Power Plan t Engineeri ng Nucl ear Power

Acknowledgement: Engr. M. Ali Zulquarnain Director, ROMU, AERE, BAEC

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Wh y Nu clear En erg y?
At the present consumption level, known reserves for coal, oil and gas correspond to a duration of the order of 230, 45 and 65 years.

?

Which Primary Energy Source ?

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Wh y Nuclea r En ergy?. ..
Only two natural resources have the capability to support long term energetic survival of mankind:

• Nuclear • Solar
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and

Nuclea r F uel: Ver y hig h H ea t Value
Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Firewood Brown coal Black coal (low quality) Black coal Natural Gas Crude Oil Uranium** - in light water reactor Fuel 9 13 - 20 24 - 30 39 45 - 46 500,000 Heat Value (MJ*/kg) 16

*MJ = Mega Joules, ** Natural U
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No G HGs a nd s ma ll a mo unt of wastes
Waste Produced:
Fuel Consumption:
About 3 million tonnes of coal per year

Coal plant

About 27 tonnes of UO2 per year

NPP*

7 million tonnes of gaseous & 300,000 tonnes of solid wastes per year
0.7 tonne of high level radioactive waste per year

Each 1000 MWe
*NPP: Nuclear Power Plant
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Compa rati ve carbo n emi ssi on
Source Nuclear fission Geothermal Gas Oil Coal Kilograms of carbon per MW-h produced 4 79 430 828 955
Coal-fired power station, Bombay

Source: British Royal Academy of Engineering (2006)
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Ea sy transpor ta tion of f uel
1000 MW NPP* 1000 MW Coal Fired Plant

≈ 2 tons )

………………………. ………………………. ……………………….

*NPP: Nuclear Power Plant
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30 trainloads of coal per months (260,000 tons)

Co mparative ele ct ric it y pro duct ion co st s per MW- h ( UK da ta ):
Source Nuclear fission Gas Coal On-shore wind On-shore wind with back-up Off-shore wind Off-shore wind with back-up
Source: British Royal Academy of Engineering (2006)

Cost £/MW-h 23 22 25−32 30 54 55 72

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Co mpara tive ele ct rici ty pro duct ion co st s per M W- h ( US data ):
Source Nuclear fission Coal Gas Oil Cost $/MW-h 17.2 22.1 75.1 80.9

Source: Nuclear Energy Institute (2006)

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Is Nu cl ear Ener gy Saf e?

• Maturity of technology: Nuclear power
reactors have attained maturity over 50 years of operation.

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Is Nuclea r En erg y Safe?. ..

• Multiple barriers: Multiple barriers like (1) fuel
matrix, (2) fuel cladding, (3) reactor pressure vessel as well as primary piping and (4) containment building are used to prevent any release of radioactivity into the atmosphere. The containment building contains any accidental release of radioactivity from the reactor primary cooling system.
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Mu lti ple b ar riers

Length: about 7m No. of assemblies: 190 (for a 1000MW reactor)

PWR Fuel A ss embly
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Multiple barriers…

PROTECTION AGAINST EXTERNAL HAZARDS

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Is Nuclea r En erg y Safe?. ..

• Two major accidents: Only two major
nuclear accidents occurred so far, namely the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident and in 1979 and the Chernobyl accident is 1986.

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TMI acci den t
TMI Unit-2

TMI Unit-2 Reactor:
Power: 900 MWe Type: PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) Date of accident: 28 March, 1979
Loss of life/over exposure to radiation:

None

TMI: Three Mile Island
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Note: TMI Unit-1 is a 800 MWe PWR commissioned in 1974 The reactor is still operating with very good records.

Ch er nobyl acci den t
Chernobyl Unit-4 Reactor:
Power: 1000 MWe Type: RBMK (Graphite moderated BWR) Date of accident: 26 April, 1986 Loss of life: 56 (as of today) Cases of cancer: 4000 Evacuation & resettlement: 300,000
Note: The accident produced contamination level, which was 400 times of that produced by the Hiroshima bomb. MA Islam, MED, BUET

TM I & C her nobyl ac ci den ts
Both of the accidents occurred mainly because the operators had disabled the safety systems of the reactors.

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Coal m ine acc id en t

Death of more than 25,000 people in 5 years!!

Source: http://www.china.org.cn/english/China/239291.htm MA Islam, MED, BUET

Is Nuclea r En erg y Safe?. ..

