 0 -4 0 .• Minimum allocation among all -VE Once = 100.

FORMULA: Pij = COSTij – (Ui + Vj) D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply Ui S1 125[3] 121[-1] 118(400) 132[10] 400 122 S2 124[-2] 119[-7] 130[8] 126(300) 300 126 S3 129[0] 123[-6] 125(300) 129(200) 500 129 S4 0(200) 0(300) 0[4] 0(100) 600 0 Demand 200 300 700 600 Vj 0 0 -4 0 .Modified Table 1: Calculate penalties(Pij) for all non-basic cell.

minimum penalty cell is considered as „Home cell‟.Here. Cell S2D2 is home cell. D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply Ui S1 125[3] 121[-1] 118(400) 132[10] 400 122 S2 124[-2] 119[-7](+) 130[8] 126(300)(-) 300 126 S3 129[0] 123[-6] 125(300) 129(200) 500 129 S4 0(200) 0(300)(-) 0[4] 0(100)(+) 600 0 Demand 200 300 700 600 Vj 0 0 -4 0 .

• Substract 300 from all (-) and Add it to all (+).• Minimum among all -VE Once = 300. • Find Ui and Vj D0 D1 D2 D3 Supply Ui S0 125 121 118(400) 132 400 -7 S1 124 119(300) 130 126 300 0 S2 129 123 125(300) 129(200) 500 0 S3 0(200) 0 0 0(400) 600 -129 Demand 200 300 700 600 Vj 129 0 125 129 .

Modified Table 2: Calculate penalties(Pij) for all non-basic cell. FORMULA: Pij = COSTij – (Ui + Vj) D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply Ui S1 125[3] 121[128] 118(400) 132[10] 400 -7 S2 124[-5] 119(300) 130[5] 126[-3] 300 0 S3 129[0] 123[123] 125(300) 129(200) 500 0 S4 0(200) 0[129] 0[4] 0(400) 600 -129 Demand 200 300 700 600 Vj 129 0 125 129 .

Here. Cell S2D1 is home cell. D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply Ui S1 125[3] 121[128] 118(400) 132[10] 400 -7 S2 124[-5](+) 119(300) 130[5] 126[-3] 300 0 S3 129[0] 123[123] 125(300) 129(200) 500 0 S4 0(200) 0[129] 0[4] 0(400) 600 -129 Demand 200 300 700 600 Vj 129 0 125 129 . minimum penalty cell is considered as „Home cell‟.

D0 D1 D2 D3 Supply Ui S0 125 121 118(400) 132 400 -2 S1 124(-1) 119(300) 130 126 300 0 S2 129 123 125(300) 129(200) 500 5 S3 0(200) 0 0 0(400) 600 -124 Demand 200 300 700 600 Vj 124 119 120 124 .

FORMULA: Pij = COSTij – (Ui + Vj) D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply Ui S1 125[3] 121[4] 118(400) 132[10] 400 -2 S2 124(-1) 119(300) 130[10] 126[2] 300 0 S3 129[0] 123[-1] 125(300) 129(200) 500 5 S4 0(200) 0[5] 0[4] 0(400) 600 -124 Demand 200 300 700 600 Vj 124 119 120 124 .Modified Table 3: Calculate penalties(Pij) for all non-basic cell.

D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply Ui S1 125[3] 121[4] 118(400) 132[10] 400 -2 S2 124(-1) 119(300) 130[10] 126[2] 300 0 S3 129[0] 123[-1](+) 125(300) 129(200) 500 5 S4 0(200) 0[5] 0[4] 0(400) 600 -124 Demand 200 300 700 600 Vj 124 119 120 124 .

• • • Minimum among all -VE Once = -1. Substract -1 from all (-) and Add it to all (+) Find Ui and Vj D0 D1 D2 D3 Supply Ui S0 125 121 118(400) 132 400 -7 S1 124(-1) 119(300) 130 126 300 -4 S2 129 123(-1) 125(300) 129(200) 500 0 S3 0(200) 0 0 0(400) 600 -128 Demand 200 300 700 600 Vj 128 123 125 128 .

FORMULA: Pij = COSTij – (Ui + Vj) D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply Ui S1 125[4] 121[5] 118(400) 132[11] 400 -7 S2 124(-1) 119(300) 130[9] 126[2] 300 -4 S3 129[1] 123(-1) 125(300) 129(200) 500 0 S4 0(200) 0[5] 0[3] 0(400) 600 -128 Demand 200 300 700 600 Vj 128 123 125 128 .Calculate penalties(Pij) for all non-basic cell.

D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply S1 125 121 118(400) 132 400 S2 124(-1) 119(300) 130 126 300 S3 129 123(-1) 125(300) 129(200) 500 S4 0(200) 0 0 0(400) 600 Demand 200 300 700 600 .Since all Pij≥0.the allocation is optimum. Hence.

1 = 7 & No.Here m + n .1 = 4 + 4 . (m+n-1) = No. of basic cell ∴ The solution is feasible. of basic cell=7 Hence. Total Transportation cost = (118 × 400) + (124 × -1) + (119 × 300) + (123 × -1) + (125 × 300) + (129 × 200) + (0 × 200 )+ (0 × 400 )+ = 145953 ----------------------------------------------------------The minimized total transportation cost = 145953 ----------------------------------------------------------- .

? .W1 W2 W3 W4 Supply P1 125 121 118 132 400 P2 124 119 130 126 300 P3 129 123 125 129 500 P4 0 0 0 0 600 Demand 200 300 700 600 Q.5 What will be the impact on the planning if the route P2-W3 and the route P1-W4 are blocked for maintenance.

X1 Z C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 DV Z X2 X3 X4 X5 125 121 118 0 124 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 =C4*C14+D4*D14+E4*E1 0 0 0 0 0 4+F4*F14+G4*G14+H4*H 1 0 0 0 1 14+I4*I14+J4*J14+K4*K1 0 1 0 0 0 4+L4*L14+M4*M14+N4* 0 0 1 0 0 N14+O4*O14+P4*P14+Q4 0 *Q14+R4*R14 0 0 1 0 0 LHS RHS 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 400 300 500 600 200 300 700 600 X6 X7 119 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 X8 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 X9 126 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 X10 129 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 X11 123 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 X12 125 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 X13 129 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 X14 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 X15 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 X16 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 .

Procedure to Solve using solver – STEP BY STEP “FOLLOW THE POINTER” .

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X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8 X9 X10 X11 X12 X13 X14 X15 X16 Z C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 125 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 121 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 118 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 124 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 119 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 126 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 129 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 123 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 125 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 129 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 DV Z 0 61900 0 0 400 0 0 300 0 0 300 200 0 200 0 200 200 LHS RHS 400 300 500 600 200 300 700 600 400 300 500 600 200 300 700 600 THIS IS THE OPTIMAL SOLUTION .

then then the minimum cost Z=61.900 .If we blocked the route P2-W3 & the route P1-W4.