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‫جامعة السودان المفتوحة‬

Hair Education Directory Languages Programme Brofessor. Ahmed Babiker Altahir

Open University of Sudan

Phonetics and Phonolgy

phonetics is concerned with describing the speech sounds that occur in the languages of the world. . It simply means sound. So.What’s Phonetics? The word phone is a Greek word.

What’s Phonetics? We want to know what these sounds are. how they fall into patterns and what changes might occur .

What’s Phonology? It’s the description of the system and patterns of sounds in a single language. .

.Phonetician and Phonolgist Are the terms used for linguists who study phonetics and phonology respectively.

. which is the science that deals with the general study of language. A specialist in linguistics is termed a linguist.Phonetician and Phonolgist Both phonetics and phonology are important components of linguistics.

Types of Phonetics? We can examine speech in various ways: 1. . Auditory phonetics how we hear the speech signal. 3. 2. Acoustic phonetics: the physical nature of the speech signal. Articulatory phonetics: How sounds are articulated using organs of speech (articulators).

g. 5. Forensic phonetics: it assists in crime detection by using ‘voiceprint’ . intensity of the muscles of articulators etc. air pressure.Types of Phonetics? 4.Experimental phonetics: it measure the salient features of sounds e.

.Types of Phonetics? Our emphasis will be on articulatory phonetics why? It is the most accessibly and with most applications.

Speech Mechanism . and into the larynx. where there are two muscular folds called the vocal cords. source of power is the respiratory system. . The basic. Air from the lungs goes up the windpipe (trachea).The vocal organs.

They are wide a part – Free passage of air.The Vocal Crds Two lip-like structures They assume one of tow positions either 1. Suffiently together: The pressure of the airstream causes them to vibrate: . 2.

The Vocal Crds If they are open we have voiceless sounds If they are adjusted we have voiced sounds The air passages above the larynx are known as the vocal tract Fig 1 .

Articulators The parts of the vocal tract that can be used to form sounds are called articulators. We have the lower surface and the upper surface. .

Articulators The lower surface articulators move towards the upper surface articulators. Try to say the word ‘capital/ & kapital/ .

hard palate (bony structure) – soft palate (velum) – (uvula) Lower surface articulators: Lower lip – different parts of the langue Blade – front – center – back – root Fig 1-4 .Names of Articulators Upperlip – upper teeth – (incisors) alveolar ridge.

. the airstream must be obstructed in some way.Places of Articulation To form consonanls. Where the airstream is obstructed this is the place of articulation two articulators meet.

Speech Sounds Speech sounds are divided into vowels and consonants Consonants are formed by obstructing the air in some way.5 . The places of obstruction are shown in the digram below Fig 1.

labio – dental – Dental – Alveolar – Palato – Velar.glottal .Places of Articulation Bilabial.

Manner of Articulation The way the airstream is obstructed Stops (Nasal stops & oral stops) Fricatives: (airstream partially obstructed) Affricates (a stop immediately followed by a fricative) .

Nasals The air is stopped in the oral cavity but the uvula is lowered So the air escapes through the nose. .

Approximant One articulator is close to another /w/ /j/ lateral: obstruction at a point along the centre (lateral means side) of the oral tract with in complete closure between one or both sides of the tongue .

2. Manner of articulation .State of the vocal cords: voiced or voiceless. Place of articulation. 3.English Consonants To summarize English consonants to be described in terms of three factors 1.

Articulation of Vowel Sounds In the production of vowel sounds none of the articulators come very close together and the airstream is unobstructed. . The part of the tongue (front. centre or back). Vowels can be described in terms of four factors: 1.

3. ½open or open). Unrounded).The degree of lip (Rounded.The height of the body of the tongue (close. rounding 4.Articulation of Vowel Sounds 2. ½ close.Whether the vowel is long or short (Tense or lax) .

Superimposed on the syllable there are other features known as supra segmental.Vowels & Consonants Are the segments of which speech is composed. Together they form the syllable which go to make up utterances. These include variation in stress and pitch. . The pitch pattern is known as the intonation.

Consonants Chart English has 24 consonants. The phontic symbols for these consonants are shown in the chart below Cons. Chart: P 62 (Roach). ladefoged p 33. Collins 78 .

Vowels Chart English has 20 vowel sounds. 12 pure vowels and 8 diphthongs: 7 of these pure vowels are short & 5 are long. See the vowel chart: Roach (18-25) .

The Phoneme Each of the sounds of English can be produced in many slightly different ways depending on where it comes in the word .

we change the meaning of the word. but if we put those slightly different sounds in place of the other .The Phoneme If we put one of the sounds in place of another.

The Phoneme We don’t change the meaning. . for example. for example: keep calm and cool – so we find great variety in every sound we have abstract units of speech which are called phonemes.

The Phoneme

The phoneme (sound) /p/ has different pronunciation in the words pit, opt, top. We have in this example three different ways of making /p/, three different realisations of the phoneme.

The Phoneme

One can be substituted for the other without changing the meaning and in such situation we call the different realisations free in variation.

The Phoneme

When we find strict in separation of places we say that they are in complementary distribution. We call these different realizations “allophones”

The Syllable

So for have been concerned with phonetics – the straight forward business of describing the sounds of a languages of describing the sound of a language.

The Syllable

When we talk about how phonemes function in a language and the relationship among the different phonemes, we are in the area of phonology. The possible combination of phonemes is termed phonotactics.

The Syllable A syllable consists of a center (nucleus) which has no obstruction to airflow and which sounds louder and before and after the nucleus these will be greater obstruction. . Minimum syllable will: be a single vowel in isloation: are/a:/.or/‫ כ‬:/err/3:/.

that cunsonant is called “onset” for example : bar/ba:/key/ki:/more/m ‫ כ‬:/ .The Syllable These are preceded and followed by silence if a consonant (s) precedes the centre of the syllable.

