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Prepared by:-

YOU WILL ACHIEVE….
 To identify the parts of the digestive system involved in the absorption of digested food;  To explain the adaptive characteristic of the digestive system related to absorption;  To draw & label the structure of a villus;  To explain the process of absorption in the villus;  To make an analogy on the process of absorption in the small intestine

Absorption of Digested Food in Small Intestine  2 process occur which are digestion & absorption  The process of digestion is completed in the ileum to produce simple sugars.  Absorb by villi (singular : villus) in the walls of the small intestine. Each villus contains a network of blood capillaries & a lymph capillary in the centre of the villus . amino acids.  The process of absorption also occurs in the ileum to absorb the products of digestion into the blood capillaries & to be used by the cells in the body. glycerol & fatty acids.

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Adaptation of the small intestine to aid absorption .

.LEARNING OUTCOMES Explain the adaptive characteristic of the digestive system related to absorption.

 It is long & coiled to increase the surface area for absorption  The lining of the intestine is greatly folded to increase the surface area for absorption  The epithelial cells lining the villus is very thin to facilitate diffusion of digested food. .

 There are many villus & microvillus to increase surface area for absorption  Each villus has a network of blood capillaries to transport the digested food that has been absorbed  Each villus also has lacteal (lymph vessel) to transport glycerol & fatty acids. .

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Structure of villi .

.LEARNING OUTCOMES Explain the process of absorption in the villus.

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D. minerals. E & K are absorbed into the lacteal of villus . amino acids. Blood capillaries at the villus absorb glucose (simple sugar). vitamins B & C by simple diffusion through the epithelium of the villus  These substances are carried by the hepatic portal vein to the liver & then distributed to the body cells by the circulatory system  The products of fats digestion such as glycerol & fatty acids as well as vitamins A.

they recombine to form fat droplets. Once inside the lacteal. Across the thin epithelium into the lacteal.  The fat droplets & vitamins ADEK in the lacteals are carried out of the ileum by a lymph vessel called thoracic duct.  Ileum  thoracic duct  left shoulder vein (left subclavian vein)  bloodstream  body cells .

 The absorptive surface area of the small intestine is roughly 250 square meters - the size of a tennis court!!! .

ABSORPTION OF WATER & MINERALS IN COLON .

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 Large intestine : – Caecum : the part where the small intestine joins with the large intestine – Colon : the longer part of the large intestine – Rectum : the last part of the large intestine .

 Colon also absorbs minerals from the indigestible residue passing from the small intestine . Fluid material from ileum (not absorbed)  caecum  colon  Colon absorbs much of the water from the indigestible food residue which becomes more solid as it passes along.

TRANSPORT OF NUTRIENTS BY CIRCULATORY SYSTEM .

LEARNING OUTCOMES Describe the transport of nutrients by the circulatory system for assimilation. .

A. the thoracic duct joins the left subclavian vein  bloodstream . E & K  the lacteal of the villus  transport out of the small intestine by the thoracic duct (lymph vessel)  lymphatic system  at the left shoulder. B & C  blood capillaries of the villus  out of the small intestine  liver (by the hepatic portal vein)  the food molecules are transported away to all the cells in the body by the blood circulatory  Glycerol + fatty acid + vits. D. Glucose + amino acids + minerals + vits.

reproduction or repair.ASSIMILATION BY BODY CELL  Assimilation : the process where the products of digestion are absorbed & utilised in the body cells  Used to synthesis complex molecules required for growth. (amino acids are used to synthesis protoplasm of cells)  Excess absorbed food molecules are stored in the body .

antibody. hearts)  Minerals & vitamins = assimilated by the body cells . plasma membrane & protoplasm. excess  stored as adipose tissue (under the skin. excess  urea  urine (deamination)  Lipids = to build plasma membrane & cholesterol. Glucose = oxidised to produce energy in cell respiration. abdomen & internal organs as kidneys. excess  glycogen  Amino acid = to synthesis enzymes.

excess  stored in liver  Vitamins A & D also stored in the liver. Minerals (calcium & phosphorus)  build strong bone & teeth  Iron  to synthesis haemoglobin in the RBC. .

.LEARNING OUTCOMES Explain the main function of the liver and describe the process of assimilation.

FUNCTIONS OF THE LIVER  The largest gland in the body & carries out many metabolic processes  Carries out assimilation & also act as a storage organ  Receives the products of digestion dissolved in the blood via the hepatic portal vein .

.MAIN FUNCTIONS OF THE LIVER •Storage of nutrients •Processing the products of digestion •Detoxification •Breakdowns of lipids in storage to provide energy •Production of bile •Removal of damaged red blood cells •Synthesis of vitamin A & blood clotting substances •Synthesis of plasma protein (fibrinogen. prothrombin).

 Lack of glucose. .REGULATION OF BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS  Excess glucose  glycogen (present of hormone insulin)  stores in the liver. glycogen  glucose by hormone glucagons.

DEAMINATION  Excess amino acids  liver  amino group is removed (-NH2)  ammonia (toxic)  urea  urine  Remaining amino acids  carbohydrate or fat. .

zinc & copper.  Some minerals : irons. potassium. .STORAGE FUNCTION  Stores vitamins A & D and B12. cobalt.

DETOXIFICATION  Bacteria  engulfed & destroyed by phagocytic cells in the liver.  Toxin  chemically modified  non-toxic  eliminated.  Cirrhosis  long time intake of large quantities of alcohol @ viral diseases (hepatitis) .