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Chapter 1:
The Scope of Software Engineering

By the end of this module, you will...

Recall what a software is and identify its categories. Understand what software engineering is.

Understand why software engineering is important. Know answers to key questions related to the software

engineering discipline.

Quick Look
WHAT is it?: Computer software encompasses
programs that execute within a computer of any size and architecture, documents that encompass hard-copy and virtual forms, and data that combine numbers and text but also includes representations of pictorial, video, and audio information.

WHO does it?: Software engineers build

software products by applying software engineering approach.

WHY is it important?: Computer software are

used in nearly every aspect of our lives.

Software: Where does it lie?

It encompasses programs that execute within a computer, documents that include hard-copy & virtual forms, and data that combine numbers and text but also includes representations of pictorial, video, and other information.

System Documentation


User Documentation

The Evolving Role of Software

Software takes on a dual role:
It is a product It is a vehicle for delivering a product

Significant change in its role has been precipitated by:

Dramatic improvement in hardware performance Profound change in computing architectures Vast increases in memory and storage capacity Wide variety of input and output options

The Nature of Software

Software is intangible
Hard to understand development effort

Software is easy to reproduce but costly

In other engineering products, manufacturing is the costly stage In software, cost is in its development

Software is complex to develop esp. for labor-intensive industry

Difficulty in automating some manual tasks

The Nature of Software

Software quality problems are hard to notice
Finding all the errors in the software before delivering it to the customer is difficult

Software is easy to modify

People make changes without fully understanding the software

Software does not wear out

It deteriorates by having its design changed:
erroneously, or in ways that were not anticipated, thus making it complex 8

Types of Software
Custom / Bespoke
For a specific customer Customization is based on user requirements

Sold on open market Often called COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf)

Intelligent products that reside in ROM Built into hardware and is hard to modify/change

Types of Software
Differences among custom, generic and embedded software
Number of copies in use Total processing power devoted to running this type of software Worldwide annual development effort Custom low low Generic medium high Embedded high medium





Specific Types of Software

Systems software
Programs written to service other programs Include language translators, file management utilities, operating systems, device drivers

Real time software

Programs that analyze and control real world events Include control and monitoring systems

Business/Data processing software

Programs that facilitate business operations or management decision making Include payroll, sales & inventory, accounts receivable/payable

Engineering & scientific software

Programs characterized by number crunching algorithms Include applications used in the area of molecular biology, volcanology, astronomy, system 13 simulation, etc.

Personal computer software

Commonly known as productivity tools Include word processing, spreadsheets, computer graphics, multimedia, entertainment, database management, etc.

Web-base software
Web applications that incorporates executable instructions (e.g. CGI, HTML, Perl, or Java)


Artificial intelligence software

Programs that makes use of non-numerical algorithms to solve complex problems that are not amenable to computation or straightforward analysis Include robotics, expert systems, knowledgebased systems, pattern recognition (image and voice), neural networks, theorem proving, game playing


Think about all the devices and systems that you encounter in your everyday life which have software controlling them
Virtually all countries depend on complex computer-based systems.

List as many as you can


Why is Software Engineering important?

Complex systems need a disciplined approach for
designing, developing and managing them.


Software Development Crises

Projects were: Late

Over budget
Unreliable Difficult to maintain Performed poorly


Software errors incur cost.


The Cost of Software Engineering

The cost depends on: The type of software being developed, and The process used in software development Each generic approach has a different profile of cost distribution. Roughly 60% of costs are development costs, 40% are testing costs. For custom software, cost distribution depends on the process used. Evolution costs often exceed development costs.


Cost distribution
Generic software development (COTS)







System testing

Product development costs


Cost distribution
Custom software development (Bespoke)
Software Model Cost units Cost distribution Software development activity
Specification Design Development Integration and testing

Waterfall Model





Iterative Development 0 25 50 75 100


Iterative Development

System testing

Component-based Software Engineering 0 25 50 75 100



Integration and testing


Errors in computer software can have devastating effects.


Software Crisis
Example 2: Ariane 5 Explosion
European Space Agency

spent 10 years and $7

billion to produce Ariane 5.

Crash after 36.7 seconds.
Caused by an overflow error. Trying to store a 64-bit

number into a 16-bit space.