The Syllable Syllables may have no onset have a coda: the consonants that come after the peak (nucleus) am/æm/ought/‫ כ‬:t/ease/i:z/ .

.The Syllable Some syllables have onset and coda: run/rΛn/sat/sæt fill/fil/ If there is no onset or coda. we say zero onset and zero coda respectively.

The Structure of the English Syllable A syllable may begin with more than one consonant. . we call them consonant cluster.

r. m. the initial consonant. t. l. The /s/ in these cluster is called pre-initial the other consonant. f. . j. n. w. k.The Structure of the English Syllable Initial two consonant clusters: In English there are two sorts: 1. One composed of /s/ followed by any one of the 10 (ten) consonants: p.

r. b. w. k. The other sort begins with one of these (15) fifteen consonants followed by one of the set /l.The Structure of the English Syllable 2. t. s …) . d. g. j/ (p.

The Structure of the English Syllable We call the first one initial and the second one post initial. This reveals that there are some restrictions on which consonants can occur together .

.The Structure of the English Syllable Three consonant cluster. The /s/ is invisibly. The pre-initial consonant. There is a clear relationship between three consonant clusters and the preceding and twoconsonant clusters.

j) is the post initial. In fact the number of possible initial . w.The Structure of the English Syllable the consonant that follows the /s/ (one of the ten) is the initial and the consonant that comes after the initial must be one of the four (l. r.

The Structure of the English Syllable here consonant cluster is very small they are: splay. squak and skewer . spray. sclerosis. screen. spew. string. stew.

r. Any consonant may be final except /h.Final Consonant Clusters Here we can have up to four consonant clusters at the end of the word. j/ . w.

there are two sorts of tow consonant final cluster: 1. The pre-finals form a small set /m.Consonant Final Cluster Again. s/ . l.y. n.

z. The post final consonant also form a small set /s. t. . d. o/ These post final consonants are separate morphemes.Consonant Final Cluster 2.

See the table below Pre h e b æ b ‫כ‬ tw e L b n L Final P K d f Post final t S Z Q . The first is pre-final.Consonant Cluster Final Three 1. plus post final. plus final.

The second type shows that more than one – post final consonant Can occur in a final cluster final plus post final I plus post final 2 .Consonant Cluster Final Three 2.

d. t. z.Final Consonant Clusters Post-final 2 is again one of the set /s. θ/ this situation occurs when there is no pre-final consonant Pre f i n I e x æ f k p Final θ s s Post final 2 s t t .

Four Consonant Clusters When one of the pre-final consonants precedes the final in the three consonant clusters we have four consonant cluster .

Four Consonant Clusters Then it is analysed as follows Pre-Final t w e p r ‫כ‬ l m Final f p Post Final Q t Post final 2 s s .

Four Consonant Cluster To sum up: we may describe the English syllable as having the following maximum phonological structure .

vc. vc. cv. l/ Initial V. ccv. vcc. vcccc Final . cccv V. n.Four Consonant Cluster Pre-initial-post-initial Onset Peak Vowel Pre Final-Final-Post F 1-Post F 2 – Post F 3 Coda Notice that there must be a vowel in the centre of the syllable or one of the syllabic consonants /m. vccc.

ri’si:v pàhæps .Stress in Single Words Some syllables are louder. ‘ouan: pàteitou ‘àbaut ri’leifn. more prominent than others and that is exactly stress: Ifa: fa.

. Weaker.Levels of Stress Emphatic stress: In single words like “silence/””sailans: marked by two vertical lines primary stress: the strong type resulting from pitchor tone: secondary stress. than primary it comes in words.

./ ænθàp‫ כ‬l‫ כ‬o3i In transcription it is represented with a low mark below the stressed syllable.Levels of Stress With more than three syllables like I-foutà’græfik.

Levels of Stress Unstressed syllables: absence of stress – weak stress: Qn orap booki .

.Placement of Stress English is not one of those languages where word stress is fixed or predictable.

the first syllable is stressed. . the penultimate syllable (before the last) is stressed Czech.Placement of Stress Compare for example French the last syllables is always stressed. polish.

Placement of Stress So it is best to treat stress placement as a property of the individual word itself is learned when the word it selt and its spelling are learned. .

quality Factors 2 length and 3 pitch produce the strongest effect . length 3.Planning of Stress The factors that make stress: 1. loudness 2. Pitch (frequency of vibrations of the vocal cords ) 4.

tone and intonation .Suprasegmental Factors These aspects of speech involve more than single consonants or vowels: The principal features are: stress. length.

the difference between (bit/ & bi:t/is clear) . In Arabic.Suprasegmental Factors Length: Variation in length of vowels may be used contrastively.

. If the vocal cords are stretched the pitch will go up. Variation in pitch may convey different information.Suprasegmental Factors Pitch: The most important factor that determines the pitch of the voice is the tension of the vocal cords.

Suprasegmental Factors The pitch of the voice determines intonation. We describe pitch in terms of high and low. .

we use a falling tone. a questioning manner we use a rising tone . but saying “yes” in.Suprasegmental Factors Speakers may use a falling tone or a rising tone. a movement from a lower pitch to a higher one saying “yes” in definite manner.











DIPHTHONG centring closing ending in I ending in θ eI Iθ eә υә ending in υ аI ‫כ‬I әυ υа The centring ditphongs glide towards the ә (schwa) vowel. as the symbols indicate. .








Place of articulation Manner of articulation Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Plaatoalveolar (Postalveolar) Palatal Velar Glottal Plosive Fricative Affricate Nasal Lateral Approximant Pb fv Θδ t d sz ƒ3 tƒ d3 kg h m n I TJ w r j .