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Energy

Peter D. Suson

An SDS 203 Resource Management & Accounting Report

Outline • Basic Concept • Evolution of Energy Use • A Look at 2 most recommended energy forms – Nuclear – Biofuels • Towards Fitting in a Framework • Some Encouraging news to share • Conclusion .

Basic Concepts • Energy – The ability to do work • Work – Force x Distance • Power – Work/unit time .

comfort & ability to do more work • However. man has to have tools & machines & the external energy to develop them in order to survive & multiply • Given man’s creative abilities & insatiable needs & desires. man’s current challenges is how to address his insatiable needs & desires without undermining the very systems that support life . the above development have threatened the very systems that support life particularly the kind of energy he uses • Hence. the tools & machines he developed became more sophisticated requiring greater external energy resulting to greater speed.Evolution of Energy Use • The most basic energy for man is the food he eats which ultimately comes from the sun • With lesser physical prowess.

Nuclear Energy • Nuclear power is relatively expensive – A single nuclear power station costs around £2 billion to build. [Source: UK Atomic Energy Authority. The last British nuclear station.] – Nuclear power stations take at least 10 years to build. [Source: p101 and p103 of "The Energy Review" by Cabinet Office. Sizewell B. This is about three times as much as a gas-fueled power station of the same capacity. – Taxpayers are already committed to a bill of around £56 billion for cleaning up existing nuclear sites.8 billion to clean-up at the end of its life.] .] – But a nuclear power station site also costs on average £4. (UKAEA) [Source: UK Atomic Energy Authority. took 15 years from planning to completion (though only 7 years to construct).] – A 2002 report from the Cabinet Office revealed that nuclear power would cost significantly more per unit of electricity generated than either on-shore or off-shore wind electricity. [Source: BBC News.

Emissions from industry and business. we would need to build 115 new reactors each year (another 10. and more popular renewable energy. every pound invested in energy efficiency removes seven times more CO2 from the atmosphere than a pound invested in nuclear power. Emissions from electricity generation fell by around 12% between 1990 and 2003 (though they have risen again since 1999). [Source: Friends of the Earth. if we wanted nuclear power to make 70% of worldwide electricity. [Source: Friends of the Earth Australia and Green Party UK] – Power stations produce less than 30% of UK greenhouse emissions. [Source: National Statistics.000 by the year 2100).] – Doubling nuclear power generation in the UK would cut our greenhouse gas emissions by no more than eight per cent. safer. cheaper. [Source: Green Alliance. In other words.Nuclear Energy • Nuclear is no solution to global warming and climate change – It undermines cleaner.] – According to the Nuclear Information and Resource Service (NIRS). Former environment minister Alan Whitehead believes it "would effectively crowd out renewables". [Source: Friends of the Earth Australia] . emissions from transport and communications almost doubled in the same period. emissions from electricity generation are just a small part of the problem. Even that would reduce greenhouse emissions by just 16%. and domestic heating produce most of the rest.] – According to a classic American study. transport.

high-grade uranium ores (raw material for nuclear power stations) could last 50 years with all grades of uranium lasting 200 years. According to Andrew Simms of the New Economics Foundation: "Nuclear also has a dirty little secret: startlingly there's only a few decades left of the proven high-grade uranium ore it needs for fuel." [Source: BBC News. high-grade uranium would last only 15-20 years.] – With current nuclear dwindling output. With a ten-fold expansion. constructing nuclear plants and mining uranium to power them produces significant emissions. But with a three-fold expansion.Nuclear Energy • Nuclear is not a renewable technology – While operating nuclear power plants produces fewer greenhouse emissions. It's also far less climate-friendly than claimed. costs go up and all the energy used from mining to decommissioning means it can lead to more carbon emissions than fossil fuel-powered gas generators. high-grade uranium would be gone within 5 years and the entire world stock of uranium would last only 20 years. [Source: Friends of the Earth Australia] . Once low-grade ore is used.

enough to fill 14 Olympic-sized swimming pools.000 years . Norway. are the biggest sources of radioactive pollution in Europe. High-level waste represents less than 0.] – Nuclear wastes continue to emit radiation for at least 100. there will be an estimated 36. [Source: Friends of the Earth Australia] – Ireland.] – There is still no publicly acceptable way to dispose of high-level radioactive waste. [Source: BBC News. [Source: BBC News.] – If the UK's reactors operate to their current shutdown dates and no more are built.590 cubic metres of intermediate and high level waste in the UK.Nuclear Energy • Nuclear is dirty – The two major nuclear reprocessing plants. [Source: BBC News. and other countries have repeatedly called for Sellafield to be closed down because of the toxic pollution it pours into the sea. Sellafield in Britain and Cap La Hague in France.3% of the total volume of waste but accounts for about half the total radioactivity.

