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Classification of Vehicles used for Roads


Introduction Types of vehicles Logistics in waste mgt Logistics @ army Famous companies.

Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one location to another. Transport is performed by modes, such as air, rail, road, water, cable, pipeline and space. The field can be divided into infrastructure, vehicles, and operations.

Roads are definitely a cost efficient and popular mode of transport. It stretches across the length and breadth of a country and can be used by different sections of society. It helps in the movement of men and material from one mode to another. It forges national unity and is instrumental in the nations socio economic development. It acts as a support system to other means of transport like railways, shipping, airways etc. Hence a well developed roadway is vital for promoting commercial interest of the country.

What Is a Vehicle?
A vehicle is any non-living device that is used to move people and goods. Unlike the infrastructure, the vehicle moves along with the cargo and riders."

Vehicle classification

Goods vehicles

Passenger vehicles

Light Intermediate Medium Light 2&3 wheelers Cars & vans Heavy Buses Medium & Heavy

Passenger vehicles

Based on capacity:
Light Medium Heavy 2 & 3 Wheelers, Cars, Mini Van (up to 15 Seater) Mini Buses (20 to 40 seater) Medium Buses(30 to 50 seater) Heavy Buses (45 to 90 seater) High Capacity buses (Double Decker, Vestibule buses, Semi/Ultra Low floor buses etc)

Light passenger vehicles are used to move less number of people over short distances. Whereas Medium and Heavy vehicles are used to move comparatively larger number of people over both short & long distances.

Light Passenger Vehicles: From 2&3 wheelers to vans....extensively used in transporting few number of people over short distances. Example: Force Traveller, Tata Winger etc.

Based on application:
Public Service Vehicles (General) Stage Carriage Contract Carriage.

Public Service Vehicles - PSV's

Public Service Vehicles are vehicles that carry passengers for a fee. These vehicles qualify for a reduced rate in tax. PSV's are separated into two categories: Large Public Service Vehicle - LPSV (Vehicle capable of carrying more that eight passengers Busses) Small Public Service Vehicle - SPSV (Vehicles capable of carrying eight passengers or less only - Taxi's, Hackney's and Limousines)

Stage Carriage: a motor vehicle carrying more than 6 persons, which carries passengers for hire or reward at separate fares paid by individuals, either for whole or for stages of journey.

All the public transport organizations including all STUs (State Transport Undertakings), Private Route bus operators etc operates under this category. The capacity of the vehicles used depend upon the passenger density, distance covered etc.

Different types of vehicles used as stage carrier

There are different types of vehicles used under this category. They may be gain classified based on their specific designs, as follows: Standard / Ordinary buses Semi-deluxe buses & Deluxe buses Luxury buses Low floor buses Tarmac Coaches Double Decker & Vestibule buses

Minibuses Semi-low flour bus

Semi-deluxe bus

Low-flour HC bus

Vestibule Bus

Contract Carriage: ...a vehicle adopted & equipped to carry passengers for hire under a contract expressed or implied for the use of the vehicle as a whole.
on a time basis whether or not with reference to any route or distance; from one point to another, and in both cases without stopping to pickup. Tourist vehicles, Staff buses, Luxury buses, School buses etc comes under this category.

Specially designed low floor buses with more standing area are used for ferrying passengers across the tarmac.

Double Decker carries more passengers occupying less space. Double Decker buses are used in higher density routes.

For long distance application ,

Buses with specific features like A/c, air suspension, rear engine, semi /sleeper seats, entertainment systems etc E.g.: Luxura, Volvo, etc. are used

Goods Vehicle
Any motor vehicle constructed and adopted for use of the carriage of goods solely or in addition to passengers.

