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-Role in Power Plant

R.BALAKRISHNA PATNAIK EMP. NO-103088 TSTPS, KANIHA

IMPORTANCE
Both fossil and nuclear Power plants demand pure water for steam generation. Condensate Polishing improves the quality of feed water by using ion exchange process to treat cycle condensate being returned to the boiler as feed water.

FUNCTIONS OF CPU
To remove the traces of soluble impurities present in

feed water entering a high pressure boiler that can be concentrated within the system.
It is capable of removing copper and iron (soluble and

insoluble species) to a very low concentration.

FUNCTIONS OF CPU
Condensate polishing unit is basically a mixed bed of

cation exchanger and anion exchanger A filter to remove all types of suspended solids from the condensate It preserves the quality of condensate by removal of the dissolved solids through ion exchange reaction It maintains the quality even during the ingress of cooling water in steam water cycle through condenser

SOURCES OF CONTAMINATION
1. Contamination from water treatment plant 2. Use of impure water for dosing system 3. Use of impure dosing chemicals 4. Residues from chemical cleaning 5. Condenser tube leakage.

PRINCIPLE OF CPU
In various Power plants steam is used for generating power. The steam after losing its heat condense back into water. While condensing, steam picks a lot of impurities from the environment which should be completely removed before using condensate again. The polishing unit purifies the condensate before using it back it works on ion exchange resin bed to remove the contaminants.

SERVICE CYCLES IN CPU


CPU works on two cycles

1. H+ cycle : when cations in the water phase are exchanged with H+ ions on the resin. 2.NH4+ cycle: when cations in the water phase are exchanged withNH4+ ions on the resin.

SERVICE CYCLES IN CPU


At the initial run max part of condensate ammonia is being absorbed by the resin so outlet water is just like DM water with a very less or nil ammonia called H+ cycle.
So pH is lowered by removal of the ammonia. R-H + NaCl (impurities) RNa +HCl. ROH+HCl RCl+H2O RH + NH4OH RNH4 + H2O

SERVICE CYCLES IN CPU


In the ammonium form operation, every sodium ion exchanged results in release of an ammonium ion . This is ammonia displacement effect. And there is a consequent small increase in pH.
RNH4 + NaCl R-Na +NH4Cl NH4Cl +ROH RCl + NH4OH

CPU SERVICE
From CEP

Flow Transmitter Bypass valve

DPT

SG

Service Vessel

To dereator

ACC Resin Trap

BY PASS VALVE & OTHER INSTRUMENTS

SERVICE CYCLES IN CPU

Cation exchange during service cycle:

R c Na + HCl R c H + NaCl

Anion exchange during service cycle:


R a Cl + NaOH R a OH + NaCl
Rc Cation Exchange Resin ; R a Anion Exchange Resin

For mixed bed resin the following reaction occur: R c Na + R a Cl + H2O R c H + R a OH + NaCl

SERVICE CYCLES IN CPU


It is observed that during the H+ Cycle run the concentration of impurities(chloride & silica) is decreased in CBD but when the ammonia cycle run started their concentration is increased as compared to H + cycle.
Also known as equilibrium leakage. There are two reasons for this : 1.Water phase ion concentration 2. Ion selectivity of the resin.

CASE STUDY ON CPU OPERATION AND PERFORMANCE


Date Time Chloride ( ppb) 10:45:08 AM 9:47:31 AM 125 102 pH Conductivity Lab 06/3/2012 07/3/2012 9.5 9.5 7.8 8 O/l 8.89 9.12 40 34 Silica (ppb)

08/3/2012
09/3/2012 10/3/2012 11/3/2012 12/3/2012 13/3/2012 14/3/2012 15/3/2012 16/3/2012 17/3/2012

9:43:02 AM
4:50:13 PM 5:56:23 AM 12:37:08 AM 4:14:59 PM 11:28:50 PM 4:17:26 PM 11:27:49 PM 4:56:03 PM 9:20:26 AM

79
68 44 35 30 35 40 45 50 52

9.3
9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.4 9.4 9.3

5.7
5.7 4.9 4.9 5.6 5.5 6.6 6 6.9 5.5

5.86
5.84 5.12 5.24 5.98 5.75 6.62 6.1 7.81 5.76

16
18 20 24 20 25 28 38 45 43

CASE STUDY ON CPU OPERATION AND PERFORMANCE


Date 18/03/2012 Time 4:50:03 PM Chloride (ppb) 55 pH Lab 9.3 5.9 Conductivity O/l 5.9 Silica (ppb) 45

