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Using the Verbal

Behavior
Approach to
Teach Children
with Autism
Mary Lynch Barbera, RN, MSN, BCBA
www.vbapproach.com
May 2009
Autism One Conference
My Autism Journey
• July 2, 1999 – Lucas was diagnosed with moderate to severe
autism one day before his third birthday.

• September 1999 – Started 40 hours/wk ABA program with Lovaas


consultant coming monthly.

• June 2000 – Founding President of Autism Society of Berks.

• December 2003 – Became a Board Certified Behavior Analyst and


Lead Behavior Analyst for the PA Verbal Behavior Project.

• May 2005 – Published the results of a single subject multiple


baseline study that I designed in The Analysis of Verbal Behavior.

• May 2007 –Publication of my book: The Verbal Behavior


Approach: How to Teach Children with Autism and Related
Disorders.
Lovaas Study
• Published in 1987
– 59 children (3 years age or under)
diagnosed with autism
• 19 received 40 hours/wk 1:1 ABA for 2
years
• 20 received 10 hours/wk
• 20 received standard special education
classrooms/OT/speech

• 47% of those receiving 40 hours/wk of


treatment became “indistinguishable from
their peers by first grade”
ABA as the treatment of choice

• Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is the


only scientifically validated treatment for
autism and is recommended by the U.S.
Surgeon General.

• ABA treatment became popular in the


mid-1990’s when Catherine Maurice, a
parent of two children with autism who
both “recovered” from autism using this
approach, published two books detailing
Lovaas type ABA therapy.
An Overview of
ABA
Applied Behavior Analysis
(ABA)
• Definition

“Applied behavior analysis is the science


in which procedures derived from the
principles of behavior are systematically
applied to improve socially significant
behavior.”
(Cooper, Heron, and Heward)
Basic Principles of ABA
• Behavior is defined in objective and
measurable terms
• Examines the functional relationship
between behavior and its controlling
variables
• Analyzes socially significant behavior
in need of improvement
• Analyzes behavior through a three
term contingency
Three Term Contingency
• Antecedent--Behavior--
Consequences
A—B—C

Also Described As
Discriminative Stimulus--Response--
Consequence
MO/SD—R—Reinf. or Punish.
Basic Behavioral
Principles
Antecedent - any stimulus that happens
before a behavior

Behavior - an observable and


measurable act of an individual

Consequence - any stimulus that happens


after a behavior
Three (Really Four) Term
Contingency
Antecedent--Behavior--Consequences

Motivation is now seen as playing a


significant role in this model (Michael)
Examples of Three Term
Contingency

• “Touch nose” – Child touches nose – receives


piece of cookie

• “Do Puzzle” – Child falls to floor – Demand


withdrawn
You use the principles of
ABA all day long!

• ABA is used to:


– Increase positive behaviors
• Language, self care skills, academic
skills.
– Decrease negative behaviors
• Tantrums, biting, kicking, crying
$1000 Activity
• Think of a child you know with
challenging behaviors:

– If I gave you $1000 for that child to


have a “good day” with little to no
problem behavior, what would you do?
Pick one or two target
behaviors
• Select the target behavior to be
reduced by examining…

– The seriousness of the behavior…if could


injure self or others…target these before
behaviors such as hand flapping or poor
attention.
– The frequency of the behavior
Define Setting Event
• Aspects of a person’s environment or daily
routine that do not necessarily occur
immediately before the behavior.

– Medication adjustment
– Medical problems (pink eye, diaper rash)
– Sleep problems
– Eating routines/diet
– Number of people in room
– Daily schedule (how predictable/how much
choice)
Immediate Antecedents
• What triggered the behavior

What happened immediately before


problem behavior started:
Computer was turned off
Told child to hang up coat
Child saw candy and wanted it
Using the principles of
ABA to reduce problem
behavior

Define Behavior----Be Specific!!


Kicking his feet against the chair,
throwing books, biting his own fingers,
hitting his head with his fist.

NOT: Having a tough time, frustrated,


irritable
Consequences
• Reinforcement
– A consequence that results in increasing
or maintaining the future rate of
behavior it follows.

Punishment
– A consequence that results in
decreasing the future rate of behavior it
follows.
Consequences

• Any behavior that occurs repeatedly


is serving some useful function and
producing some type of
reinforcement.
Consequences
• After a behavior has occurred the
environment can change in several ways:
1. A neutral event can happen: if nothing
happens that is relevant, the consequence will
likely have no effect on the behavior.
2. Things can get better: if things get better, the
behavior will likely occur again under similar
conditions. This is called reinforcement.
3. Things can get worse: if things get worse, the
behavior will likely not occur again under
similar conditions. This is called punishment.
Things Get Better:
Reinforcement

• Reinforcement is a change in the


environment following a behavior
that increases the future probability
of that behavior under similar
circumstances.
Things Get Worse:
Punishment
• When things get worse following a
behavior, the behavior is less likely
to occur in the future under similar
circumstances. This is punishment.
• Punishment decreases the likelihood
of behavior; Reinforcement
(including negative reinforcement)
increases behavior.
Is Time Out a
Reinforcement or a
Punishment?
• Need to look whether time out is
increasing or decreasing the
frequency of the target behavior.

• Most people think Time Out is a


punisher but it functions as a
reinforcement for many children.
Take Data To Identify
the A, B, and C

• Without taking baseline date and


identifying the antecedent, behavior,
and consequence, it is not wise to
implement a behavior reduction
strategy
Functions of Problem
Behavior

• To obtain something desirable


(Attention, Tangibles, Sensory
Stimulation).

• To avoid or escape something


undesirable (Task avoidance).
Antecedent Interventions
• Changing the environment before the
behavior occurs to prevent the behavior.

Focus on pairing/manding
8 positives to every negative
Reconfigure class layout or ratio
Give more or less time at a center
Get more sleep at night or nap
Eat breakfast or serve snack earlier
Provide transition warnings
Reactive Interventions
• Interventions implemented after
problem behavior occurs.