Watch the video:


Software Crisis
Example 1: 2009,Computer glitch delays flights
Dozens of flights from the UK were delayed Saturday after

a glitch in an air traffic control system in Scotland, but the problem was fixed a few hours later.
The agency said it reverted to backup equipment as

engineering worked on the system.

The problem did not create a safety issue but could cause

delays in flights.
Read more at: ights.delayed


Software Crisis
Example 3: 1992, London Ambulance Service
Considered the largest ambulance service in the

Caused by database overload problem.
It was unable to keep track of the ambulances

and their statuses. Sending multiple units to some locations and no units to other locations.
Generates many exceptions messages. 46 deaths.


Therefore A well-disciplined approach to software development and management is necessary. This is called software engineering.


Software Engineering: Historical Aspects

The term software engineering first appeared in the 1968 NATO Software Engineering Conference and was meant to provoke thought regarding what was then called the software crisis.. .. An engineering discipline that is concerned with all aspects of software production from the early stages of system specification to maintaining the system after it has gone into use. Sommerville,

Software Engineering and the Engineering Profession

The term Software Engineering was coined in 1968 People began to realize that the principles of engineering should be applied to software development Engineering is a licensed profession In order to protect the public Engineers design artifacts following well accepted practices which involve the application of science, mathematics and economics Ethical practice is also a key tenet of the profession In many countries, much software engineering does not require an engineering license, but is still engineering



Software Engineering vs. Computer Science

Computer science is no more about computers than astronomy is about telescopes. Edsger Dijkstra

Computer Science
Theory. Fundamentals.

Software Engineering
Practicalities of software design, development and delivery.


Software Engineering vs. Systems Engineering

Systems Engineering:

Interdisciplinary engineering field (computer, software, and process eng.). Focuses on how complex engineering projects should be designed and managed.

Systems Engineering
All aspects of computerbased systems development: HW + SW + Process. Older than SWE.

Software Engineering
Deals with the design, development and delivery of SW. Is part of Systems Engineering.

What is Software Engineering?

The of solving customers problems by Toprocess solve customers problems the systematic development and evolution of To utilize systematic development large, high-quality software systems within To time produce high-quality software cost, and other constraints.

To produce software within the Other definitions: budget & time allotted IEEE: (1) the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to

the development, operation, maintenance of software; that is, the application of engineering to software. (2) The study of approaches as in (1). The Canadian Standards Association: The systematic activities involved in the design, implementation and testing of software to optimize its production and support.

Goals of Software Engineering

Solving customers problems
This is the goal of software engineering Sometimes the solution is to buy, not build Adding unnecessary features does not help solve the problem Software engineers must communicate effectively with the customers to identify and understand the problem


Goals of Software Engineering

Systematic development and evolution
An engineering process involves applying well understood techniques in a organized and disciplined way Many well-accepted practices have been formally standardized
e.g. by the IEEE or ISO

Most development work is evolutionary


Goals of Software Engineering

Large, high quality software systems
Software engineering techniques are needed because large systems cannot be completely understood by one person Teamwork and co-ordination are required Key challenge: Dividing up the work and ensuring that the parts of the system work properly together The end-product must be of sufficient quality

Goals of Software Engineering

Cost, time and other constraints
Finite resources The benefit must outweigh the cost Others are competing to do the job cheaper and faster Inaccurate estimates of cost and time have caused many project failures


Stakeholders in Software Engineering

1. Users
Those who use the software

2. Customers
Those who pay for the software

3. Software developers
Include system analysts, system designers, system builders

4. Development Managers
All four roles can be fulfilled by the same person

Software Quality and the Stakeholders

Customer: solves problems at an acceptable cost in terms of money paid and resources used QUALITY SOFTWARE Developer: easy to design; easy to maintain; easy to reuse its parts Development manager: sells more and pleases customers while costing less to develop and maintain

User: easy to learn; efficient to use; helps get work done


Functional Attributes of a Software

Functional attributes

performance; what the system does; capability of the software to provide functions which meet stated and implied needs when the software is used

Goal: To capture the required behavior of a software system in terms of functionality and the technology implementation through a system analysis process.


