By K Eugine Raj AP/SCAD Engg College

 Switching

in the data communication physical layer is mainly done by three category.  Circuit switching is used in public telephone networks and is the basis for private networks.  Packet switching was designed to provide a more efficient circuit switching for bursty data traffic.












X. .25 is an ITU-T standard that specifies an interface between a host system and a packet-switching network.25  X.

 The traditional approach to packet switching makes use of X.FRAME RELAY  Frame relay is designed to provide a more efficient transmission scheme than X. .25.  The standards for frame relay entered in the market before ATM had arrived.25.

 Frame relay is designed to eliminate much of the overhead that X. eliminating one entire layer of processing  No hop-by-hop flow control and error control .  Call control signaling  Multiplexing and switching of logical connections takes place at layer 2 instead of layer 3.25 packet-switching service are.  Differences between frame relay and a conventional X.25 imposes on end user systems and on the packet-switching network.


LAPD (Q. between user (TE) and network (NT). with error control and flow control.933 control signaling messages.  At the data link layer. in that a separate logical channel is used for control information.921) is used to provide a reliable data link control service.CONTROL PLANE  It offers similar service to that of a common channel signaling for circuit-switching services.  This data link service is used for the exchange of Q. .

922.USER PLANE  For the actual transfer of information between end users. the userplane protocol is LAPF (Link Access Procedure for Frame Mode Bearer Services). . which is defined in Q.

USER DATA TRANSFER  The operation of frame relay for user data transfer is best explained by considering the frame format. illustrated in Figure .



is a streamlined packet transfer interface.  ATM makes use of fixed-size packets, called cells.  The use of a fixed size and fixed format results in an efficient scheme for transmission over high-speed networks.  ATM provides both real-time and non-real-time services.  An ATM based network can support a wide range of traffic, include synchronous TDM streams


 User

plane: Provides for user information transfer, along with associated controls (e.g., flow control, error control)  Control plane: Performs call control and connection control functions  Management plane: Includes plane management and layer management.


 A VCC is set up between two end users through the network and a variable-rate.  For ATM. fullduplex flow of fixed-size cells is exchanged over the connection. a second sublayer of processing has been introduced that deals with the concept of virtual path.  A virtual path connection (VPC) is a bundle of VCCs that have the same end points. .ATM LOGICAL CONNECTIONS  Logical connections in ATM are referred to as virtual channel connections (VCCs).

ADVANTAGES  Simplified network architecture  Increased network performance and reliability  Reduced processing and short connection setup time  Enhanced network services .

 Between an end user and a network entity  Between two network entities .VIRTUAL CHANNEL CONNECTION USES  The endpoints of a VCC may be end users. network entities.  Between end users. or an end user and a network entity.

 Cell sequence integrity.  Traffic parameter negotiation and usage monitoring.  Switched and semipermanent virtual channel connections.VIRTUAL PATH/VIRTUAL CHANNEL CHARACTERISTICS  Quality of service (QoS).  Virtual channel identifier restriction within a VPC .

consisting of a 5-octet header and a 48-octet information field.  First. it appears that fixed-size cells can be switched more efficiently. fixed-size cells are. .  Second. the use of small cells may reduce queuing delay.  Advantages of using small.ATM CELLS  The asynchronous transfer mode makes use of fixed-size cells.


 The Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) constitutes a routing field for the network.HEADER FORMAT  The Generic Flow Control (GFC) field appear in the cell header at the usernetwork interface.  It is 8 bits at the user-network interface and 12 bits at the network-network interface. it can be used for control of cell flow only at the local user-network interface.  Hence. .

 The Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI) is used for routing to and from the end user.  The Payload Type (PT) field indicates the type of information in the information Field. .  The Cell Loss Priority (CLP) bit is used to provide guidance to the network in the event of congestion.  The Header Error Control (HEC) field is used for both error control and synchronization. as explained subsequently.



including real-time flows such as voice.  Each data flow is handled within the network depends on the characteristics of the traffic flow and the requirements of the application. . and bursty TCP flows.ATM SERVICE CATEGORIES  An ATM network is designed to be able to transfer many different types of traffic simultaneously. video.

ATM SERVICE CATEGORIES  Real-Time Service —Constant bit rate (CBR) —Real-time variable bit rate (rt-VBR)  Non-Real-Time Service —Non-real-time variable bit rate (nrtVBR) —Available bit rate (ABR) —Unspecified bit rate (UBR) —Guaranteed frame rate (GFR) .