• Subsequent improvements: Lessons learned
from these two major accidents and other minor ones helped to improve both design and operational procedures of nuclear reactors.

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Is Nuclea r En erg y Safe?. ..

• Safety features: Present day nuclear reactors
incorporate unique, reliable, tested and fail-safe safety features to minimize nuclear accidents.

• Reduced accident rate: As a result, no nuclear
accident involving any significant release of radioactivity to the atmosphere took place since Chernobyl accident in 1986.

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Is Nuclea r En erg y Safe?. ..

• WANO: The World Association of Nuclear
Operators (WANO) ensures adherence to high level of safety by setting international benchmarks.

• Nuclear wastes: All high level radioactive wastes
are being stored safely. Many proposals for their safe management and disposal are now under active consideration.

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Is Nuclea r En erg y Safe?. ..
“Today, the waste disposal issue is not a technical problem but one of public and political acceptance.”
---- IAEA Bulletin, Volume 47/2, March 2006

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Is Nuclea r En erg y Safe?. ..

• 439 nuclear reactors are operating in 31
countries.

• Worldwide 12 countries are constructing
32 new nuclear power units.

• Eighteen of the reactors under

construction are of the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) type.

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Is Nuclea r En erg y Safe?. ..

• Nine countries are panning to

construct 31 more nuclear power units. whether to construct 73 more nuclear power units.

• Fifteen countries are considering

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Nuclear vs. fossil power plant
Nuclear power Fossil-fired power plant plant with pressurized water reactor

•Fossil and nuclear power plants differ in the way generating
the heat for„Nuclear reactors are the most complicated way of boiling water” (Einstein) steam turbines
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Nu cl ear React ors

What is a Nuclear Reactor?

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Nu cl ear React ors… Answer:
Nuclear Reactor is a system / device where a nuclear reaction takes place.
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Nu cl ear React ors…
Examples of Nuclear Reactors: ITER (1) Fusion Reactor

(2) Fission Reactor (3) Accelerator Driven System (ADS) OR Spallation Reactor

PWR

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Nu cl ear React ors…
1. The Sun & the Stars
Fusion Reactors) (Natural

(1)

Fusion Reactors:
100 billion X 100 billion

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Nu cl ear React ors…
(1) Fusion Reactors…: 2. ITER (International Thermonuclear
Experimental Reactor) • Construction started in France in 2006. • Cost is approximately €10 billion ($12.1 billion). • The program is anticipated to last for 30 years: 10 years for construction, and 20 years of operation. • First plasma operation is expected in 2016.
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Nu cl ear React ors…
(1) Fusion Reactors…: 2. ITER (International Thermonuclear
Experimental Reactor)…

ITER is designed to produce approximately 500 MW of fusion power that can sustain for about 500 seconds.
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Nucl ear Fissi on…
Generation-1 Neutron Generation-2 Neutron

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Nucl ear Rea ctors…
(2) Fission Reactors:
n1 ( slow) + 92 U 235  92 U 236*  40 Zr 98 + 52Te136 + 2n + Energy → → 0
Gen-2 Gen-3

(200 Mev)

U238

E = mc
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U235
Natural abundance U-isotopes: (c) (d) U-238 : 99.3% U-235 : 0.7%

2

Energy / fission: 200 MeV (≈ 1 MWD / g) No. of neutrons / fission: 2.43

Nucl ear r ea ctor oper ation princ iple ...

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Nucl ear r ea ctor oper ation princ iple ...
Ho w a F issi on React or Wo rks?
• A Super Critical Assembly (SCA) of fissile material (U-235, U-233 & Pu-239) is made Sub-critical by inserting neutron absorber materials (Cd, C, B, etc.) in it. The neutron absorber materials are known as the Control Rods. The SCA along with the Control
Rods is known as the Reactor Core.

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Nucl ear r ea ctor oper ation princ iple ...
Ho w a F issi on React or Wo rks?...
• When the Control Rods (CRs) are gradually withdrawn from the reactor core in presence of a neutron source, Criticality is achieved. Further withdrawal of the CRs makes the core super critical and help increase the power level of the reactor.

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Ho w a F issi on React or Wo rks?...
• Reactor power level decreases when the Control Rods (CRs) are gradually inserted into the core. Total insertion of the CRs makes the reactor sub-critical. And we call that the reactor is in shutdown condition.

Nucl ear r ea ctor oper ation princ iple ...

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Typ es o f R eac tor
Purpose: 2. Power Reactors 3. Research Reactors
Coolant / Moderator:

2. 3. 4.

