Element Methods
Finite Element Analysis (F.E.A.) of 1D
Problems
Historical Background
• Hrenikoff, 1941 – “frame work method”
• Courant, 1943 – “piecewise polynomial
interpolation”
• Turner, 1956 – derived stiffness matrice for truss,
beam, etc
• Clough, 1960 – coined the term “finite element”
Key Ideas:  frame work method
piecewise polynomial approximation
Axially Loaded Bar
Review:
Stress:
Strain:
Deformation:
Stress:
Strain:
Deformation:
Axially Loaded Bar
Review:
Stress:
Strain:
Deformation:
Axially Loaded Bar – Governing
Equations and Boundary
Conditions
• Differential Equation
• Boundary Condition Types
• prescribed displacement (essential BC)
• prescribed force/derivative of displacement
(natural BC)
L x x f
dx
du
x EA
dx
d
< < = +
(
¸
(
¸
0 0 ) ( ) (
Axially Loaded Bar –Boundary
Conditions
• Examples
• fixed end
• simple support
• free end
Potential Energy
• Elastic Potential Energy (PE)
 Spring case
 Axially loaded bar
 Elastic body
x
Unstretched spring
Stretched bar
0 PE =
2
2
1
PE kx =
undeformed:
deformed:
0 PE =
}
=
L
Adx
0
2
1
PE oc
dv
V
T
ε σ
}
=
2
1
PE
Potential Energy
• Work Potential (WE)
B
L
u P fdx u · ÷ · ÷ =
}
0
WP
P
f
f: distributed force over a line
P: point force
u: displacement
A B
• Total Potential Energy
B
L L
u P fdx u Adx · ÷ · ÷ = H
} }
0 0
2
1
oc
• Principle of Minimum Potential Energy
For conservative systems, of all the kinematically admissible displacement fields,
those corresponding to equilibrium extremize the total potential energy. If the
extremum condition is a minimum, the equilibrium state is stable.
Potential Energy + RayleighRitz
Approach
P
f
A B
Example:
Step 1: assume a displacement field
( ) n i x a u
i
i
i
to 1 = =
¿

 is shape function / basis function
n is the order of approximation
Step 2: calculate total potential energy
Potential Energy + RayleighRitz
Approach
P
f
A B
Example:
Step 3:select a
i
so that the total potential energy is minimum
Galerkin’s Method
P
f
A B
Example:
( )
P
dx
du
x EA
x u
x f
dx
du
x EA
dx
d
L x
=
= =
= +
(
¸
(
¸
=
) (
0 0
0 ) ( ) (
Seek an approximation so
( )
P
dx
u d
x EA
x u
dV x f
dx
u d
x EA
dx
d
w
L x
V
i
=
= =
= 
.

\

+
(
¸
(
¸
=
}
~
) (
0 0
~
0 ) (
~
) (
u
~
In the Galerkin’s method, the weight function is chosen to be the same as the shape
function.
Galerkin’s Method
P
f
A B
Example:
0 ) (
~
) ( = 
.

\

+
(
¸
(
¸
}
dV x f
dx
u d
x EA
dx
d
w
V
i
0
~
) (
~
) (
0
0 0
= + + ÷
} }
L
i
L L
i
i
dx
u d
x EA w fdx w dx
dx
dw
dx
u d
x EA
1
2 3
1
2
3
Finite Element Method – Piecewise
Approximation
x
u
x
u
FEM Formulation of Axially
Loaded Bar – Governing Equations
• Differential Equation
• WeightedI ntegral Formulation
• Weak Form
L x x f
dx
du
x EA
dx
d
< < = +
(
¸
(
¸
0 0 ) ( ) (
0 ) ( ) (
0
=


.

\

+
(
¸
(
¸
}
dx x f
dx
du
x EA
dx
d
w
L
L
L
dx
du
x EA w dx x wf
dx
du
x EA
dx
dw
0 0
) ( ) ( ) ( 0

.

\

÷
(
¸
(
¸
÷

.

\

=
}
Approximation Methods – Finite
Element Method
Example:
Step 1: Discretization
Step 2: Weak form of one element
P
2 P
1
x
1
x
2
0 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
1
2
1
=

.

\

÷
(
¸
(
¸
÷

.

\

}
x
x
x
x
dx
du
x EA x w dx x f x w
dx
du
x EA
dx
dw
( ) ( ) 0 ) ( ) ( ) (
1 1 2 2
2
1
= ÷ ÷
(
¸
(
¸
÷

.

