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BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR

Marcos C.S. Ong, M.D., FPNA Neurology and Psychiatry

Limbic Lobe
• Papez Circuit
– Ties together the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus – Anatomic substrate for the convergence of cognitive activities,emotional experience and expression

Papez Circuit
Cingulate gyrus
Cingulum

Parahippocampal gyrus and pyriform area
TemporoAmmonic Tract

Superior Thalamic Peduncle

Hippocampus
MamilloThalamic Tract Fornix

Anterior Thalamic Nuclei

Mamillary body

Functions of the Limbic Lobe • Visceral/autonomic responses – Pupillary size – Blood pressure – Pulse – GI peristalsis – Bladder contraction – Breathing .

Functions of the Limbic Lobe • Complex behavioral responses – General arrest of activity – Chewing – Swallowing – Licking of the lips – Grooming .

Functions of the Limbic Lobe • Complex behavioral responses Examples – Psychomotor seizure • Aura of fear or visceral sensation • Loss of consciousness • Automatic acts such as chewing. picking at clothes. followed by amnesia for the event .

Functions of the Limbic Lobe • Complex Behavioral Responses Examples – Reward behavior and pleasurable sensation • “Pleasure area” – Found in septal region in rats • “Feeling good” area – Posterior cingulate gyrus .

Functions of the Limbic Lobe • Complex behavioral responses Example – Mental changes from midline glioma of limbic system and corpus callosum • Mood changes • Affect • Drive • General behavior • With no overt motor. sensory or visual signs .

memory. attention span – Severe degeneration in Alzheimer’s disease . consciousness.Basal Forebrain • Nucleus basalis of Meynert – Large cholinergic neurons – Projects diffusely to the cortex – Function • Augment learning.

Basal Forebrain: Amygdala •Large nuclear mass located in the temporal pole •Extensive afferent/efferent connections .

Basal Forebrain: Amygdala Functions • Integrate input from sensory. cognitive and limbic pathways • Modulates endocrine activity. sexuality and reproduction through hypothalamic connections .

Basal Forebrain: Amygdala – Destruction will result in passivity. defensive or aggressive behavior – Stimulation result in mood changes or arrest of activity and activation of autonomic responses .

swimming) . Fright or surprise with apnea or anxiety or grief with hyperventilation) – Volitional control by supralimbic and pyramidal level (e.g. speech.g.• Breathing exemplifies the control of many such functions by 3 levels of the nervous system – Automatic or reflexive control by the brainstem or spinal level – Emotional control at the limbic level (e.

Stressed & despondent) Lateral nucleus Immobility Active Coping (Getting on With life) Basal nucleus Source: AJP.Amygdala Central nucleus Fear arousing stimuli Lateral Hypothalamus (Autonomic response) Paraventricular Hypothalamus (HPA response) Periaqueductal gray Ventral striatum (Motor circuit) Passive Fear Reaction (Aroused. Dec 2001 .

Basal Forebrain: Hippocampus –Primitive cortex along the medial aspect of the temporal lobe .

Basal Forebrain: Hippocampus – 3 regions: • Subiculum • Hippocampus proper • Dentate gyrus – Origin: Rhinencephalic cortex .

Basal Forebrain: Hippocampus – Connection: Extensive – Function: • Involved in learning and recent memory • Bilateral lesions profoundly impair memory • Has low seizure threshold • Has a role in propagation of epileptic seizure .

ANS • Central – Hypothalamus • Peripheral – Sympathetic – Parasynpathetic .

Hypothalamus • Most ventral of the 4 longitudinal nuclear zones of the diencephalon • Diencephalon – Nuclei that border the 3rd ventricle – Thalamic complex .

Hypothalamus: Functional Significance • Weighs 45 grams • Essential to life – Controls viscera. feeding. aggression and fright/flight response . endocrine. system. vegetative functions and homeostasis – Mediates the experience and expression fo emotion – Control instinctive behaviors such as mating.

Hypothalamus: Anatomic Boundaries • Ventral – Optic chiasm and tract – Infundibular stalk – Median and lateral eminences – Mammilary bodies • Dorsal – 3rd ventricle .

Hypothalamus: Anatomic Boundaries • Lateral – Internal capsule – Globus pallidus • Caudal – Periaqueductal gray – Reticular formation • Rostral – Rhinencephalon: anterior perforated substance & substantia innominata .

Nuclei of the Hypothalamus • Anterior group – Preoptic nuclei: • heat loss • parasympathetic exictation – Supraoptic nucleus: • Relases ADH and oxytocin – Paraventricular Nuclei • Releases ADH and oxytocin .

Nuclei of the Hypothalamus • Middle Group – Dorso and ventormedial nuclei • Appetite control • Fat metabolism • Control of aggression – Arcuate Nuclei • Sends releasing hormones to the adenohypophysis .

Nuclei of the Hypothalamus • Posterior Group – Mammillary body • Involved in short-term memory and Papez circuit – Posterior hypothalamic area • Sympathetic excitation • Heat preservation • Mediates sleep-wake cycle and consciousness .

Efferent Connections • Amygdala and adjacent basal frontal and temporal lobe cortex • Hippocampal formation and piriform cortex • Limbic nuclei and midline nuclei of the thalamus • Reticular formation and periaqueductal gray • Retina Hypothalamus: .

Afferent Connections • • • • • Striatum Lemniscal Systems Cerebellum Thalamus Neocortex Hypothalamus: .

Functions and Clinical Syndromes • Hypothalamic control of autonomic functions – Anterior and posterior areas .

reduced blood pressure and increased motility of gut and bladder – Destruction: anterior hypothalamus results in irreversible hyperthermia – Acts as heat loss center .Functions and Clinical Syndromes .Anterior and medial hypothalamus .Stimulation: pupilloconstriction.Parasympathetic control . vasodilatation. bradycardia.

Functions and Clinical Syndromes • Sympathetic Control – Stimulation of posterior and lateral hypothalamus produces fright/flight response • Pupillodilation. increased heart rate and blood pressure • Increased breathing and reduced gut motility – Destruction results in lethargy. sleepiness and hypothermia – Acts as heat conservation center .

polyuria • Control of circadian rhythm and cycle – Suprachiasmatic nuclei controls sleep-wake cycle .Functions of Hypothalamus • Control of Appetite – Lesions may cause hyperphagia or aphagia – Critical region is mid-hypothalamus • Control of water balance – Damage to infundibular stalk blocks release of ADH – Polydipsia.

Functions and Clinical Syndromes • Role in affective expression and sexuality – Stimulation results in fear and rage – Small tumors can cause gelastic epilepsy. precocious puberty – preoptic area controls release of gonadotropin – Contains dimorphic nucleus that distinguishes males form females .

Functions and Clinical Syndromes • Role in mental processes and memory – Korsakoff’s syndrome • Severe alcoholics • Hallucinations. disorientation. delirium. loss of recent memory and confabulation – Contains opiate receptors • Prime region for the action of addictive and moodaltering drugs • Role in satiety and euphoria .

Neocortex and Emotional Expression • Higher order emotional processing • Right hemisphere – Expression and comprehension of affective aspects of speech – Damage to supra-sylvian/posterior frontal/anterior parietal lobe – Aprosody – Monotonous voice .