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Fuels and Combustion

S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg.


Fuels & Combustion
ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Applied Thermodynamics II
S.Y. B. Tech.
ME0207 SEM IV
Mechanical Engineering

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg.
Outline
Types of Fuels,
Higher Calorific value and Lower Calorific value,
Calorimeters to measure the calorific values Bomb and
Boys calorimeters.
Calorific value at constant pressure and constant volume.
Combustion reactions- Mass and Volume basis,
Stoichiometric Air : Fuel ratio,
Exhaust Gas Analysis Orsat Apparatus and Gas Chromatography.
Actual A/F ratio, Excess Air supplied.
Gravimetric analysis and volumetric analysis.
ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Introduction
Fuel : A Combustible Substance, containing Carbon as a mail constituent, which, on
proper burning, releases large amount of heat, that can be used for domestic
and industrial purposes.
Combustion : The atoms of Carbon, Hydrogen, etc. combine with atoms of Oxygen,
and Liberate Heat at a Rapid Rate, due to Rearrangement Of Valence
Electrons, i.e. forming New Compounds.
Heat Products Oxygen Fuels + +

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Classification of Fuels
Fuels
Primary Fuels Secondary Fuels
Natural Fuels Derived Fuels
Liquid Solid Gaseous
Crude
Oil
Wood,
Coal,
Lignite
Natural
Gas
Liquid
Solid Gaseous
Petrol,
Kerosene,
Diesel
Coke,
Charcoal
Coal Gas,
Water Gas,
Bio Gas

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Liquid Fuels
Usage
Used extensively in Industrial Applications.
Examples
Furnace Oil
Light Diesel Oil
Petrol
Kerosene
Ethanol
LSHS (Low Sulphur Heavy Stock)

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Liquid Fuels Properties
A. Density : Ratio of the Fuel Mass to its Volume @ 15 C,
Unit : ( kg / m
3
)
Useful for determining Fuel Quantity And Quality.
B. Sp. Gravity : Ratio of the Weight of Oil Volume to the Weight of
Equal Water Volume @ given temperature.
Specific Gravity of Water = 1!!
Measured by using Hydrometer.
Fuel oil type LDO
(Light Diesel Oil)
Furnace oil LSHS
(Low Sulphur Heavy Stock)
Specific
Gravity
0.85-0.87 0.89-0.95 0.88-0.98

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Liquid Fuels Properties
C. Viscosity : Measure of Fuels Internal Resistance to Flow.
Most important Characteristic for Storage and Use.
as Temperature .
D. Flash Point : Lowest Temperature at which a fuel can be heated so that the
Vapour Gives off Flashes when an Open Flame passes over it.
Flash point of Furnace Oil = 66
o
C
E. Pour Point : Lowest Temperature at which a fuel can Flow.
Indication of temperature at which Fuel can be Pumped.


Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Liquid Fuels Properties
F. Sp. Heat : kJ needed to raise temperature of 1 kg of Oil by 1

C.
Unit : ( kJ / kg. C )
Indication of the Energy Required to Heat the given Quantity
of Oil to a Desired Temperature.
G. Calorific Value : Total Quantity of Heat Liberated, when a Unit Mass of Fuel
Burns Completely.
Unit : ( kJ / kg ).Solid & Liquid Fuels.
( kJ / m
3
).Gaseous Fuels
Useful for determining Fuel Quantity And Quality.

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Liquid Fuels Properties
Higher Calorific Value (HCV) :
Total Amount of Heat produced when Unit Mass of Fuel is Burnt
Completely, and the Products of Combustion are Cooled to Ambient
Temperature.
i.e. Vapour Content in the Products of Combustion are Fully Condensed.
If C Carbon %, H Hydrogen %, O Oxygen %, S Sulphur % :
(

- +
|
.
|

\
|
- + - =
kg
kJ
S
O
H C HCV 9160
8
000 , 43 , 1 000 , 35
100
1

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Liquid Fuels Properties
Lower Calorific Value (LCV) :
Total Amount of Heat produced when Unit Mass of Fuel is Burnt
Completely, and the Products of Combustion are Permitted to Escape.
(

- - =
kg
kJ
H HCV LCV 2460
100
9
If C Carbon %, H Hydrogen %, O Oxygen %, S Sulphur % :

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Liquid Fuels Properties
H. Sulphur Content : Depends Largely on Source of Crude Oil and Less on
the Refining Process.
Furnace Oil : 2 4 % Sulphur
Sulphuric Acid Corrosion!!
I. Ash Content : Inorganic Materials in Fuels.
Typically, 0.03 0.07 %.
Corrosion of Burner Tips and Materials / Equipments
Damage @ High Temperatures.