Light Water Reactors Heavy Water Reactors Gas Cooled Reactor

Energy of ‘n’ causing fission:

• Thermal Reactor (E ≈ 0.025 eV) • Fast Reactors (E ≥ 1.0 MeV)
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Typ es of React or…
Power Reactors: • LWRs (Light Water Reactors)
Reactor)

– PWR (Pressurised Water – BWR (Boiling Water Reactor)
-- Russian RMBK Reactor

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Typ es of React or…
Power Reactors…:

• PHWR (Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor)
OR CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium)

• HTGR (High Temperature Gas Cooled
Reactor)

• LMFBR (Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder
Reactor)
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Typ es of React or…
PWR :

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PWR: Pressurized Water Reactor

Types of Reactor…
Sectio nal View o f a PWR

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PWR: Pressurized Water Reactor

Typ es of React or…
PWR …:
Dimensions of a typical PWR reactor pressure vessel:
Height Diameter Wall : 15 m (49 ft) : 5 m (16 ft) : 25 cm (10 in) thick steel

Containment : 1 m thick concrete (steel lined) Core loading : 82 tons of UO2 Pressure (Pri.) : 2250 psig (158 Atmos )
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PWR: Pressurized Water Reactor

Typ es of React or…
PWR …:

Arrangements of RPV, Steam Generators, Primary pumps, Pressurizer, etc.
RPV: Reactor Pressure Vessel

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Typ es of React or…
BWR :

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BWR: Boiling Water Reactor

Typ es of React or…
PH WR / C AN PHWR: DU:

Fuel Bundle

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PHWR: Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor

Typ es of React or…
Dis tri but io n of wo rl d’s 439 reactors amo ng t he R eactor Ty pes me ntio ned:
Reactor Type PWR BWR PHWR HTGR RBMK LMFBR TOTAL
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Qty. % of Total : 266 (61%) : 94 : 40 : 23 : 12 : 04 : 439 (21%) (09%) (05%) (03%) (01%)

Status of NPPs: World Perspective

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Status of NPPs: World Perspective…

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Co ntri butio n of NP P* to Ele ct ri c Power P roduct ion

% of total production : 16%

16%

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*NPP: Nuclear Power Plant

NP Ps in Operati on

CANDU Reactors at Pickering, Canada

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NP Ps in Oper ati on…
Diablo Canyon - CA

PWRs in Diablo Canyon - CA , the USA
PWR: Pressurized Water Reactor

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CANDU at Qinshan, China

NP Ps in Oper ati on…

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NP Ps in Oper ati on…
A BWR in Japan

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NP Ps in Opera ti on…

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Generations of Nuclear Reactors
Generation III+ Generation III Generation I Early Prototypes Generation II Advanced LWRs Commercial Power Evolutionary Designs

Generation IV Revolutionary Designs

- Shippingport - Dresden - Magnox

- PWRs - BWRs - CANDU

- CANDU 6 - System 80+ - AP600

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

- ABWR - ACR1000 - AP1000 - APWR - EPR - ESBWR 2010 2020

- Safe - Sustainable - Economical - Proliferation

Resistant and Physically Secure

2030

Gen I
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Gen II

Gen III

Gen III+

Gen IV

http://www.gen-4.org/Technology/evolution.htm

Ge nera tion-III + React ors
Advan ced Pas sive Rea ctor

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Ge nera tion III+ React ors…
Advanced Re actors : AP10 00
Pa ss ive) (Adv anc ed

Features:
– Light water reactor (LWR) – Passive systems (gravity, natural circulation, compressed gas, etc.) ensures safety – 36 month construction period – 60 years design life

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Wast e Man ag em en t

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Waste Management…
146 t

Nuc lear Fuel Cyc le

1000 MW NPP

Yellow Cake

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Nu cle ar Fuel Cyc le
UO2

UF6 U3O8

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Conten ts of fresh & spen t fuel s
Fresh Fuel Spent Fuel

Contents U-238 U-235 FP Pu U-236 TUE Total (kg):

Fresh Fuel 967 33

Spent Fuel 943.00 8.00 35.00 8.75 4.60 0.65

• More than 99% of the radioactivity produced during the fission reaction is retained in the fuel rods. • The balance 1% is within the reactor structure.
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1000

1000.00

FP: Fission Products; TUE: Transuranic elements

Wast e M an ag em en t…
Contents of Spent Fuel

• 96% U (w/EL at about 0.8%) • 3% Fission Products (FPs) • 1% Pu & Minor Actinides (MA)
EL: Enrichment Level
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Wast e M an ag em en t…
How much wastes are produced per year from a 1000 MW NPP?

