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Pollution is the introduction of harmful substances or products into

the environment.

Effects of pollution:

It damage to natural environment. Human health. Crops. Living organisms.etc.,

Types of pollution
1. 2.

Natural pollution Artificial pollution

It takes place due to natural causes, such as

earthquakes, volcanoes, cyclones, floods, tsunami, etc.

It is man-made pollution that takes place due to human activities. pollution may also be classified as:
Air Pollution Water Pollution Soil Pollution Noise Pollution Marine pollution

Air is polluted when it is contaminated by poisonous gas, smoke, industrial chimney wastes, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur, etc. and the air become unfit for living organisms.

Sources of air pollution: Industries Use of pesticides and insecticides in agriculture Excessive use of fertilizers in agriculture Trough mining and quarrying

Waste products from factories Waste from sewage system Waste from power plants Solid materials of mines and quarries Waste from oil spills

It is the changes in physical, chemical and biological conditions of the soil through mans intervention or misuse of land, resulting in degradation in quality and productivity of the soil.

Sources of soil pollution are:

Domestic and municipal waste Industrial waste

Mining waste
Agricultural waste Deforestation

It is caused by noise. Noise is an unpleasant or undesirable

sound which causes discomfort. It also be defined as wrong sound in the wrong place and at the wrong time.

Sources of noise pollution:

Musical instruments

Radios, television sets, etc.

Industries Household appliances Vehicles, crackers. Aeroplanes, rockets, shopping streets.

It is the discharge of waste substances into the sea or ocean,

resulting in change in physical, chemical and biological conditions

in the sea or ocean, and causing harmful effects, i.e., affecting the quality of sea water, marine life, human health, etc.

Causes of marine pollution:

Sewage water

Oil spills
Global warming


The industrial areas should be located at a certain

distance from residential areas.


Poisonous gases and smoke emitted by factories must be controlled through strict and rigid factory laws.

3. 4.

Encouraging afforestation. As excessive use of fertilisers and pesticides easily

destroys the soil, there should be caution and careful