\

}
P x w P x w dx x f x w
dx
du
x EA
dx
dw
x
x
Approximation Methods – Finite
Element Method
Example (cont):
Step 3: Choosing shape functions
 linear shape functions
2 2 1 1
u u u   + =
l
x
1
x
2
x ç
ç=÷1 ç=0 ç=1
l
x x
l
x x
1
2
2
1
;
÷
=
÷
=  
2
1
;
2
1
2 1
ç

ç

+
=
÷
=
( )
( )
1 1
2
1
; 1
2
x
l
x x x
l
+
+
= ÷ ÷ =
ç
ç
Approximation Methods – Finite
Element Method
Example (cont):
Step 4: Forming element equation
Let , weak form becomes
1
 = w 0
1
1 1 2 1 1
1 2
2
1
2
1
= ÷ ÷ ÷

.

\
 ÷
· ÷
} }
P P dx f dx
l
u u
EA
l
x
x
x
x
  
1 1 2 1
2
1
P dx f u
l
EA
u
l
EA
x
x
+ = ÷
}

Let , weak form becomes
2
 = w 0
1
1 2 2 2 2
1 2
2
1
2
1
= ÷ ÷ ÷

.

\
 ÷
·
} }
P P dx f dx
l
u u
EA
l
x
x
x
x
  
2 2 2 1
2
1
P dx f u
l
EA
u
l
EA
x
x
+ = + ÷
}

2
1
2
1
1
1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2
2
1 1
1 1
x
x
x
x
fdx
u P f P
EA
u P f P l
fdx


¦ ¹
¦ ¦
÷ ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ ( ¦ ¦
= + = +
´ ` ´ ` ´ ` ´ ` ´ `
(
÷
¸ ¸ ¹ ) ¹ ) ¹ ) ¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¹ )
}
}
E,A are constant
Approximation Methods – Finite
Element Method
Example (cont):
Step 5: Assembling to form system equation
Approach 1:
Element 1:
1 1 1
2 2 2
1 1 0 0
1 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
I I I
I I I I I
I
u f P
u f P E A
l
÷ ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ (
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ (
÷
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
(
= +
´ ` ´ ` ´ `
(
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
(
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¸ ¸ ¹ ) ¹ ) ¹ )
Element 2:
1 1 1
2 2 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 1 0
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
II II II
II II
II II II II
u f P
E A
u f P l
¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ (
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ (
÷
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
(
= +
´ ` ´ ` ´ `
÷ (
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
(
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¹ ) ¹ ) ¹ ) ¸ ¸
Element 3:
1 1 1
2 2 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1
0 0 1 1
III III
III III III III
III III III
E A
u f P l
u f P
¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ (
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ (
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
(
= +
´ ` ´ ` ´ `
÷ (
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
(
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
÷
¸ ¸ ¹ ) ¹ ) ¹ )
Approximation Methods – Finite
Element Method
Example (cont):
Step 5: Assembling to form system equation
Assembled System:
1 1 1
2 2 2
3 3 3
4 4 4
0 0
0
0
0 0
I I I I
I I
I I I I II II II II
I I II II
II II II II III III III III
II II III III
III III III III
III III
E A E A
l l
u f P
E A E A E A E A
u f P
l l l l
u f P
E A E A E A E A
u f P l l l l
E A E A
l l
(
÷
(
(
¦ ¹ ¦ ¹
(
÷ + ÷
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
(
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
= +
( ´ ` ´ `
( ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
÷ + ÷
( ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¹ ) ¹ )
(
(
÷
(
¸ ¸
1 1
2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1
2 2
I I
I II I II
II III II III
III III
f P
f f P P
f f P P
f P
¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
+ +
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
= +
´ ` ´ ` ´ `
+ +
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¹ ) ¹ ) ¹ )
Approximation Methods – Finite
Element Method
Example (cont):
Step 5: Assembling to form system equation
Approach 2: Element connectivity table Element 1 Element 2 Element 3
1 1 2 3
2 2 3 4
global node index
(I,J)
local node
(i,j)
e
ij IJ
k K ÷
Approximation Methods – Finite
Element Method
Example (cont):
Step 6: Imposing boundary conditions and forming condense system
Condensed system:
2 2
3 3
4 4
0
0
0
0
I I II II II II
I II II
II II II II III III III III
II II III III
III III III III
III III
E A E A E A
l l l
u f
E A E A E A E A
u f
l l l l
u f P
E A E A
l l
 
+ ÷


¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹
 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
÷ + ÷ = +
´ ` ´ ` ´ `

¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦

¹ ) ¹ ) ¹ )

