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cs538 Spring 2004 Jason Walonoski


Presentation Outline
► History

and Overview ► MYCIN Architecture ► Consultation System
 Knowledge Representation & Reasoning
► Explanation

System ► Knowledge Acquisition ► Results, Conclusions

► Thesis

Project by Shortliffe @ Stanford ► Davis, Buchanan, van Melle, and others
 Stanford Heuristic Programming Project  Infectious Disease Group, Stanford Medical
► Project

Spans a Decade

 Research started in 1972  Original implementation completed 1976  Research continues into the 80’s

Tasks and Domain ► Disease DIAGNOSIS and Therapy SELECTION ► Advice for non-expert physicians with time considerations and incomplete evidence on:  Bacterial infections of the blood  Expanded to meningitis and other ailments 4 .

must be easy to maintain K. to attract assistance of experts  Demonstrate competence  Fulfill domain need (i.B. penicillin) ► Flexibility  Domain is complex.System Goals ► Utility  Be useful. variety of knowledge types  Medical knowledge rapidly evolves.e. 5 .

System Goals (continued) ► Interactive Dialogue  Provide coherent explanations (symbolic reasoning paradigm)  Allow for real-time K. updates by experts ► Fast and Easy  Meet time constraints of the medical field 6 .B.

Lists Dynamic DB Patient Data Context Tree Dynamic Data Explanation System Q-A System Knowledge Acquisition System Expert 7 .MYCIN Architecture Physician Consultation System Static DB Rules Parameter Properties Context Type Properties Tables.

Consultation System ► Performs Physician Consultation System Dynamic DB Explanation System Q-A System Static DB Knowledge Acquisition System Expert Diagnosis and Therapy Selection ► Control Structure reads Static DB (rules) and read/writes to Dynamic DB (patient. context) ► Linked to Explanations ► Terminal interface to Physician 8 .

Consultation System ► User-Friendly Features:  Users can request rephrasing of questions  Synonym dictionary allows latitude of user responses  User typos are automatically fixed ► Questions needed are asked when more data is  If data cannot be provided. system ignores relevant rules 9 .

Determine if Patient has significant infection 2. Determine likely identity of significant organisms 3.Consultation “Control Structure” ► ► Goal-directed Backward-chaining Depthfirst Tree Search High-level Algorithm: 1. Decide which drugs are potentially useful 4. Select best drug or coverage of drugs 10 .

Static Database ► Rules Physician Consultation System ► Meta-Rules ► Templates ► Rule Static DB Dynamic DB Explanation System Q-A System Knowledge Acquisition System Expert Properties ► Context Properties ► Fed from Knowledge Acquisition System 11 .

all relevant context is contained in the rule with explicitly stated premises 12 .Production Rules ► Represent Domain-specific Knowledge ► Over 450 rules in MYCIN ► Premise-Action (If-Then) Form: <predicate function><object><attrib><value> ► Each rule is completely modular.

requires formalization (EMYCIN) ► Only small number of simultaneous factors (more than 6 was thought to be unwieldy) ► IF-THEN formalism is suitable for Expert Knowledge Acquisition and Explanation subsystems 13 .R. Assumptions ► Not every domain can be represented.MYCIN P.

Judgmental Knowledge ► Inexact (CF) ► CF are not Probability! ► Truth of a Hypothesis is measured by a sum of the CFs  Premises and Rules added together  Positive sum is confirming evidence  Negative sum is disconfirming evidence 14 Reasoning with Certainty Factors .

lab data) 15 .e.Sub-goals ► At any given time MYCIN is establishing the value of some parameter by sub-goaling ► Unity Paths: a method to bypass sub-goals by following a path whose certainty is known (CF==1) to make a definite conclusion ► Won’t search a sub-goal if it can be obtained from a user first (i.

Preview Mechanism ► Interpreter reads rules before invoking them ► Avoids unnecessary deductive work if the sub-goal has already been tested/determined ► Ensures self-referencing sub-goals do not enter recursive infinite loops 16 .

Meta-Rules ► Alternative rules ► Strategy rules to suggest an approach for a given sub-goal  Ordering rules to try first. effectively pruning the search tree ► Creates to exhaustive invocation of all a search-space with embedded information on which branch is best to take 17 .

but used limitedly in practice ► Impact to the Explanation System:  (+) Encode Knowledge formerly in the Control Structure  (-) Sometimes create “murky” explanations 18 . Meta-Rules for Meta-Rules)  Powerful.e.Meta-Rules (continued) ► High-order Meta-Rules (i.

because the system can “understand” its own representations ► Templates are updated by the system when a new rule is entered 19 .Templates ► The Production Rules are all based on Template structures ► This aids Knowledge-base expansion.