• Some examples:
– Count and Mand (use for attention only)
– Planned Ignoring (use for attention only)
– Time Out (use for attention only)
– Work through Demand (use for escape
only)
Count and Mand
• Explained in Chapter 2 of my book
• Used for access to tangibles/attention only!
• Can also use count and give choice, count and
R+, or count and give attention.
Steps:
5. Stop the problem behavior (hands down, be
quiet, no kicking)
6. Silent count to 3, 5, or 10—if problem behavior
resumes, return to # 1.
7. Prompt the mand “cookie”—child echoes
“cookie” Right…how do you ask?…child
responds “cookie”….deliver R+.
Combined Approach
• Spend 95% of your time preventing
problem behavior

• When negative behaviors do occur,


use reactive intervention
consequences at the moment.
– Count and Mand
– Planned Ignoring
– Time Out
– Work Through Demand
If you find yourself using
reactive interventions
frequently
• You need to continue to take data or re-
start data taking to determine setting
events, antecedents and functions of
target behavior
• Your demands might be too high and/or
reinforcement might be too low
• The environment might need to be
changed
Three things that matter no matter
what the age or functioning level!!

1. Problem behaviors at or near 0


2. Ability to request wants and needs
to an unfamiliar adult
3. Independent toileting

****2-minute activity****
Case Studies

• Case Study # 1
• Amy’s mother reports that Amy is a poor
sleeper. Each Monday morning she arrives
to daycare and begins to play. When she
is called to circle, Amy cries and throws
herself to the ground. The staff tries to
find something less aversive to Amy and
usually tries bouncing Amy on the ball to
get her calm. Amy does usually quiet down
on the ball.
Case Study Questions

• What might be a setting event?


• What is the immediate antecedent?
• What is the behavior?
• What is the consequence?
• Does the consequence serve as a
Reinforcer or Punishment?
Case Study #1 (cont.)
• Will the behaviors likely go up or
down?
• What is the most likely the function
of Amy’s behavior?
• What are some interventions you
would recommend to help reduce
Amy’s negative behavior
Using ABA and Verbal
Behavior (VB) to
Increase Positive
Behaviors

• Increasing language and learning skills


using the principles of ABA and B.F.
Skinner’s Analysis of Verbal Behavior
What is Verbal Behavior?
Behavior that is reinforced through the
mediation of another person’s
behavior
Applied Behavior Analysis

Direct
Discrete Trial Instruction Verbal
Behavior
Teaching
Intensive
Lovaas
behavioral Incidental
Therapy Intervention Teaching

Precision Teaching
Fluency Based Instruction
Dual Path of Applied Behavior Analysis Research

LOVAAS (UCLA) MICHAEL (WMU)

ABA Research ABA Research


Plus Plus
Discrete Trial Training Discrete Trial Training
(structure) Plus
Skinner’s Analysis of
Verbal Behavior
(function)
Common terms for the Verbal
Operants
Mand = request
Tact = label
Intraverbal = conversation,
answering a question, responding
when someone else talks
Echoic = repeating what someone
else says
Receptive or Listener Responding
= following directions
What is “Coffee”???????
Is it a…

• MAND?

• TACT?

• INTRAVERBAL?
MAND

TACT
ECHOIC
(FFC)

RECEPTIVE
INTRAVERBAL
(FFC)
Verbal Operants
Verbal Antecedent Behavior Consequence
Operant
Mand Motivative Verbal behavior Direct reinforcement
Operation (says “cookie”) (gets cookie)
(wants cookie)
Tact Sensory Stimuli Verbal behavior Non-specific
(sees or smells (says “cookie”) reinforcement
cookie) (gets praised, for
instance)
Intraverbal Verbal stimulus Verbal behavior Non-specific
(someone (says “cookie”) reinforcement
says:”What do (gets praised, for
you eat?” instance)
Echoic Verbal Stimulus Verbal behavior: Non-specific
(someone says repeats all or part reinforcement
“cookie”) of antecedent (gets praised, for
(says “cookie”) instance)
Receptive Verbal stimulus Non-verbal Non-specific
(actually not (someone says behavior reinforcement
a verbal “touch cooke”)* (child touches (gets praised, for
operant) cookie) instance)
Verbal Behavior Activity
As a result of: One has a tendency to: This is a:

Seeing a grape Saying “grape”

Hearing a horn Saying “truck”

Someone saying “what says moo?” Saying “cow”

Wanting a push on the swing Saying “push”

Being told to “stand up” Standing up

Someone “winnie the” Saying “pooh”

Someone says “potty” Saying “potty”

Seeing a stranger Saying “what’s your name?”

Seeing a tree Saying “tree”


Two other related skills:
Imitation: Given another person’s
motor action in the antecedent
condition, the child performs the
same action.

Match to Sample: matching activities


involving either identical or non-
identical items. (This is a very
simplistic definition for a very
critical skill area also referred to as
conditional discriminations.)
Teaching the
Mand
Why Teaching Mands is
Important

• It helps children avoid frustration in


communicating their needs and
wants
• It is relatively easy to do because
you are using the child’s own
motivation as a tool
• It is a natural first step in teaching
communication
The Mand
(Requesting)
All mands have one thing in
common: in the antecedent
condition, there is a Motivative
Operation (or motivation) in place.
A= thirst (MO)
B= “I want juice”
C= student gets juice
If a child does not want the item,
you cannot teach them to mand for
it.
Examples of contriving an
MO
• Holding up an M&M within eyesight of the
child
• Giving the child a bottle with a tight lid. In
the bottle is his favorite toy.
• Giving the child a bowl of cereal with no
spoon.
• Giving the child a toy that requires batteries
but withholding the batteries
• Briefly turning on his or her favorite video.
• Giving a bit of his or her favorite snack to
another child.
When Negative Behaviors
Occur During Mand Training