• • • • •

27t of high level waste; if reprocessed, this gives 3m3 or 8t of wastes to be disposed of. 300t of intermediate level of waste. 450t of low level waste.

Coal fired plant with best available pollution abatement: 6.5Mt of CO2; 20,000t of SO2; 4,000t of NO2 300,000t of ash; 400t of heavy metals including Hg, Cd, Pb, As, and Vd (Vanadium).

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Wast e M an ag em en t…
Three general principles employed in the management of radioactive wastes:

• • •
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Concentrate-and-contain. Dilute-and-disperse. Delay-and-decay.

Wast e M an ag em en t…
Concentrate-and-contain

• This block contains material
chemically identical to vitrified highlevel waste from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel.

• A piece of this size would contain the
total high-level waste arising from nuclear electricity generation for one person throughout a normal lifetime.
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Wast e M an ag em en t…
Concentrate-and-contain…

• High level wastes can be stored in
repositories for hundreds of years.

• Egyptian pyramids survived for
several thousands years. So, with the modern technology, it is quite possible to build structures that can survive even for longer period of time.

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Wast e M an ag em en t…
Delay-and-decay

• After 50 years, the spent fuel
removed from a reactor has less than one thousandth of its initial radioactivity.

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Wast e M an ag em en t…
Delay-and-decay…

• Even after one year, typical spent
fuel generates decay heat at a rate of about 10 kW/t.

• After ten years the decay heat rate
decreases to about 1 kW/t.
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Wast e M an ag em en t…

Wet Storage Facility for the Spent Fuels
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Spent fu el st ora ge…
Dry Storage for Spent Fuel at Reactor Site

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Wast e M an ag em en t…

Transportation of Spent Fuel back to the country of origin after 10-30 years of cooling
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What is Radiation?
 Atoms are the building blocks of all material. If atoms contain excess energy, they are unstable. Materials that are composed of unstable atoms will naturally emit radiation in order to release the excess energy and reach a stable state. The radiation is emitted in waves or particles of energy. Thus radiation can be defined as energy emitted from the nucleus of unstable atoms in the form of particles or waves.  Radiation is not new or limited to nuclear power plants. Each of us is exposed to some radiation every moment of our lives from radioactive materials that exist in nature.

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Natural Radiation
 Natural radiation is a by-product of processes and materials created when the earth was formed. The sun on which we all depend for heat and light produces very highly charged particles called cosmic rays. We are exposed continuously to this radiation every day.  Not many people realize that we all have radiation sources within our bodies, usually in the form of potassium. Radioactive potassium occurs naturally in the earth and is therefore present in trace amounts in the food we eat and the water we drink.

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Natural Radiation….
 Additionally, radioactivity from uranium and thorium is found in rocks and soil. For example, radon gas is a source of radiation that results from the decay of uranium found in the earth. Radon gas has recently been identified as a concern because it can penetrate through the foundation of homes. Recent studies show that radon gas contributes more than half of our radiation exposure each year.

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Man-Made Radiation
 X-ray machines are used for dental and medical purposes, television sets are used for entertainment and microwave ovens are used to cook foods.  Nuclear power plants use the energy of radiation to convert water to steam, which is then used to generate electricity.

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Measuring Radiation
 Each type of radiation has somewhat different characteristics. It is possible to measure the biological effects of the different types of radiation in terms of a unit of exposure called a "rem". This is a relatively large unit, so the biological effects of radiation are described in millirem, which are a thousand times smaller than a rem.  Radiation measurement techniques are highly advanced and can detect small changes in the environmental radiation level. Results of extensive environmental radiation monitoring confirm that routine plant operation does not contribute a significant amount of radiation exposure.

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Measuring Radiation….
 People living near a NPP receive less than one millirem a year due to the plant's operation. This compares to the 360 millirem of exposure received annually from natural background radiation and other man-made sources.  Since every living thing on earth has been continuously exposed to radiation, such exposure is normal. The level of exposure from natural radiation and man-made sources is considered very low-level exposure.  Scientists continue to study the risks associated with low-level radiation exposure to determine its effects on humans. The studies show that negative health effects caused by low-level exposures cannot be distinguished from those caused by other environmental hazards. After more than 80 years of study, radiation is readily detected, understood and strictly regulated.
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