Dynamic Database ► Patient Physician Consultation System Dynamic DB Explanation System Q-A System Static DB Knowledge Acquisition System Expert Data ► Laboratory Data ► Context Tree ► Built by Consultation System ► Used by Explanation System 20 .

Context Tree Patient-1 (person) Culture-1 (curculs) Culture-2 (curculs) Operation-1 (opers) Organism-1 (curorgs) Organism-2 (curorgs) Organism-3 (curorgs) Drug-4 (opdrgs) Therapy-1 (possther) Drug-1 (curdrgs) Drug-2 (curdrgs) 21 .

Therapy Selection ► ► Plan-Generate-and-Test Process Therapy List Creation  Set of specific rules recommend treatments based on the probability (not CF) of organism sensitivity Probabilities based on laboratory data One therapy rule for every organism   22 .

Therapy Selection ► Assigning Item Numbers  Only hypothesis with organisms deemed “significantly likely” (CF) are considered  Then the most likely (CF) identity of the organisms themselves are determined and assigned an Item Number  Each item is assigned a probability of likelihood and probability of sensitivity to drug 23 .

Therapy Selection ► Final Selection based on:  Sensitivity  Contraindication Screening  Using the minimal number of drugs and maximizing the coverage of organisms ► Experts can ask for alternate treatments  Therapy selection is repeated with previously recommended drugs removed from the list 24 .

Explanation System ► Provides Physician Consultation System Dynamic DB Explanation System Q-A System Static DB Knowledge Acquisition System Expert reasoning why a conclusion has been made. or why a question is being asked ► Q-A Module ► Reasoning Status Checker 25 .

and the Context Tree. to provide context  Ignores Definitional Rules (CF == 1) ► Two Modules  Q-A Module  Reasoning Status Checker 26 .Explanation System ► Uses a trace of the Production Rules for a basis.

(GRID (VAL CNTXT PORTAL) PATH-FLORA) becomes: “The list of likely pathogens associated with the portal of entry of the organism is known.Q-A Module ► Symbolic Production Rules are readable ► Each <predicate function> has an associated translation pattern: GRID (THE (2) ASSOCIATED WITH (1) IS KNOWN) VAL (((2 1))) PORTAL (THE PORTAL OF ENTRY OF *) PATH-FLORA (LIST OF LIKELY PATHOGENS) i.” 27 .e.

and the rule being applied is explained with the translation patterns 28 .Reasoning Status Checker ► Explanation rules: is a tree traversal of the traced  WHY – moves up the tree  HOW – moves down (possibly to untried areas) ► Question is rephrased.

if [3.Reasoning Status Checker (Example) 32) Was penicillinase added to this blood culture (CULTURE-1)? **WHY [i. and [3..3] penicillinase was added to this blood culture then there is weakly suggestive evidence. WHY is it important to determine whether penicillinase was added to CULTURE-1?] [3.0] This will aid in determining whether ORGANISM-1 is a contaminant.2] the gram stain of ORGANISM-1 is grampos Therefore. It has already been established that [3..1] the site of CULTURE-1 is blood. 29 .e.

Knowledge Acquisition System ► Extends Physician Consultation System Dynamic DB Explanation System Q-A System Static DB Knowledge Acquisition System Expert Static DB via Dialogue with Experts ► Dialogue Driven by System ► Requires minimal training for Experts ► Allows for Incremental Competence. NOT an All-or-Nothing model 30 .

the expert must either except it or be forced to update it using the education process 31 . and required little training by the MYCIN team When faced with a rule.Knowledge Acquisition ► ► IF-THEN Symbolic logic was found to be easy for experts to learn.

usually by Explanation process Add/Modify rules using subset of English by experts Integrating new knowledge into KB  Found to be difficult in practice. and complex concepts become difficult to express 32 .Education Process 1. 2. Bug is uncovered. requires detection of contradictions. 3.

Results ► Never implemented for routine clinical use ► Shown to be competent by panels of experts. even in cases where experts themselves disagreed on conclusions ► Key Contributions:  Reuse of Production Rules (explanation. knowledge acquisition models)  Meta-Level Knowledge Use 33 .

William van Melle. Max Bramer. Buchanan.References ► ► ► ► ► Davis. 1976. Artificial Intelligence. Production Rules as a Representation for a Knowledge-Based Consultation System. The Structure of the MYCIN System. ComputerBased Medical Consultations: MYCIN. Details of the Consultation System. 1977 34 . International Journal of Man-Machine Studies. Chapter 15? ► “Major Lessons From this Work” William J. Details of the Revised Therapy Algorithm. Shortliffe. Jadzia Cendrowska. 1978. 1979. Clancey. Shortliffe.