Do not reinforce whining/crying or


other negative behaviors

Count and Mand

Child has to learn that crying will not


get them anything….appropriate
manding will!
Keep Number and Effort of
Demands Low at First
• Carefully assess skills
• Gradually fade in more difficult tasks
• Avoid escape oriented behaviors: effort
and demands should always be
outweighed by easy responding
• Make demands low at first: deliver
reinforcement much more often than
you ask the child to perform
The Assessment Of
Basic Language and
Learning Skills

The ABLLS
Structure Of ABLLS

T h r e e C o m p o n e n ts

A B L L S P ro to c o l A B L L S G u id e T e a c h i n g L a n g u a g e t o C h il d r e n
C u r r ic u lu m & S c o r in g S c o r in g I n s t r u c t i o n s w it h A u t is m
R e c o r d C h ild S c o r e s I E P D e v e lo p m e n t G u id e V e r b a l B e h a v io r
S k ills T r a c k in g S y s t e m A n l. S c o r e s & E s t . P r io r it ie s W h a t & H o w to T e a c h
Daniel’s ABLLS A-H
ABLLS is an assessment of language and learning skills originally developed by James W. Partington, Ph.D. and Mark L. Sundberg, Ph.D.
This spreadsheet is for private use only
Color Key Date
January 0, 1900 C 52 ● . . . .
January 0, 1900 C 51 ● . . . .
January 0, 1900 C 50 ● . . . .
C 49 ● . . . .
C 48 ● . . . .
C 47 ● . . . .
C 46 ● . . . .
C 45 ● . . . .
C 44 ● . . . .
C 43 ● . . . .
C 42 ● . . . . G 42 ●. . . . H 42 ●. . . .
C 41 ● . . . . G 41 ●. . . . H 41 ●. . . .
C 40 ● . . . . G 40 ●. . . . H 40 ●. . . .
C 39 ● . . . . G 39 ●. . . . H 39 ●. . . .
C 38 ● . . . . G 38 ●. . . . H 38 ●. . . .
C 37 ● . . . . G 37 ●. . . . H 37 ●. . . .
C 36 ● . . . . G 36 ●. . . . H 36 ●. . . .
C 35 ● . . . . G 35 ●. . . . H 35 ●. . . .
C 34 ● . . . . G 34 ●. . . . H 34 ●. . . .
C 33 ● . . . . G 33 ●. . . . H 33 ●. . . .
C 32 ● . . . . G 32 ●. . . . H 32 ●. . . .
C 31 ● . . . . G 31 ●. . . . H 31 ●. . . .
C 30 ● . . . . G 30 ●. . . . H 30 ●. . . .
C 29 ● . . . . G 29 ●. . . . H 29 ●. . . .
C 28 ● . . . . G 28 ●. . . . H 28 ●. . . .
C 27 ● . . . . F 27 ●. . . . G 27 ●. . . . H 27 ●. . . .
C 26 ● . . . . F 26 ●. . . . G 26 ●. . . . H 26 ●. . . .
C 25 ● . . . . F 25 ●. . . . G 25 ●. . . . H 25 ●. . . .
C 24 ● . . . . F 24 ●. . . . G 24 ●. . . . H 24 ●. . . .
C 23 ● . . . . F 23 ●. . . . G 23 ●. . . . H 23 ●. . . .
C 22 ● . . . . F 22 ●. . . . G 22 ●. . . . H 22 ●. . . .
B 21 ● . . . . C 21 ● . . . . F 21 ●. . . . G 21 ●. . . . H 21 ●. . . .
B 20 ● . . . . C 20 ● . . . . F 20 ●. . . . G 20 ●. . . . H 20 ●. . . .
B 19 ● . . . . C 19 ● . . . . F 19 ●. . . . G 19 ●. . . . H 19 ●. . . .
B 18 ● . . . . C 18 ● . . . . F 18 ●. . . . G 18 ●. . . . H 18 ●. . . .
B 17 ● . . . . C 17 ● . . . . F 17 ●. . . . G 17 ●. . . . H 17 ●. . . .
B 16 ● . . . . C 16 ● . . . . F 16 ●. . . . G 16 ●. . . . H 16 ●. . . .
B 15 ● . . . . C 15 ● . . . . F 15 ●. . . . G 15 ●. . . . H 15 ●. . . .
B 14 ● . . . . C 14 ● . . . . F 14 ●. . . . G 14 ●. . . . H 14 ●. . . .
B 13 ● . . . . C 13 ● . . . . D 13 ●. . . . F 13 ●. . . . G 13 ●. . . . H 13 ●. . . .
B 12 ● . . . . C 12 ● . . . . D 12 ●. . . . F 12 ●. . . . G 12 ●. . . . H 12 ●. . . .
A 11 ● . . . . B 11 ○ 1 . . . C 11 ● . . . . D 11 ●. . . . F 11 ●. . . . G 11 ●. . . . H 11 ●. . . .
A 10 ● . . . . B 10 ○ 1 1 . . C 10 ● . . . . D 10 ●. . . . F 10 ●. . . . G 10 ●. . . . H 10 ●. . . .
A 9 ○ 1 1. . B 9 ○ 1 1. . C 9 ●. . . . D 9 ●. . . . E 9 ●. . . . F 9 ●. . . . G 9 ●. . . . H 9 ●. . . .
A 8 ○ 1. . . B 8 ●. . . . C 8 ●. . . . D 8 ●. . . . E 8 ●. . . . F 8 ●. . . . G 8 ●. . . . H 8 ●. . . .
A 7 ○ 1. . . B 7 ●. . . . C 7 ●. . . . D 7 ●. . . . E 7 ●. . . . F 7 ●. . . . G 7 ●. . . . H 7 ●. . . .
A 6 ○ 1 1. . B 6 ●. . . . C 6 ●. . . . D 6 ●. . . . E 6 ●. . . . F 6 ●. . . . G 6 ●. . . . H 6 ●. . . .
A 5 ○ 1 1. . B 5 ●. . . . C 5 ●. . . . D 5 ●. . . . E 5 ●. . . . F 5 ●. . . . G 5 ●. . . . H 5 ●. . . .
A 4 ○ 1 1. . B 4 ●. . . . C 4 ○ 1 1. . D 4 ●. . . . E 4 ●. . . . F 4 ●. . . . G 4 ●. . . . H 4 ●. . . .
A 3 ○ 1 1 1 1 B 3 ●. . . . C 3 ○ 1 1. . D 3 ●. . . . E 3 ●. . . . F 3 ●. . . . G 3 ●. . . . H 3 ●. . . .
A 2 ○ 1 1. . B 2 ●. . . . C 2 ○ 1 1. . D 2 ●. . . . E 2 ●. . . . F 2 ●. . . . G 2 ●. . . . H 2 ●. . . .
A 1 ○ 1 1 1 1 B 1 ○ 1. . . C 1 ○ 1 1. . D 1 ○ 1 1. . E 1 ●. . . . F 1 ○ 1 1 1 1 G 1 ●. . . . H 1 ●. . . .

