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Regents Biology


Photosynthesis: Life from Light and Air

Regents Biology


plants need energy to live  unlike animals. plants don’t need to eat food to make that energy  Plants make both FOOD & ENERGY animals are consumers  plants are producers  Regents Biology .Plants are energy producers  Like animals.

How do plants make energy & food?  Plants use the energy from the sun to make ATP energy  to make sugars   glucose. cellulose. & more sun ATP sugars Regents Biology . starch. sucrose.

Building plants from sunlight & air  Photosynthesis 2 separate processes sun  ENERGY building reactions   collect sun energy  use it to make ATP  SUGAR building reactions  take the ATP energy  collect CO2 from air & ATP H 2O + sugars H2O from ground  use all to build sugars CO2 carbon dioxide water + HO CO Regents Biology 2 2 sugars C6H12O6 .

Using light & air to grow plants  Photosynthesis using sun’s energy to make ATP  using CO & water to make sugar 2  in chloroplasts  allows plants to grow  makes a waste product   oxygen (O2) → sun C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy Regents Biology carbon sun + water + energy → glucose + oxygen dioxide (ATP) = used to build the sugar .

What do plants need to grow?  The “factory” for making energy & sugars  chloroplast CO2 sun  Fuels sunlight  carbon dioxide  water  Make ATP! Make sugar! I can do it all… And no one even notices! ATP enzymes  The Helpers  enzymes H2O sugars Regents Biology .

Photosynthesis sun ENERGY building reactions ADP SUGAR building reactions H 2O Regents Biology ATP used immediately to synthesize sugars CO2 sugar .

Chloroplasts are only in plants animal cells plant cells Regents Biology .

Chloroplasts Leaves Chloroplasts in cell Leaf absorb sunlight & CO2 sun CO2 Chloroplast Chloroplasts contain Chlorophyll Regents Biology Chloroplast make ENERGY & SUGAR .

So what does a plant need?  Bring In light  CO 2 HO 2  leaves  Let Out  O2 sugars shoot roots  Move Around  6CO2 + 6H2O + light → C6H12O6 + 6O2 Regents Biology energy .

Leaf Structure cuticle epidermis palisades layer spongy layer epidermis cuticle Regents Biology vascular bundle (vein) xylem (water) phloem (sugar) stomate guard cells .

Transpiration xylem (water) O2 H O 2 CO2  CO2 in  O2 out  water out  so it gets Regents Biology stomate O2 H2O CO2 guard cells to leaves from roots .

Transpiration  Water evaporates from the stomates in the leaves  pulls water up from roots  water molecules stick to each other  more water is pulled up tree from ground Regents Biology .

remove waste O2 Regents Biology .Function of Leaf Structures  Cuticle  waxy coating reduces water loss skin protecting leaf tissues high concentration of chloroplasts  collecting sun’s energy  Epidermis   Palisades layer   photosynthesis  making ATP & sugars  Spongy layer  air spaces  gas exchange  CO2 in for sugar production.

Stomates & Guard Cells  Function of stomates    CO2 in O2 out H2O out  gets to leaves for photosynthesis  Function of guard cells  open & close stomates guard cell stomate Regents Biology .

Guard cells & Homeostasis  Homeostasis  keeping the internal environment of the plant balanced let CO2 in  needed to make sugars  Stomates open   let H2O out  needed for photosynthesis  let O2 out  get rid of waste product  Stomates close  Regents Biology if too much H2O evaporating .

Xylem carry water up from roots Regents Biology .

Phloem: food-conducting cells  carry sugars around the plant wherever they are needed  new leaves  fruit & seeds  roots Regents Biology .

How are they connected? Respiration glucose + oxygen → carbon + water + energy dioxide C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP Photosynthesis carbon sun + water + energy → glucose + oxygen dioxide 6CO2 + 6H2O + light → C6H12O6 + 6O2 energy Regents Biology .

plants glucose sugars O2 Cellular Respiration The Great Circle of Life! Regents Biology Mufasa? ATP .Energy cycle Photosynthesis plants sun CO2 H 2O animals.

Another view… capture light energy sun Photosynthesis producers. autotrophs synthesis organic O2 molecules waste food waste CO2 waste H 2O consumers. heterotrophs digestion Cellular Respiration release chemical energy ATP Regents Biology .

The poetic perspective  All of the solid material of every plant  was built out of thin air All of the solid material of every animal was built from plant material air Then all the cats. people & elephants… are really strands of air woven together by sunlight! sun Regents Biology . dogs. mice.

Got the energy… Ask Questions!! Regents Biology 2006-2007 .