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A branch stem bearing leaves which are specialized to carry on reproduction.
A leaf that surrounds a flower may be an ordinary leaf or bracteole.

Bracts – surround or enclose a flower cluster

When it bears a single flower or a cluster of flowers it is known as a peduncle. In.Flower stalk – a stem which supports the flower in a favorable position for pollination. a flower clusters the individual stalks are termed as pedicles. .

The Parts of a Typical Flower 1. Sepals (collectively called calyx) * protects the inner parts of the flower before the bud opens . Perianth or the Floral Envelope – made up of the following parts: a.

b. Petals (collectively called corolla) * to attract insects as agent of pollination – Nectaries – sugar secreting glands – Ethereal oils – aromatic odors .

Petals • Two parts: a. lamina – flattened showy portion b. claw – posterior constricted part attached to the receptacle .

A. Stamen • Male reproductive part of the flower • Collectively constitute the androecium .

Parts of the stamen: A. . anther – contains pollen sacs within which pollen grains are formed. filament – a stalk which supports the anther B.

. Pistil • Collectively constitute the gynoecium • female reproductive structure.stalk arising from the ovary * stigma – tip of the style Each unit of the pistil is a called carpel.B. • Parts: * ovary – contains the ovules in a cavity called locule * style .


apetalous – missing petals b. According to the presence or absence of some floral parts: 1. naked – if both perianth parts are absent . Incomplete – missing floral parts a.Types of Flower • A. Complete flowers – all floral parts are present (perianth and essential) 2.

Imperfect flowers – if only stamen or pistil is present. According to sexuality: 1. 2. * Staminate or male flower * Pistillate or female flower . Perfect flowers – both stamen and pistil are present.B.

Monoecious – if pistillate and staminate flowers are produced in the same individual . To the presence of essential parts: 1.C. Accdg.

Dioecious – pistillate and staminate flowers are found in separate individuals .2.

Physiology of the Flower • Environmental factors that control the flowering of angiosperms: 1. Photoperiod – response of plants to length of day. Soil nutrient 5. Amount of crowding . 2. Temperature 3. Moisture 4.

. Short-day plants or Long-night plants – those which flower only if the day length is reduced below a certain critical value.Groups of plants based on photoperiodism: 1.

Long-day plants or Short-night plants – those which flower only if the day length exceeds a certain critical value .2.

Day-neutral plants –bear flowers upon reaching a certain age or size.3. irrespective of day length. .

Temperature • Many flowering plants are dependent upon exposure to very low temperature while others require high temperatures. .

.Vernalization • Is the cold treatment of germinating seeds in order to hasten subsequent flowering.

Kinds of pollination: 1. Self-pollination – transfer of pollens from stamen to the stigma of the same flower or individual or between flowers of plants of the same genetic characteristics. .

. Cross-pollination – transfer of pollens from the stamen to the stigma of another flower or between plants of different genetic characters.2.


• Wind – wind pollinate flowers are called anemophilous. • Animals • Man .Agents of pollination: • Insects – insect pollinated flowers are called entomophilous.

Characteristics of insect pollinated flowers: * Large. brightly colored petals * Often sweetly scented * Usually contain nectar * Moderate quantity of pollen .

* Pollen often sticky or spiky * Anthers firm and inside flowers * Stigma are located inside the flowers * Stigma has sticky coating .

Characteristics of wind pollinated flowers: * Small petals. often brown or dull green * No scent produce in great quantities * Pollen .

* No nectar * Pollen very light and smooth * Anthers loosely attached and dangle out * Stigma hangs outside the flower * Stigma feathery or net like .

.FRUITS • A mature ovary of a flower including its one or more seeds and any part of a flower which may be closely associated with the matured ovary.

endocarp – innermost part .The ovary wall thickens and ripens into the pericarp. • Three distinct parts of pericarp: a. mesocarp – middle part c. exocarp – outermost part (skin) b.


.Seeds • Seeds are mature ovules.

Endosperm – develops from the daughter nuclei of the endosperm nucleus and serves as food storage tissue.Parts of the seed: 1. 3. 2. . Seed coat – develop from the integuments of the ovule. Embryo – rudimentary plant which develop from the zygote.

Testa – outer seed coat derived from the outer integument of the ovule which is usually hard.Layers of the seed coat: a. . Tegmen – inner coat derived from the inner integument which is usually thin filmy membrane. b.

External features of th seed coat: a. Raphe – a ridge formed by the stalk of the ovule and present only in ovules in which the funiculus is sharply bent at the base of the ovule. Hilum – a scar which marks the place where the seed broke off from the stalk (funiculus) b. .


c. Micropyle – microscopic pore of the seed. Chalaza – the region at the upper end of the raphe opposite the micropyle where the funiculus spreads out and unites with the base of the ovule (proximal end of the seed) . d.




Seeds .