A - Cooperation & B - Visual C - Receptive D - Imitation E - Vocal F - Requests G - Labelling H - Intraverbals


Reinforcer Performance Language Imitation
Effectiveness
Daniel’s ABLLS I-R

L 22 ? . . . .
L 21 ? . . . .
J 20 ? . . . . L 20 ? . . . .
J 19 ? . . . . L 19 ? . . . .
J 18 ? . . . . L 18 ? . . . .
J 17 ? . . . . L 17 ? . . . .
J 16 ? . . . . L 16 ? . . . .
J 15 ? . . . . L 15 ? . . . . Q 15 ? . . . .
J 14 ? . . . . L 14 ? . . . . Q 14 ? . . . .
J 13 ? . . . . L 13 ? . . . . Q 13 ? . . . .
J 12 ? . . . . L 12 ? . . . . M 12 ? . . . . Q 12 ? . . . .
J 11 ? . . . . L 11 ? . . . . M 11 ? . . . . Q 11 ? . . . .
J 10 ? . . . . K 10 ? . . . . L 10 ? . . . . M 10 ? . . . . N 10 ? . . . . Q 10 ? . . . .
I 9 ? . . . . J 9 ? . . . . K 9 ? . . . . L 9 ? . . . . M 9 ? . . . . N 9 ? . . . . Q 9 ? . . . .
I 8 ? . . . . J 8 ? . . . . K 8 ? . . . . L 8 ? . . . . M 8 ? . . . . N 8 ? . . . . Q 8 ? . . . .
I 7 ? . . . . J 7 ? . . . . K 7 ? . . . . L 7 ? . . . . M 7 ? . . . . N 7 ? . . . . Q 7 ? . . . .
I 6 ? . . . . J 6 ? . . . . K 6 ? . . . . L 6 ? . . . . M 6 ? . . . . N 6 ? . . . . P 6 ? . . . . Q 6 ? . . . .
I 5 ? . . . . J 5 ? . . . . K 5 ? . . . . L 5 ? . . . . M 5 ? . . . . N 5 ? . . . . P 5 ? . . . . Q 5 ? . . . .
I 4 ? . . . . J 4 ? . . . . K 4 ? . . . . L 4 ? . . . . M 4 ? . . . . N 4 ? . . . . P 4 ? . . . . Q 4 ? . . . .
I 3 ? . . . . J 3 ? . . . . K 3 ? . . . . L 3 ? . . . . M 3 ? . . . . N 3 ? . . . . P 3 ? . . . . Q 3 ? . . . .
I 2 ? . . . . J 2 ? . . . . K 2 ? 1 1. . L 2 ? . . . . M 2 ? . . . . N 2 ? . . . . P 2 ? . . . . Q 2 ? . . . .
I 1 ? 1. . . J 1 ? . . . . K 1 ? 1 1 1 1 L 1 ? 1 1. . M 1 ? . . . . N 1 ? . . . . P 1 ? . . . . Q 1 ? . . . .

I - Spontaneous J - Syntax and K - Play and L - Social M - Group N - Classroom P - Generalized Q - Reading
Vocalization Grammar Leisure Interaction Instruction Routines Responding
Daniel’s ABLLS S-Z

Y 28 ? . . . . Z 28 ? . . . .
Y 27 ? . . . . Z 27 ? . . . .
Y 26 ? . . . . Z 26 ? 1 1 1 1
Y 25 ? . . . . Z 25 ? . . . .
Y 24 ? . . . . Z 24 ? . . . .
Y 23 ? . . . . Z 23 ? . . . .
Y 22 ? 1 1 1 1 Z 22 ? . . . .
Y 21 ? . . . . Z 21 ? . . . .
Y 20 ? . . . . Z 20 ? . . . .
Y 19 ? . . . . Z 19 ? . . . .
Y 18 ? . . . . Z 18 ? . . . .
Y 17 ? . . . . Z 17 ? 1 1 1 1
Y 16 ? . . . . Z 16 ? 1 1 1 1
U 15 ? . . . . Y 15 ? . . . . Z 15 ? . . . .
U 14 ? . . . . Y 14 ? . . . . Z 14 ? . . . .
U 13 ? . . . . Y 13 ? . . . . Z 13 ? . . . .
U 12 ? . . . . Y 12 ? . . . . Z 12 ? . . . .
U 11 ? . . . . Y 11 ? . . . . Z 11 ? . . . .
U 10 ? . . . . V 10 ? . . . . X 10 ? . . . . Y 10 ? . . . . Z 10 ? . . . .
S 9 ? . . . . U 9 ? . . . . V 9 ? . . . . X 9 ? . . . . Y 9 ? . . . . Z 9 ? . . . .
S 8 ? . . . . U 8 ? . . . . V 8 ? . . . . X 8 ? . . . . Y 8 ? 1 1 1 1 Z 8 ? 1 1 1 1
S 7 ? . . . . U 7 ? . . . . V 7 ? . . . . W 7 ? . . . . X 7 ? . . . . Y 7 ? 1 1 1 1 Z 7 ? 1 1 1 1
S 6 ? . . . . T 6 ? . . . . U 6 ? . . . . V 6 ? . . . . W 6 ? . . . . X 6 ? . . . . Y 6 ? . . . . Z 6 ? . . . .
S 5 ? . . . . T 5 ? . . . . U 5 ? . . . . V 5 ? . . . . W 5 ? . . . . X 5 ? . . . . Y 5 ? 1 1 1 1 Z 5 ? 1 1 1 1
S 4 ? . . . . T 4 ? . . . . U 4 ? . . . . V 4 ? . . . . W 4 ? . . . . X 4 ? . . . . Y 4 ? 1 1 1 1 Z 4 ? 1 1 1 1
S 3 ? . . . . T 3 ? . . . . U 3 ? . . . . V 3 ? . . . . W 3 ? . . . . X 3 ? . . . . Y 3 ? 1 1 1 1 Z 3 ? 1 1 1 1
S 2 ? . . . . T 2 ? . . . . U 2 ? . . . . V 2 ? 1 1. . W 2 ? . . . . X 2 ? . . . . Y 2 ? 1 1 1 1 Z 2 ? 1 1 1 1
S 1 ? . . . . T 1 ? . . . . U 1 ? . . . . V 1 ? 1 1 1 1 W 1 ? . . . . X 1 ? . . . . Y 1 ? 1 1 1 1 Z 1 ? 1 1 1 1