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Liquid Fuels Properties
J. Carbon Residue : Tendency of Oil to Deposit a Carbonaceous Solid Residue
on a Hot Surface.
Residual Oil : > 1 % Carbon Residue
K. Water Content : Normally Low in Furnace Oil ( < 1 % @ Refinery).
Available in Free / Emulsified Form
Can Damage Furnace Surface and Impact Flame.

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Properties
Fuel Oils
Furnace Oil L.S.H.S L.D.O
Density (Approx. g/cc at 15 C) 0.89-0.95 0.88-0.98 0.85-0.87
Flash Point (C) 66 93 66
Pour Point (C) 20 72 18
HCV (MJ/kg) 43.95 44.34 44.8
Sediment, % Wt. Max. 0.25 0.25 0.1
Sulphur Total, % Wt. Max. < 4.0 < 0.5 < 1.8
Water Content, % Vol. Max. 1.0 1.0 0.25
Ash, % Wt. Max. 0.1 0.1 0.02
Typical Specifications of Fuel Oils :
(Adapted From Thermax India Ltd.)
Liquid Fuels Properties

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Solid Fuels
Solid Fuels
Anthracite
Bituminous Lignite
Hard,
Geologically the Oldest
Soft Coal,
Geologically the Youngest
Sub Classification : 1. Semi Anthracite,
2. Semi Bituminous,
3. Sub Bituminous, etc.

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Solid Fuels Properties
Physical Properties : Calorific Values (HCV / LCV).
Moisture Content.
Volatile Matter.
Ash Content.
Chemical Properties : Chemical Contents of :
Carbon,
Hydrogen,
Oxygen,
Sulphur.

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Solid Fuels Properties
Higher Calorific Values :
Parameter Lignite
(Dry Basis)
Indian
Coal
Indonesian
Coal
South African
Coal
HCV (MJ/kg) 18.84 16.74 21.0 25.1
A. Moisture Content : % of Moisture in Fuel ( < 0.5 10 % ).
Heating Value of Fuel.
Results in Weight Loss from Heated and then Cooled
Powdered Raw Coal.
B. Fixed Carbon : Fixed Carbon = 100 ( Moisture + Volatile Matter + Ash )
Carbon + (H
2
, O
2
, S, N
2
Residues).
Responsible for Heat Generation during Combustion.

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
C. Volatile Matter : Methane (CH
3
), Hydrocarbons (HC), Hydrogen (H
2
),
Carbon Monoxide (CO), etc.
Typically 25 35 %.
Easy Ignition with Volatile Matter.
Results in Weight Loss from Heated and then Cooled
Crushed Coal.
Solid Fuels Properties
D. Ash Content : Impurity that will NOT Burn.
Typically 5 40 %.
Important for Design of Furnaces.
Ash Residue after Combustion.

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
1. Proximate Analysis : Determines only Fixed Carbon, Volatile Matter,
Moisture and Ash.
Useful to Find HCV.
Simple Analysis Equipment.
2. Ultimate Analysis : Determines all of Coal Component :
i.e. C, H
2
, O
2
, S, and others.
Useful for Furnace Design
(Flame Temp + Flue Duct Design)
Laboratory Analysis.
Solid Fuels Analysis

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Solid Fuels Composition
Fuel Moisture in
Dried Sample
(ppm)
C
(%)
H
(%)
N
(%)
O
(%)

Calorific Value
(MJ / kg)
Wood 25 50 6 0.5 43.5 16.7 18.8
Peat 25 57 5.7 2 35.3 17.3 22.6
Lignite 20 67 5 1.5 20.6 27.2 29.7
Bituminous 4 83 5 2 10 33.5 35.6
Anthracite 1.5 93 3 0.7 3 36.2 36.5

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Gaseous Fuels
Advantages of Gaseous Fuels : Least amount of Handling.
Simplest Burners Systems.
Least Maintenance.
Environmental Benefits : Lowest Emissions.
Gaseous Fuels
Naturally Found
From Solid Fuel From Petroleum
Natural Gas,
Methane, etc.
LPG, Refinery Gas,
Oil Gasification
From Coal,
From Biomass,
From Industrial Wastes
From Chemical
Fermentation
Processes

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Gaseous Fuels Properties
LPG : Propane + Butane + Unsaturates,
Lighter C
2
and Heavier C
5
Fractions
LPG Vapour is Denser than Air!!
Safety Issues : Leaking Gases can flow to Long Distances.
LNG : Methane (CH
4
) of 95 %.
Remaining 5 % (Ethane + Propane + Butane + Pentane + Nitrogen +
Carbon Dioxide + other gases.
High Calorific Value.
No requirement for Storage Facility.
No Sulphur Content.
Readily mixes with Air without Smoke / Soot.