Goods Vehicles LCV Sub one ton segment 1-7.5tonsegment

ICV( 7.5-11)
Infantry Commercial Vehicle


Multi axle trucks HCV


Goods Vehicles

Based on application:
Bulk Goods Liquid Goods Minerals, coal, cementetc. Petroleum Products, Chemicals, Water etc

Heavy Goods Light Goods

Construction Materials, Machine parts, etc Food Items, vegetables & fruitsetc.

Selection should be depends Upon qty & type of goods to be transported

Normal Trucks These are trucks of varying capacity used to transport of general goods. Some specific versions used are: High Side Deck Drop side Deck Platform type

Fire trucks

Large Container Trucks: These are large capacity trucks ranging from 10 to 31 ton GVW. They are used to carry Food Items (Non perishable), Electrical / Electronic goods, auto parts, etc

Bulker Trailers These are specially designed trailers with self dispensing systems. They are extensively used to transport large quantities of Cement, Sugar, Poultry feeds, grainsetc over large distances.

Covered body / Container Trucks:

These are usually LCV or ICV trucks used for transport of light goods over short distances. Refrigerated versions of these are used to transport FMCG, Sea Food products etc.

Rear dumpers...extensively used in mine logistic. Rugged, high capacity off-road trucks.

Transit Mixer:
These are specially designed vehicles to transport Concrete over short & long distances. Widely used in construction industry.

Logistic in waste management

Vehicles form an important part of logistics in waste management systems. There are a number of special vehicles of varying capacity used like Tippers, Dumper-placer...etc. Some others are...

Trucks mounted with self dispensing sewage suction units.

Solid waste compactor trucks.

There are a large variety of vehicles used in transport of materials across short as well as long distances. The foremost one being the Tippers. They are mainly classified based on their capacity. Example: 12, 14, 16, 20, 28 & 32 cubic capacity. Side tippers, 2 way tippers, tipper trailers etc.

Tractor Trailers:
These are the main life line of any major logistic industry. These are basically a combination of a trailer & truck (tractor). They are used to transport large quantities of any materials over large distances. They are the most economical form of transport vehicle in case of long route operation. There are various classifications: based on specification of containers 20 & 40 trailers based on structure Skeletal & Flatbed, drop side deck, tipping trailers, side tipping trailers, low-bed trailers, Lift & Shift trailers etc.

These are vehicles used in transportation of liquid goods like petroleum products, chemicals etc. Latest addition to this category is tankers with self dispensing system, mainly used to transport fuels to rural areas.

Tankers with 10-12,16-20 kiloliters capacity

1. Tanker Trucks with steel tanks are used for transporting of MILK , Water, and other edible products.

2. Specially designed tankers are used in transporting of chemicals & other explosive materials. The have additional safety equipments like pressure relief valves etc. 3. Special tankers are also used for transporting of gases like LPG, CNG, CO2, etc. These are generally articulated tank trailers.

Milk tankers

Water tankers


Military logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out
the movement and maintenance of military forces. In its most comprehensive sense, it is those aspects or military operations that deal with Design, development, acquisition, storage, distribution, maintenance, evacuation, and disposition of material. Transport of personnel. Acquisition or construction, maintenance, operation, and disposition of facilities. Acquisition or furnishing of services. Medical and health service support

Logistics @ army Types of logistics vehicles: troop carriers FAT field artillery tractor High mobility vehicles Light & heavy recovery vehicles Mobile bridges, cranes water & fuel tankers Light service vehicles etc.

Documents in transport vehicles:

Certificate of registration Permit Insurance Pollution Certificate Tax receipts Entry permits if required. Explosive licence in case of hazardous goods carrying vehicles.

World famous vehicle companies

. Some of the early Automobile Companies in India are: Hindustan Motors Premier Automobiles Tata Motors Bajaj Auto Ashok and Standard Motors

Automobile Industry in India is dominated by domestic companies like Maruti Suzuki, Tata Motors, Hero Honda, Mahindra & Mahindra, Ashok Leyland and Bajaj Auto.



(III edition)
Douglas M. Lambert , James R. Stock


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