S - Writing T - Spelling U - Dressing V - Eating W - Grooming X - Toileting Y - Gross Motor Z - Fine Motor
Mason’s ABLLS
o C52
o C51
o C50
Name: Mason o C49
o C48
DOB: o C47
o C46
o C45
o C44
o C43
J an 05 2005 o C42 o G42 o H42
o C41 o G41 o H41
2/25/2005 o C40 o G40 o H40
o C39 o G39 o H39
o C38 o G38 o H38
o C37 o G37 o H37
o C36 o G36 o H36
o C35 o G35 o H35
o C34 o G34 o H34
o C33 o G33 o H33
o C32 o G32 o H32
o C31 o G31 o H31
o C30 o G30 o H30
o C29 o G29 o H29
o C28 o G28 o H28
o C27 o F27 o G27 o H27
o C26 o F26 o G26 o H26
o C25 o F25 o G25 o H25
o C24 o F24 o G24 o H24
o C23 o F23 o G23 o H23
o C22 o F22 o G22 o H22
o B21 o C21 o F21 o G21 o H21
o B20 o C20 o F20 o G20 o H20
o B19 o C19 o F19 o G19 o H19
o B18 o C18 o F18 o G18 o H18
o B17 o C17 o F17 o G17 o H17
o B16 o C16 o F16 o G16 o H16
o B15 o C15 o F15 o G15 o H15
o B14 o C14 o F14 o G14 o H14
o B13 o C13 o D13 o F13 o G13 o H13
o B12 o C12 o D12 o F12 o G12 o H12
o A11 o B11 o C11 o D11 o F11 o G11 o H11
o A10 o B10 o C10 o D10 o F10 o G10 o H10
o A9 o B9 o C9 o D9 o E9 o F9 o G9 o H9 o I9
o A8 o B8 o C8 o D8 o E8 o F8 o G8 o H8 o I8
o A7 o B7 o C7 o D7 o E7 o F7 G7 o H7 o I7
o A6 o B6 o C6 o D6 o E6 o F6 o G6 o H6 o I6
o A5 o B5 o C5 o D5 o E5 o F5 o G5 o H5 o I5
o A4 o B4 o C4 o D4 o E4 o F4 o G4 o H4 o I4
o A3 o B3 o C3 o D3 o E3 o F3 o G3 o H3 o I3
o A2 o B2 o C2 o D2 o E2 o F2 o G2 o H2 o I2
o A1 o B1 o C1 o D1 o E1 o F1 o G1 o H1 o I1
Cooperation Visual Receptive Imitation Vocal Imitation Requests Labeling Intraverbals Spontaneous
& Reinforcers Performance Language Vocals
Recommendations for
Mason 1/5/05
• Matching Identical Objects/Pictures
(F/3)
• Increase Verbal Imitation using Mand
• Work on Fill-ins with songs
• Baseline Labels
• Set up Mand Sessions (2) 10-minute
sessions/day
• Keep demands low (VR 3 or 4)
Recommendations for Mason
2/25/05

• Puzzles/easy toys (shape sorter)