Non-Functional Attributes of a Software



quality; how the system does it; based on the parameters of system performance, software quality attributes, reliability and security, cost, constraints in design and implementation

goal: To determine the factors that can be used to judge the operation of a system or the quality attributes of the system.


Some Attributes of a Good Software

Product Characteristic Description


Easy to learn how to use the system by target users. Efficient to use the system by users to accomplish a task. Satisfying to use by intended users. Evolution qualities such as testability, extensibility. Reliability, security, safety. Response time, processing time, memory utilization. Reprogramming is not needed.

Maintainability Dependability Efficiency Reusability _requirement



What are the key attributes for..

Banking system Client accounts, stocks bonds, money transfers. Cardiac monitor in an ICU unit heart rate, temperature, blood pressure.

Interactive game Players, score, scenes, theme.

Software Quality: Conflicts & Objectives

The different qualities can conflict
Increasing usability can reduce efficiency Increasing efficiency can reduce maintainability or reusability

Setting objectives for quality is a key engineering activity

You then design to meet the objectives Avoids over-engineering which wastes money

Optimizing is also sometimes necessary

E.g. obtain the highest possible reliability using a fixed budget


Challenges Facing Software Engineering

Challenge Why? Software needs to ..


Different computers, different platforms, different support systems.

Cope with this variability.


Businesses are more responsive supporting software needs to evolve rapidly. Software is a part of many aspects of our lives (work, study, leisure).

Be delivered in shorter time without compromising quality.


Demonstrate that it can be trusted by users.

Software Engineering Projects

1. Most projects are evolutionary or maintenance projects, involving work on legacy systems
Development and evolution costs for long-lifetime systems
0 100 200 300 400

System development

System evolution


Software Engineering Projects

Corrective projects: fixing defects Adaptive projects: changing the system in response to changes in
Operating system, Database, Rules and regulations

Enhancement projects: adding new features for users Reengineering or perfective projects: changing the system internally so it is more maintainable


Software Engineering Projects

2. Greenfield projects
New development; project that lacks any constraints imposed by prior work; theres no need to remodel or demolish an existing structure Minority of projects are greenfield; projects that are often coveted by engineers Examples: Cellular networks, power plant, airports


Software Engineering Projects

3. Projects that involve building on a framework or a set of existing components.
A framework is an application that is missing some important details.
E.g. Specific rules of this organization.

Such projects:
Involve plugging together components that are:
Already developed. Provide significant functionality.

Benefit from reusing reliable software. Provide much of the same freedom to innovate found in green field development.

Information Systems Framework

This provides a unifying framework, inspired by the works of John Zachman, by which various people with different perspectives can organize and view the fundamental building blocks of software projects.


Activities Common to Software Projects

Requirements and specification
Domain analysis Defining the problem Requirements gathering
Obtaining input from as many sources as possible

Requirements analysis
Organizing the information

Requirements specification
Writing detailed instructions about how the software should behave

Activities Common to Software Projects

Deciding how the requirements should be implemented, using the available technology Includes:
Systems engineering: Deciding what should be in hardware and software Software architecture: Dividing the system into subsystems and deciding how the subsystems will interact Detailed design of the internals of a subsystem User interface design Design of databases

Activities Common to Software Projects

Creating representations of the domain or the software
Use case modeling Structural modeling Dynamic and behavioural modeling

Programming Quality assurance

Reviews and inspections Testing

Deployment Managing the process


Difficulties and Risks in Software Engineering

Complexity and large numbers of details Uncertainty about technology Uncertainty about requirements Uncertainty about software engineering skills Constant change Deterioration of software design Political risks (considered as wicked problem)

Software Depression
The software crisis has not been solved: - Data on 9236 projects completed in 2004


Cutter Consortium Data

2002 survey of information technology
78% have been involved in disputes ending in litigation

For the organizations that entered into litigation:

In 67% of the disputes, the functionality of the information system as delivered did not meet up to the claims of the developers In 56% of the disputes, the promised delivery date slipped several times In 45% of the disputes, the defects were so severe that the information system was unusable

Software Myths: Practitioners View

Once we write the program and get it to work, our job is done. Until I get the program running I have no way of assessing its quality. The only deliverable work product for a successful project is the working program. Software engineering will make us create voluminous and unnecessary documentation and will invariably slow us down.