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Fuel Gas Relative
Density
Higher Heating
Value
(MJ / Nm
3
)
Air / Fuel
Ratio
(m
3
/ m
3
)
Flame
Temp.
(
o
C)
Flame
speed
(m / sec)
Natural Gas 0.6 39.14 10 1954 0.290
Propane 1.52 93.0 25 1967 0.460
Butane 1.96 119.3 32 1973 0.870
Fuel Oil Coal Natural Gas
Carbon 84 41.11 74
Hydrogen 12 2.76 25
Sulphur 3 0.41 -
Oxygen 1 9.89 Trace
Nitrogen Trace 1.22 0.75
Ash Trace 38.63 -
Water Trace 5.98 -
Gaseous Fuels Properties & Comparison

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Liquid Fuels V/s. Solid Fuels
Advantages of Liquid Fuels over Solid Fuels :
1. Higher Calorific Values.
2. Economy in Space.
3. Cleanliness of the Surrounding.
4. Easy Control in Combustion.
5. Elimination of Wear & Tear of Grate.
6. Easy Handling and Supply.
7. Easy Starting and Stopping.

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Gaseous Fuels V/s. Solid Fuels
Advantages of Gaseous Fuels over Solid Fuels :
1. Easy Production and Distribution.
2. Remote and Easy Control on Combustion.
3. Easy in Smoke and Ash Disposal.
4. Cleanliness.
5. Gasification helps for Reuse of Low Grade Solid Fuels.
6. Complete Combustion without Pollution is possible.

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Calorimeters
Calorimeter :
Device used for Calorimetry,
i.e. Science of Measuring The Heat of Chemical reaction (or Physical
Changes) as well as Heat Capacity.
Calorimeter : Calor (Latin) meaning Heat!!
Simple Calorimeter : Thermometer attached to an Insulated Container.
Enthalpy Change, H per mole of A
in a Reaction between A and B
Initial and Final Temperatures, T.
T C m Q Energy
p
A - - = ,
moles of No
Q
mole per H
.
= A

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Bomb Calorimeter
The BOMB inside is a Steel
Vessel, capable of withstanding
High Pr. ( @ 100 atm ) of the inside
gas.
It should also capable to withstand
the Explosive Forces of the
Burning Reagents after Bombing.
BOMB Rigid Vessel.
Const. Vol. Calorimeter!!

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Principle :
A Known Mass of Fuel is Burnt.
The Quantity of Heat Liberated is
Absorbed in Water.
Thus, Quantity of Heat Produced
per Unit Mass is calculated.
Bomb Calorimeter

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Bomb Calorimeter
Heat Balance :
Heat given by the Fuel due to Combustion
+ Heat given by the Combustion of the
Fuse Wire
= Heat absorbed by the Water + Bomb
Calorimeter.
T C m m CV m HCV m
P c f fw f
A + = - + - ) ( ) ( ) (

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Bomb Calorimeter
T C m m CV m HCV m
P c f fw f
A + = - + - ) ( ) ( ) (
Fuel of Mass m
f
=
Wire Fuse of Mass m
fw
=
r Calorimete in Water of Mass m
w
=
r Calorimete of Equivalent Water m
c
=
Rise e Temperatur Water T = A
Fuel of Value Calorific Higher HCV =
Wire Fuse of Value Calorific CV =
f
fw P c f
m
CV m T C m m
HCV
) ( ) ( - A +
=

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Bomb Calorimeter
Water Equivalent of Calorimeter :
Burning a Fuel of Known Calorific Value.
Standard Fuels :
1. Benzoic Acid (CV = 111.2 MJ / kg)
2. Naphthalene (CV = 170.32 MJ / kg)
To avoid Radiation Losses;
T is Restricted to 3 C.

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Boys Gas Calorimeter
Used to measure CV of Gaseous Fuel.
Gaseous Fuel + Air mixture flows down from
the Top of the Container .
Gas Supply with
Flow Measurement
Cooling Coil
Condensate Flow
Cooling Water In
Cooling Water Out
Burner
Container
Air
Steam in the exhaust, due to the Combustion
of H
2
, Condenses over the Cooling Coils.
Outer Casing of the Container is Insulated,
to avoid Radiation Losses.