÷

\ .
Approximation Methods – Finite
Element Method
Example (cont):
Step 7: solution
Step 8: post calculation
dx
d
u
dx
d
u
dx
du
2
2
1
1
 
c + = =
2 2 1 1
  u u u + =
dx
d
Eu
dx
d
Eu E
2
2
1
1
 
c o + = =
Summary  Major Steps in FEM
• Discretization
• Derivation of element equation
• weak form
• construct form of approximation solution
over one element
• derive finite element model
• Assembling – putting elements together
• I mposing boundary conditions
• Solving equations
• Postcomputation
Exercises – Linear Element
Example 1:
E = 100 GPa, A = 1 cm
2
Linear Formulation for Bar Element
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
(
¸
(
¸
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
2
1
22 12
12 11
2
1
2
1
u
u
K K
K K
f
f
P
P
( )
} }
= =


.

\

=
2
1
2
1
,
x
x
i i
x
x
ji
j
i
ij
dx f f K dx
dx
d
dx
d
EA K where 


x=x
1
x=x
2
1

2

1
1
x
x=x
1
x=x
2
u
1
u
2
1
P
2
P
f(x)
L =x
2
x
1
u
x
Higher Order Formulation for Bar Element
(x) u (x) u (x) u (x) u
3 3 2 2 1 1
   + + =
) x ( u ) x ( u ) x ( u ) x ( u (x) u
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
    + + + =
1
3
u
1
u
3
u
x
u
2
2
1
4
u
1
u
4
2
u
x
u
2
u
3
3
) x ( u ) x ( u ) x ( u ) x ( u ) x ( u (x) u
n n 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
     +       + + + + =
1
n
u
1
u
n
2
u
x
u
2
u
3
3
u
4
……………
4
……………
Natural Coordinates and Interpolation Functions
2
1
,
2
1
2 1
+
=
÷
÷ =
ç

ç

Natural (or Normal) Coordinate:
x=x
1 x=x
2
ç=1
ç=1
x
ç
0 x= x l =
1
x x x ÷ =
1 2
2
/ 2
x x
x
l
ç
+
÷
=
1
3
2
ç ç=1 ç=1
1
2
ç ç=1 ç=1
1
4
2
ç ç=1 ç=1
3
( )
( )( )
( )
2
1
, 1 1 ,
2
1
3 2 1
ç ç
 ç ç 
ç ç

+
= ÷ + ÷ =
÷
=
( ) ( ) ( ) 1
3
1
1
16
27
, 1
3
1
3
1
16
9
2 1
÷ 
.

\

÷ + = ÷ 
.

\

÷ 
.

\

+ ÷ = ç ç ç  ç ç ç 
( ) ( ) ( ) 
.

\

÷ 
.

\

+ + = ÷ 
.

\

+ + ÷ =
3
1
3
1
1
16
9
, 1
3
1
1
16
27
4 3
ç ç ç  ç ç ç 
Quadratic Formulation for Bar Element
( ) ( )
2
1
1
1
nd , , 1, 2, 3
2
x
i i i
x
l
a f f dx f d i j ¢ ¢ ç
÷
= = =
} }
2
1
1
1
2
x
j j
i i
ij ji
x
d d
d d
where K EA dx EA d K
dx dx d d l
 
 
ç
ç ç
÷
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
} }
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
+
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
3
2
1
33 23 13
23 22 12
13 12 11
3
2
1
3
2
1
u
u
u
K K K
K K K
K K K
f
f
f
P
P
P
ç=1
ç=0 ç=1

3

1

2
Quadratic Formulation for Bar Element
u
1
u
3
u
2
f(x)
P
3
P
1
P
2
ç=1
ç=0 ç=1
1
x
2
x
3
x
( )
( )( )
( )
2
1
u 1 1 u
2
1
u ) ( u ) ( u ) ( u ) ( u
3 2 1 3 3 2 2 1 1
ç ç
ç ç
ç ç
ç  ç  ç  ç
+
+ ÷ + ÷
÷
= + + =
( )
( )( )
( )
2
1
, 1 1 ,
2
1
3 2 1
ç ç
 ç ç 
ç ç

+
= ÷ + ÷ =
÷
=
1 1 2 2 3 3
2 2 1 2 4 2 2 1
, ,
d d d d d d
dx l d l dx l d l dx l d l
  ç   ç   ç
ç ç ç
÷ +
= = = = ÷ = =
1 2
2
/ 2
x x
x
l
ç
+
÷
=
2
l
d dx ç =
2 d
dx l
ç
=
Exercises – Quadratic Element
Example 2:
E = 100 GPa, A
1
= 1 cm
2
; A
1
= 2 cm
2
Some Issues
Nonconstant cross section:
Interior load point:
Mixed boundary condition:
k