• Matching—start categories –make sure he knows
tacts of exemplars
• Prompt him to request actions and missing items
• Baseline labels (buy flash cards)
• Mix 80% easy to 20% hard w/VR 3
• Continue teaching songs
• Play doh and coloring
• RFFC to TFFC to IFFC with item as answer
• Count and Mand for access to tangibles
Lilly’s ABLLS
ABLLS is an assessment of language and learning skills originally developed by James W. Partington, Ph.D. and Mark L. Sundberg, Ph.D.
This spreadsheet is for private use only
Color Key Date
January 0, 1900 C 52 ● . . . .
January 0, 1900 C 51 ● . . . .
January 0, 1900 C 50 ● . . . .
C 49 ● . . . .
C 48 ● . . . .
C 47 ● . . . .
C 46 ● . . . .
C 45 ● . . . .
C 44 ● . . . .
C 43 ● . . . .
C 42 ● . . . . G 42 ○1 1 1 1 H 42 ●. . . .
C 41 ● . . . . G 41 ●. . . . H 41 ●. . . .
C 40 ○ 1 1 . . G 40 ●. . . . H 40 ●. . . .
C 39 ○ 1 1 1 . G 39 ●. . . . H 39 ●. . . .
C 38 ○ 1 1 . . G 38 ●. . . . H 38 ●. . . .
C 37 ○ 1 1 1 1 G 37 ●. . . . H 37 ●. . . .
C 36 ● . . . . G 36 ●. . . . H 36 ●. . . .
C 35 ○ 1 1 1 1 G 35 ●. . . . H 35 ●. . . .
C 34 ● . . . . G 34 ●. . . . H 34 ●. . . .
C 33 ● . . . . G 33 ●. . . . H 33 ●. . . .
C 32 ● . . . . G 32 ●. . . . H 32 ●. . . .
C 31 ○ 1 1 . . G 31 ●. . . . H 31 ●. . . .
C 30 ○ 1 1 1 1 G 30 ●. . . . H 30 ●. . . .
C 29 ○ 1 1 1 1 G 29 ●. . . . H 29 ●. . . .
C 28 ○ 1 1 1 1 G 28 ●. . . . H 28 ●. . . .
C 27 ○ 1 1 1 1 F 27 ○ 1 1. . G 27 ●. . . . H 27 ●. . . .
C 26 ○ 1 1 . . F 26 ●. . . . G 26 ●. . . . H 26 ●. . . .
C 25 ○ 1 1 . . F 25 ●. . . . G 25 ○1 1 1 1 H 25 ●. . . .
C 24 ○ 1 1 1 . F 24 ●. . . . G 24 ●. . . . H 24 ●. . . .
C 23 ○ 1 1 1 . F 23 ●. . . . G 23 ●. . . . H 23 ●. . . .
C 22 ○ 1 1 1 . F 22 ●. . . . G 22 ●. . . . H 22 ●. . . .
B 21 ● . . . . C 21 ○ 1 . . . F 21 ●. . . . G 21 ●. . . . H 21 ●. . . .
B 20 ● . . . . C 20 ● . . . . F 20 ●. . . . G 20 ●. . . . H 20 ●. . . .
B 19 ● . . . . C 19 ○ 1 1 1 1 F 19 ●. . . . G 19 ●. . . . H 19 ●. . . .
B 18 ● . . . . C 18 ○ 1 1 1 1 F 18 ●. . . . G 18 ●. . . . H 18 ●. . . .
B 17 ● . . . . C 17 ○ 1 1 1 1 F 17 ●. . . . G 17 ●. . . . H 17 ●. . . .
B 16 ● . . . . C 16 ○ 1 1 1 1 F 16 ●. . . . G 16 ●. . . . H 16 ○ 1. . .
B 15 ● . . . . C 15 ○ 1 1 1 1 F 15 ●. . . . G 15 ○ 1 1. . H 15 ●. . . .
B 14 ● . . . . C 14 ○ 1 1 1 1 F 14 ●. . . . G 14 ○ 1 1. . H 14 ●. . . .
B 13 ● . . . . C 13 ○ 1 1 1 1 D 13 ● . . . . F 13 ●. . . . G 13 ○ 1 1. . H 13 ●. . . .
B 12 ● . . . . C 12 ○ 1 1 1 1 D 12 ○ 1 1 1 1 F 12 ○ 1 1. . G 12 ○ 1 1. . H 12 ●. . . .
A 11 ○ 1 . . . B 11 ○ 1 . . . C 11 ○ 1 1 1 1 D 11 ○ 1 1. . F 11 ○ 1 1. . G 11 ○1 1 1 1 H 11 ●. . . .
A 10 ● . . . . B 10 ○ 1 1 1 1 C 10 ○ 1 1 . . D 10 ● . . . . F 10 ●. . . . G 10 ○ 1 1 1. H 10 ●. . . .
A 9 ○ 1 1. . B 9 ●. . . . C 9 ○ 1 1 1 1 D 9 ○ 1 1 1. E 9 ○ 1. . . F 9 ○ 1 1. . G 9 ○1 1 1 1 H 9 ●. . . . I 9 ●. . . .
A 8 ○ 1. . . B 8 ●. . . . C 8 ○ 1 1 1 1 D 8 ○ 1 1. . E 8 ○ 1 1 1. F 8 ○ 1 1. . G 8 ●. . . . H 8 ●. . . . I 8 ○1 1 1 1
A 7 ○ 1 1 1. B 7 ●. . . . C 7 ○ 1 1 1 1 D 7 ○ 1 1. . E 7 ●. . . . F 7 ○1 1 1 1 G 7 ○ 1 1. . H 7 ●. . . . I 7 ○1 1 1 1
A 6 ○ 1 1 1 1 B 6 ●. . . . C 6 ○ 1 1 1 1 D 6 ○ 1 1 1 1 E 6 ●. . . . F 6 ●. . . . G 6 ○ 1 1. . H 6 ○ 1 1 1. I 6 ○1 1 1 1
A 5 ○ 1 1 1 1 B 5 ○ 1 1 1. C 5 ○ 1 1 1 1 D 5 ○ 1 1 1 1 E 5 ○ 1. . . F 5 ○ 1 1 1. G 5 ○ 1. . . H 5 ●. . . . I 5 ○ 1 1 1.
A 4 ○ 1 1 1 1 B 4 ○ 1 1 1 1 C 4 ○ 1 1 1 1 D 4 ○ 1 1 1 1 E 4 ○ 1 1 1 1 F 4 ○ 1 1 1. G 4 ○ 1. . . H 4 ○1 1 1 1 I 4 ○ 1 1 1.