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Boys Gas Calorimeter
]. [
3
g'
m consumed, Gas of Vol. V =
]. [kg , circulated Water of Mass m
w
=
]. [ . C , circulated Water of Rise Temp T
w
= A
] [ water of cm
, Atmosphere above Gas of r. P h
w
=
] [ water of cm Pr. Barometer h
b
=
]. [ C supplied, Gas of Temp. T
g'
=
760
6 . 13
15 . 273
'
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
- - =
w
b
g
g g
h
h
T
V V
.@ NTP

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Boys Gas Calorimeter
760
6 . 13
15 . 273
'
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
- - =
w
b
g
g g
h
h
T
V V
( )
g
w p w
V
T C m
HCV
A
=
( )
w p w g
T C m HCV V A =
Energy Balance :

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Principles of Combustion
Combustion : Rapid Oxidation of a Fuel!!
Carbon : (a) CO
2

(b) CO
Complete Combustion : Total Oxidation of Fuel
i.e. Adequate Supply of Oxygen required.
Air : 20.9% Oxygen, 79% Nitrogen + others (by vol.)
Nitrogen : (a) Combustion Efficiency.
(b) Forms NO
x
@ High Temperatures.
Heat Production
}

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
3 Ts for Combustion Optimization :
1T) Temperature
2T) Turbulence
3T) Time
Principles of Combustion
Water Vapor :
1. By Product of burning Fuel having H
2
.
2. Heat from the Flue Gases.
Oxygen : Key To Combustion!!

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Principles of Combustion
Stoichiometric Air : Fuel Ratio : Perfect Amount of Oxygen
for Complete Combustion of Fuel!!
Rich Mixture : Excess Fuel!!
Lean Mixture : Excess Air (or Oxygen)!! O
2
in Exhaust!!
CO in Exhaust!!

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Combustion
C, H
2
, S + O Combustion + Heat
2 2
CO O C +
A. Carbon Carbon Dioxide :
) 44 ( ) 32 ( ) 12 ( kg kg kg .Mole. Wt. basis
2
CO of kg O of kg
3
8
C of kg 1
3
11
2
= +
CO 2 O C +
2
2
B. Carbon Carbon Monoxide :
) 56 ( ) 32 ( ) 24 ( kg kg kg .Mole. Wt. basis
CO of kg O of kg
3
4
C of kg 1
3
7
2
= +

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Combustion
2 2
2 CO 2 O CO +
C. Carbon Monoxide Carbon Dioxide :
) 88 ( ) 32 ( ) 56 ( kg kg kg .Mole. Wt. basis
2
CO of kg O of kg
7
4
CO of kg 1
7
11
2
= +
O 2H O H
2 2 2
2 +
D. Hydrogen Water / Steam :
) 36 ( ) 32 ( ) 4 ( kg kg kg .Mole. Wt. basis
O H O of kg H
2 2 2
of kg 9 8 of kg 1 = +

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Combustion
2 2
O S O S +
E. Sulphur Sulphur Dioxide :
) 64 ( ) 32 ( ) 32 ( kg kg kg .Mole. Wt. basis
2 2 2
of kg 2 1 of kg 1 SO O of kg H = +

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels
O H q CO p O y H C x
n n 2 2 2 2 2
+ +
+
.where x, y, p, & q are Const.
( ) O H n CO n O
n
H C
n n 2 2 2 2 2
1
2
1 3
+ +
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
Solving for x, y, p, & q in terms of n :
( ) O H CO O H C
2 2 2 22 10
11 10
2
1 30
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ e.g. for n = 10 :
O H CO O H C
2 2 2 22 10
22 20 31 2 + +

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Stoichiometric Combustion
Oxygen per kg of Fuel,
for Complete Combustion :
(

+
|
.
|

\
|
+ S
O
H C
8
8
2
8
100
1
Air contains 23 % by mass of Oxygen.
kg of Air required, per kg of Fuel,
for Complete Combustion : 23
100
8
8
2
8
100
1

+
|
.
|

\
|
+ S
O
H C
(

+
|
.
|

\
|
+ S
O
H C
8
8
2
8
23
1

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Orsat Apparatus
Used for Volumetric Analysis of Dry Flue Gases.
3 Flasks for the Selective
Absorption of CO
2
, O
2
and CO.
May have 4
th
Flasks with
Calcium Chloride / Silica Gel to
make the Incoming Flue Gases
Completely Dry.
% N
2
= 100 (% CO
2
+ % O
2
+ % CO)

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Orsat Apparatus
Flask A Solution : NaOH +KOH
1 part of KOH
+ 2 parts of Water, by wt.
CO
2
Absorption.
Flask B Solution : Pyrogalic Acid
5 gm Pyrogalic Acid in 15 cc Water
+ 120 gm KOH in 80 cc Water.
O
2
Absorption.
Flask C Solution : Cuprous Chloride
CuO dissolved in 20 times by wt.
of Conc. HCL till Colourless.
CO Absorption.