The other half of the fallout fell on more than twenty countries world wide reaching North America .000 immediate deaths with half a million affected by long-term illnesses such as cancers.000 deaths from Chernobyl induced cancers.Nuclear Energy • Nuclear is dangerous – There have been more than a dozen serious accidents at nuclear power plants since 1952.] – According to security expert Dr Gordon Thompson: "We must recognize that.] – Nuclear power plants are a terrorist target. The US DOE calculated that world wide there would be around 40. nuclear installations are pre-deployed radiological weapons within the countries they would most like to hit. 79% said that if a nuclear attack occurs in the next ten years it will be carried out by terrorists. 155 thousand people were evacuated from a 30 km diameter zone." [Source: Oxford Research Group. [Source: Greenpeace. explosions." [Source: Nuclear-Free Local Authorities.resulting in food limitations. A recent study in the US estimated an attack on a reactor could lead to 44.] . There have been at least eight accidents involving damage to or malfunction of a reactor core. [Source: Senator Richard Lugar." [Source: Friends of the Earth. [Source: Friends of the Earth Australia] – Friends of the Earth point out: "According to a Soviet estimate half of Chernobyl's fallout fell within 35 km of the reactor. There have been many other serious accidents elsewhere in nuclear plants (fires.] – In a June 2005 survey of 80 experts in nuclear security.] – According to the Oxford Research Group: "A smoke plume from an explosion at Sellafield that released either around 17% of the high level waste in tanks or less than 1% of the plutonium stored at Sellafield would be approximately ten times as devastating as Chernobyl. to terrorists. and leaks of radioactive material).

for the planting of cassava & tuba2x • High food price – With fewer food supply.. it will take all of its cropland to replace 80% of its fuel use – In the Phils.S. plans have been made to devote 1.2 M ha. this will have an impact on meat prices • Induce deforestation – Directly: Favorable price & policy emplacement will guarantee land conversion as in the case of palm oil production in Indonesia – Indirectly: Food production displaced in agricultural lands will eventually convert forest land into agricultural lands • Neutralizes efforts to reduce emissions – Since deforestation will result to release of carbon to the atmosphere – The current production of agri-source biofuels emits much CO2 ..Biofuels • Threatens food security – Competes use of land for food production – Food shortage is not a remote possibility in the context of deteriorating land & water quality – Favorable price & policy emplacement will guarantee land conversion – In the U. food price will inevitably rise – Currently. corn-based feed is expensive.

as forest serves as the conduit for the replenishment of the water table which in turn increases the risk of food insecurity • Enhance Flooding – Since deforestation increases surface run-off & soil erosion this in turn increases the risk of food insecurity & hazard to lives & properties .Biofuels • Threatens Biodiversity – Resulting from deforestation. as biodiversity is the foundation for plant & animal domestication and for pharmaceuticals • Threatens Water supply – Resulting from deforestation. as forest is the nursery for biodiversity • Threatens Food security – Resulting from threatened biodiversity.

social & environmental Standardizing all costs into monetary units • • • • • • • • Must not threaten Food & Water security Use sound energy technology to build on another sound energy technology – Manufacturing hydrogen fuel cars requires high energy.Framework • Net Benefit analysis of each Energy form – – – – Looking the energy form for what really is Extent: from raw material sourcing to distribution Inclusion of all costs: financial. supply that energy from several forms of sound energy technology Promote the ‘break into me gently’ strategy for adoption of sound energy technologies Promote cooperation and collaboration especially with the Industrial sector Must not neutralize or overshadow the effect of sound energy technology by another unsound energy technology e. Hybrids vs.g. SUV Must not promote poverty Target setting in relation to emission rate reaching tipping point must be reduced Values for sustainable lifestyle & growth must be promoted .

Encouraging News • Iceland making use of geothermal energy 100% • Challenges the utilization & improvement of sound energy technologies .

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senators supported the war in Iraq at the beginning • A global & local policies for that framework • Enforcement mechanisms in place . – Majority of U.S.CONCLUDING THOUGHTS • Beware of the bandwagon/mob mentality in which all of us are vulnerable to it.

Thank You .