19/03/2012
20/03/2012 21/03/2012 22/03/2012 23/03/2012 24/03/2012 25/03/2012 26/03/2012 27/03/2012

4:16:24 PM
9:33:20 AM 6:05:23 PM 12:38:23 AM 9:27:17 AM 11:53:54 PM 3:43:24 PM 9:42:10 AM 4:14:15 PM

58
56 58 58 60 65 70 75 85

9.3
9.4 9.3 9.5 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4

6.1
6.6 5.5 7 7.1 6 7.4 6.8 6.5

6.34
7.19 6.54 7.4 7.9 6.3 7.49 6.79 6.68

48
50 54 56 57 58 60 76 72

28/03/2012
29/03/2012

12:06:57 AM
10:04:14 PM

100
112

9.4
9.4

6.7
6.4

6.73
6.56

65
82

VARIATION OF CHLORIDE AND SILICA IN CBD


Chloride Silica

140 120 100

Conc. In ppb

80
60 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Silica
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

CPU Run TIME IN DAYS

TYPES OF CPU:
POWDEX TYPE :These are use & throw type resin

available in anion , cation & inert form. These are used as coating on a filter candle. These acts mostly as crud filter & also as ion exchanger. They however have shorter shelf life. DEEP BED TYPE: These are regenerative type mixed bed ion exchange resin having special characteristics with respect to temperature, pressure, bead size.

AMMONEX : After regeneration anion is circulated with NH4OH to convert cross contaminated cation from Na to NH4 + form. SEPREX CONSEP-SEPREX :Used at TSTPS, KANIHA PURESEP : Exhausted resin is passed through series of screen to remove small cation & large anion particle so that effective hydraulic separation will occur.

AMSEP: It consist of 4 cigar shaped tall vessels & 4 steps of converting resin into ammonium sulfate form viz Resin backwash,ammonium sulfate (1% & 3 % ), 6% regeneration, backwash & (30% ammonium sulfate ) regeneration (anion floatation & transfer.

CPU REGENERATION SYSTEM


IRU
CRU

ARU

Alkali Met. Drain Drain

Heater

Acid Met.
From DM Reg Pump

DESIGN PARAMETERS
No. of Polisher Units : 2
Design : Kennicott water system ltd.UK Design flow/vessel : 675 m3/hr Volumetric ratio of resin cation: anion : 1.5:1 Resin type cation/anion : SP 112H /MP500KR Resin quantity of vessel cation/anion : 4100/2900 lit. Regen.Concentration: 4% HCl/4%NaOH

S.NO

Parameter

Units in measure

CPU I/L

CPU O/L

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Ammonia Silica Iron Copper Sodium Chloride Cation conductivity Crud

ppb Ppb Ppb Ppb ppb ppb


S/Cm

500 20 5 50 10 10 -

5 2 5 2 2 0.1

ppb

50

CONSTRAINTS OF CPU:
The total out put is mostly limited to Hydrogen cycle . Ammonia cycle run is very short till Cation S/Cm conductivity reaches to maximum=0.1 Sometime Drum chemical parameter gets disturbed with respect to pH & chloride Both polishers are kept in service during start up operations till the normalization of chemical regimes of the steam water cycle.

CONSTRAINTS OF CPU:

Not able to achieve the designed throughput. Cross contamination during regeneration.

Air

mixing device at service vessel. Air filters to be provided for service air. Chloride on line meters to be provided at CPU O/L. Auto operation of LP dosing governed by pH,Conductivity during CPU service. CPU may be run continuously at least in Hydrogen cycle.

BENEFITS

Continuous or intermittent service of CPU, keeps steam-water cycle clean. Removes crud and undesirable ions & hence better water chemistry. During, small condenser leakage, Unit can be run for some days with the support of CPU. During cold start up crud carry over from Feed cycle is restricted.

TELL ME, I MAY REMBER SOME OF IT. SHOW ME, I WILL PROBABLY REMEMBER MOST OF IT,

BUT INVOLVE ME, I WILL UNDERSTAND IT