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Orsat Apparatus
Initially, all 3 Valves, x, y & z Closed.
3 Way Valve is Open. Aspirator Bottle moved
on to fill the Eudiometer till ZERO Mark w.r.t.
Outside Water Level.
Valves
Flue Gas
Inlet
3 Way Valve
Aspirator
Bottle
Eudiometer
3 Way Valve is Closed. Valve x for Flask A
Opened. Aspirator Bottle moved up-and-down
for Complete Absorption of CO
2
in the Flask.
Aspirator Bottle lowered for Flue Gases to come
back to Eudiometer. Valve x for Flask A Closed.
Aspirator Bottle set such that Eudiometer Mark
matches with Water Level.
h for Eudiometer Mark % CO
2
.

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Orsat Apparatus
Process repeated in Flask B for O
2
and Flask C
for CO.
Remainder % N
2
.
Valves
Flue Gas
Inlet
3 Way Valve
Aspirator
Bottle
Eudiometer
Order for Selective Absorption : 1. CO
2
.
2. O
2
.
3. CO
Order for Selective Absorption
type of Absorber implemented.
Eudiometer Capacity = 100 cc
Water Bath : To maintain Temp. Const.

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Orsat Apparatus

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Example 1
A coal sample has a following composition by mass :
C = 90 %, H = 3 %, S = 1 %, O = 2 %, N = 2 %, and the remaining is ash.
Find the HCV and LCV of the fuel.
(

=
+ + =
(

- +
|
.
|

\
|
- + - =
(

- +
|
.
|

\
|
- + - =
kg
kJ
S
O
H C HCV
1 . 35524
6 . 91 5 . 3932 500 , 31
1 9160
8
2
3 000 , 43 , 1 90 000 , 35
100
1
9160
8
000 , 43 , 1 000 , 35
100
1
.ANS

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Example 1.cntd.
(

=
- - =
- - =
kg
kJ
H HCV LCV
9 . 34859
2460 3
100
9
1 . 35524
2460
100
9
.ANS

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Example 2
The following observations were made during the test for finding the lower calorific value
of a solid fuel with the help of Bomb Calorimeter :
Mass of fuel in crucible = 0.78 gm.
Mass of fuse wire = 0.02 gm.
CV of fuse wire = 6500 kJ / kg.
Mass of water in the calorimeter = 1.88 kg.
Water equivalent of calorimeter = 0.37 kg.
Temp. rise = 3 C.
Assume the fuel contains 90 % Carbon, 4 % Hydrogen, the rest being ash.
( )
( )
(

=
- = + -
- - + =
|
.
|

\
|
- +
|
.
|

\
|
-
A + = - + -
kg
kJ
HCV
HCV
HCV
T C m m CV m HCV m
P c f fw f
98 . 36066
3 25 . 2 187 . 4 1000 130 78 . 0
3 187 . 4 37 . 0 88 . 1 6500
1000
02 . 0
1000
78 . 0
) ( ) ( ) (
.ANS

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
(

=
- - =
- - =
kg
kJ
H HCV LCV
38 . 35181
2460 4
100
9
98 . 36066
2460
100
9
.ANS
Example 2.cntd.

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
Example 3
The following observations were made during the test for finding the calorific value of a
gaseous fuel with the help of Boys Gas Calorimeter :
Gas burnt = 60 lit.
Gas Pressure = 4 cm of water above atm.
Barometer reading = 750 mm of Hg.
Temp. of gas = 30 C.
Water circulated through the calorimeter = 20 kg.
Temp. rise for water = 10 C.
Condensate collected during the test = 60 gms.
Find the HCV and LCV of the fuel at NTP.
| |
| |
3
'
05356 . 0
. 56 . 53
760
6 . 13
40
750
) 30 15 . 273 (
15 . 273
60
760
6 . 13
15 . 273
m
lit
h
h
T
V V
w
b
g
g g
=
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
-
+
- =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
- - =

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg. ME0207 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics II
| | kg
NTP @ gas of m per f ormed Condensate
3
12 . 1
05356 . 0
1
1000
60
=
- =
Example 3.cntd.
( )
(

=

=
A
=
NTP
m
kJ
V
T C m
HCV
g
w p w
@ 15634
0535 . 0
10 4187 20
3
.ANS
(

=
- =
=
kg
kJ
vapour by water away carried Heat HCV LCV
8 . 12878
2460 12 . 1 15634
.ANS

Fuels and Combustion
S. Y. B. Tech. Mech. Engg.
Thank You !