For example.REAL-TIME SERVICES  In real time applications a flow of information to a user that is intended to reproduce that flow at a source. a user expects a flow of audio or video information. .  Constant Bit Rate (CBR) The CBR service is perhaps the simplest service to define.  CBR is commonly used for uncompressed audio and video information.

telephony) • Audio/video distribution (e.g. television. audio library) .. distance learning.g. pay-perview) • Audio/video retrieval (e. video-ondemand..CONSTANT BIT RATE  CBR applications include • Videoconferencing • Interactive audio (e..g.

 Statistically multiplex a number of connections over the same dedicated capacity .  For example. the standard approach to video compression results in a sequence of image frames of varying sizes.REAL-TIME VARIABLE BIT RATE (RT-VBR)  The rt-VBR category is intended for timesensitive applications.  Because real-time video requires a uniform frame transmission rate. the actual data rate varies.

are that .NON-REAL-TIME SERVICES Non-real-time services intended for applications have bursty traffic.

.  Examples include airline reservations.  Such applications can use the nrt-VBR service. and process monitoring. banking transactions.NON-REAL-TIME VARIABLE BIT RATE (NRT-VBR)  For some non-real-time applications. it is possible to characterize the expected traffic flow so that the network can provide substantially improved QoS in the areas of loss and delay.

. a certain amount of the capacity of an ATM network is consumed in carrying CBR and the two types of VBR traffic. and  (2) the bursty nature of VBR traffic means that at some times less than the committed capacity is being used.  Additional capacity is available for one or both of the following reasons:  (1) Not all of the total resources have been committed to CBR and VBR traffic.UNSPECIFIED BIT RATE (UBR)  At any given time.

g.  This service is suitable for applications that can tolerate variable delays and some cell losses.  Examples of UBR applications include • Text/data/image transfer. messaging. telecommuting) . retrieval • Remote terminal (e. which is typically true of TCP-based traffic. distribution. All of this unused capacity could be made available for the UBR service..

 An application using ABR specifies a peak cell rate (PCR) that it will use and a minimum cell rate (MCR) that it requires. the ABR service has been defined.AVAILABLE BIT RATE (ABR)  To improve the service provided to bursty sources that would otherwise use UBR. .

 A major goal of GFR is to optimize the handling of frame-based traffic that passes from a LAN through a router onto an ATM backbone network. including IP and Ethernet.GUARANTEED FRAME RATE (GFR)  The most recent addition to the set of ATM service categories is GFR. .  GFR provides better service than UBR for frame-based traffic. which is designed specifically to support IP backbone subnetworks.

3 standard. the CSMA/CD MAC protocol is used. known as Ethernet.  For the lower data rates. 1 Gbps.HIGH SPEED LANS  The IEEE 802. a switched technique is used. .  For the 1-Gbps and 10-Gbps options. now encompasses data rates of 10 Mbps. 100 Mbps. and 10 Gbps.

ETHERNET The most widely used high-speed LANs today are based on Ethernet and were developed by the IEEE 802. .3 standards committee.

. Ethernet-compatible LAN operating at 100 Mbps.3 committee to provide a low-cost.IEEE 802.3 100-MBPS SPECIFICATIONS (FAST ETHERNET)  Fast Ethernet refers to a set of specifications developed by the IEEE 802.

 As more organizations move to 100BASE-T. demand for Gigabit Ethernet has intensified.  It is compatible with 100BASE-T and 10BASE-T. . preserving a smooth migration path.  Gigabit Ethernet retains the CSMA/CD protocol and Ethernet format of its 10-Mbps and 100Mbps predecessors. putting huge traffic loads on backbone networks.GIGABIT ETHERNET  The strategy for Gigabit Ethernet is the same as that for Fast Ethernet.


 A number of factors contribute to the explosive growth in both Internet and intranet traffic.10-GBPS ETHERNET  The principle driving requirement for 10 Gigabit Ethernet is the increase in Internet and intranet traffic. .


FIBRE CHANNEL  Fibre Channel is designed to combine the best features of both technologies the simplicity and speed of channel communications with the flexibility and interconnectivity that characterize protocol-based network communications. .



nomadic access.WIRELESS LANS Wireless LAN is one that makes use of a wireless transmission medium. cross building interconnect. Wireless LAN Applications LAN extension. . and ad hoc networks.






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