A 3 ○ 1 1 1 1 B 3 ○ 1 1 1 1 C 3 ○ 1 1 1 1 D 3 ○ 1 1 1 1 E 3 ○ 1. . . F 3 ○1 1 1 1 G 3 ○1 1 1 1 H 3 ○1 1 1 1 I 3 ○ 1 1. .
A 2 ○ 1 1 1 1 B 2 ○ 1 1 1 1 C 2 ○ 1 1 1 1 D 2 ●. . . . E 2 ○ 1 1 1 1 F 2 ○1 1 1 1 G 2 ○ 1 1 1. H 2 ○1 1 1 1 I 2 ○1 1 1 1
A 1 ○ 1 1 1 1 B 1 ○ 1 1 1 1 C 1 ○ 1 1 1 1 D 1 ○ 1 1 1 1 E 1 ○ 1 1 1 1 F 1 ○1 1 1 1 G 1 ○1 1 1 1 H 1 ○1 1 1 1 I 1 ○1 1 1 1
A - Cooperation & B - Visual C - Receptive D - Imitation E - Vocal F - Requests G - Labelling H - Intraverbals I - Spontaneous
Reinforcer Performance Language Imitation Vocalization
Effectiveness
ABLLS--Lucas
Color Key Date
9/6/2007 Lucas B. C 52 1 1 1 1
June 7, 2007 C 51 1 1 1 1
January 0, 1900 C 50 1 1. .
C 49 . . . .
C 48 1 1. .
C 47 1 2 2.
C 46 2 2. .
C 45 1 1 1 1
C 44 1 1 1 1
C 43 . . . .
C 42 1 1. . G 42 . . . . H 42 . .. .
C 41 1 1 1 1 G 41 . . . . H 41 . .. .
C 40 1 1 1 1 G 40 . . . . H 40 . .. .
C 39 1 1 1 1 G 39 . . . . H 39 . .. .
C 38 1 1. . G 38 . . . . H 38 . .. .
C 37 1 1 1 1 G 37 . . . . H 37 . .. .
C 36 1 1 1 1 G 36 . . . . H 36 . .. .
C 35 1 1. . G 35 . . . . H 35 . .. .
C 34 1 1 1 1 G 34 . . . . H 34 . .. .
C 33 1 1 1 1 G 33 . . . . H 33 1 1. .
C 32 1 1 1 1 G 32 1. . . H 32 . . . .
C 31 1 1 1 1 G 31 . . . . H 31 . . . .
C 30 1 1 1 1 G 30 . . . . H 30 . . . .
C 29 1 1 1 1 G 29 . . . . H 29 . . . .
C 28 1 1 1 1 G 28 1 1 1 1 H 28 . . . .
C 27 1 1 1 1 F 27 1 1 . . G 27 1 1 1 1 H 27 . . . .
C 26 1 1 1 1 F 26 . . . . G 26 1 1 . . H 26 1. . .
C 25 1 1 1 1 F 25 . . . . G 25 1 2 2 2 H 25 . . . .
C 24 . . . . F 24 1 1 . . G 24 . . . . H 24 . . . .
C 23 1 1 1 1 F 23 . . . . G 23 2 2 2 2 H 23 . . . .
C 22 1 1 1 1 F 22 1 1 . . G 22 2 2 2 2 H 22 . . . .
B 21 1 1 1 1 C 21 1 1 2 2 F 21 . . . . G 21 . . . . H 21 . . . .
B 20 1 1 . . C 20 1 1 1 1 F 20 . . . . G 20 . . . . H 20 . . . .
B 19 1 1 . . C 19 1 1 1 1 F 19 . . . . G 19 . . . . H 19 . . . .
B 18 1 1 1 1 C 18 1 1 1 1 F 18 . . . . G 18 2 2 . . H 18 . . . .
B 17 1 1 1. C 17 1 1 1 1 F 17 . . . . G 17 1 1 1. H 17 . . . .
B 16 1 1 1. C 16 1 1 1 1 F 16 . . . . G 16 1 1 1 2 H 16 1 1. .
B 15 1 1 1. C 15 1 1 1 1 F 15 . . . . G 15 1 1 1 1 H 15 1 1 1 .
B 14 1 1 1 1 C 14 1 1 1 1 F 14 . . . . G 14 1 1 1 1 H 14 1. . .
B 13 1 1 1 1 C 13 1 1 1 1 D 13 . . . . F 13 . . . . G 13 1 1 1 1 H 13 1 1. .
B 12 1 1 1 1 C 12 1 1 1 1 D 12 1 1 1 1 F 12 1 1 . . G 12 1 1 1 1 H 12 1 1 1 .
A 11 1 1 . . B 11 1 1 1 1 C 11 1 1 1 1 D 11 1 1 1 1 F 11 1 1 . . G 11 1 1 2 2 H 11 1 1. .
A 10 . . . . B 10 1 1 1 1 C 10 1 1 1 1 D 10 1 1 1 1 F 10 1 1 . . G 10 1 1 1 2 H 10 1 1. .
A 9 . . . . B 9 1 1 1 1 C 9 1 1 1 1 D 9 1 1 1 1 E 9 1 1 1 . F 9 1 1 1 1 G 9 1 1 1 1 H 9 1 1. . I 9 . . . .
A 8 1 2 2 2 B 8 1 1 1 1 C 8 1 1 1 1 D 8 1 1 1 1 E 8 1 1 1 1 F 8 1 1 1. G 8 . . . . H 8 1 1. . I 8 1 1 . .
A 7 1 1 1 1 B 7 1 1 . . C 7 1 1 1 1 D 7 1 1 1 1 E 7 1 1 1 1 F 7 1. . . G 7 . . . . H 7 1 1 1 . I 7 1 1 1 1
A 6 1 1 1 1 B 6 1 1 1 1 C 6 1 1 1 1 D 6 1 1 1 1 E 6 1 1 2 . F 6 1 1 1 1 G 6 1 1 1 1 H 6 1 1 1 1 I 6 1 1 1 1
A 5 1 1 1 1 B 5 1 1 1 1 C 5 1 1 1 1 D 5 1 1 1 1 E 5 1 1 1 . F 5 1 1 1 1 G 5 1 1 1 1 H 5 1 1 1 1 I 5 1 1 1 1
A 4 1 1 1 1 B 4 1 1 1 1 C 4 1 1 1 1 D 4 1 1 1 1 E 4 1 1 1 1 F 4 1 1 1 1 G 4 1 1 1 1 H 4 1 1 1 1 I 4 1 1 1 1
A 3 1 1 1 1 B 3 1 1 1 1 C 3 1 1 1 1 D 3 1 1 1 1 E 3 1 1 1 1 F 3 1 1 1 1 G 3 1 1 1 1 H 3 . . . . I 3 1 1 1 .
A 2 1 1 1 1 B 2 1 1 1 1 C 2 1 1 1 1 D 2 1 1 1 1 E 2 1 1 1 1 F 2 1 1 1 1 G 2 1 1 1 1 H 2 1 1 1 1 I 2 1 1 1 1
A 1 1 1 1 1 B 1 1 1 1 1 C 1 1 1 1 1 D 1 1 1 1 1 E 1 1 1 1 1 F 1 1 1 1 1 G 1 1 1 1 1 H 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1

A - Cooperation & B - Visual C - Receptive D - Imitation E - Vocal F - Requests G - Labelling H - Intraverbals I - Spontaneous
Reinforcer Performance Language Imitation Vocalization
Effectiveness
VB MAPP--Lucas
Key:                
  Score    Date        
  Color    Tester                 
Child's name                  
Lucas Barbera 1st test:            
117.5 Aug­07            M. Barbera
Date of birth   7/3/1996 2nd test:                                                       
3rd test:                                                                   

                LEVEL 3
   Mand     Tact Listener VP/MTS    Math Reading Writing Social/play  LRFFC      IV   Group    Ling.

15

14

13

12

11

                   LEVEL 2
   Mand     Tact Listener VP/MTS Imitation  Echoic    Play  Social  LRFFC       IV Group/CR    Ling.

10

                   LEVEL 1
   Mand     Tact Listener VP/MTS Imitation  Echoic    Play  Social    Vocal

`              
5                
              
4               

1
Language Barriers--Lucas
Key              Date   Color Tester

Child's name:  Lucas Barbera 1st Asses.  08/2007              M. Barbera

Date of birth:  7/3/1996 2nd Asses.                                   

3rd Asses.                                    

Inst. Control                                          
Behavior Prob. Defective Mand                                  
Defective Tact Defective Imit.        
Defective Echo Defective MTS

1
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

D
Defective List. Defective IV Prompt Dep. Generalization     Scrolling Defective Scan Defective C

1
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

  Weak MOs RR Weakens MO   Self­Stim Defective Artic.        OCB Reinf. Depend.   Attending

1
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
Recommendations for Lucas
• Intensive teaching and NET sessions
• VR 15 (with 80% easy/20% hard)
• Teach prepositions/pronouns
• Teach manding for
attention/information
• Edmark reading program
• Teach coin and time identification
• Leisure and self care skills
Thirteen Intervention Tips

• Thirteen tips based on the


science of ABA and BF Skinner’s
analysis of Verbal Behavior that
you can start using immediately
with all children and adults with
language delays and disorders
# 1 – Be Positive

1. Be Positive! Use 8 positives


for every negative. Don’t
overuse the child’s name
especially when saying “no” or
placing a demand
#2 Pairing

2. “Pair” yourself and the


environment with
reinforcement by giving the
child lots of reinforcement with
no effort required .
# 3 Giving Directions
3. When giving a child a direction

• Simplify the language


• Make sure you are close enough and loud
enough for him to hear.
• Get down to child’s level to get child’s
attention
• Only give directions you can make the child
do
• Give the instruction only once and, if no
response, prompt the child to complete the
task.
• Don’t give the child a direction you’re not
willing to follow through with
#4 Reinforcement

4.Look for things that reinforce the


child. Set up high interest activities:
bubbles, water play, balls, wind up
toys to see if any of these are
motivators. Put these things out of
reach so the child needs you to get
them.
#5 Mand Training

1. Teach the child to communicate


his needs and wants…first by
pulling, reaching…then by using
sign language, pictures, or
words. Teach 3-5 signs at a
time.
#6 Matching

2. Teach the child to match items


and pictures. Label the item
instead of using the command
“match” or “put with same.”
# 7 Imitation
7. Teach imitation skills.
–With objects/toys.
–Gross motor….Pick 2 or 3
movements to target at the
same time. Provide as
much prompting as needed
to ensure the child is
successful.
# 8 Receptive Skills

8. Teach receptive skills.


Touch body parts, items or
pictures…pick 2 or 3
receptive skills… provide as
much prompting as needed
to ensure the child is
successful.
#9 Give Directions You Can
Prompt

9. Since you can’t force a child to


speak, do not use “say______” if
the child cannot speak or if this is
a hard skill. (Say “cookie, cookie,
cookie” as you deliver a small
piece of cookie)
# 10 Teach Fill-ins to Songs

10. Use music and familiar nursery


rhymes…leave the last word of
each line blank to see if child
fills it in.
# 11 Sabotage Daily Life
1. Sabotage daily life to see if child
notices/indicates/or requests:

• Give cup without juice.


• Cereal without spoon.
• Coming upstairs, do not turn off music.
• Spill milk…don’t clean it up immediately.
• Go a different route in the mall.
# 12 Do Not Reinforce Problem
Behavior
12. Do not respond whining, kicking,
screaming and other negative
behaviors.

For problem behavior related to access to


attention/tangibles:
• Walk away, Ignore, or use the Count and
Mand procedure

For escape related problem behavior:


• Ignore problem behavior and continue
demand
# 13 Prevent and Correct
Errors throughout the day!
Instructor: Points to an apple and says
What is it?
Child: “bird.”
Instructor: “What is it—apple”
Child: echoes “apple”
Instructor: Right, what is it?
Child: “apple”
Instructor: Presents 2-3 easy demands and
then “what is it?”
Child: “apple”
Some Take Home Points
for Use With All Children (and Adults)

• Pairing
• Manding
• Once the child can mand for items,
ease in demands gradually
• Prevent and Correct Errors
throughout the day
• Don’t reinforce problem behaviors
Questions?
• www.vbapproach.com

• Mary@vbapproach.com

• Thank You!