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Coal Analysis

Proximate analysis of coal

Determines only fixed carbon, volatile matter, moisture and ash

Useful to find out heating value (GCV)

Simple analysis equipment

Ultimate analysis of coal Determines all coal component elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur, etc Useful for furnace design (e.g flame temperature, flue duct design)

Laboratory analysis

Coal testing

Sample from Crusher House/ RC Feeder Size 20mm Crushed to Size 12.5mm Coning/ quartering

12.5mm coal (1kg) For surface moisture (x)

Crushed to size 3.35mm Coning/ quartering Pulverized to 212

Total moisture TM= x+y{(1-x)/100}

2.8mm coal (10g) For inherent moisture (y)

For TM basis report =(100-TM moisture)/(100-AD)

Sample for proximate analysis Kept at room temperature for 24hrs AD Basis Proximate analysis

Proximate analysis

Moisture Content : Moisture in coal must be transported, handled and stored Since it replaces combustible matter, it decreases the heat content per kg of coal Aids radiation heat transfer 1-2 gm 72 mesh coal at 105-110 C till constant weight Volatile Matter: Consist of CH4, hydrocarbons, H2 and CO, and incombustible gases like CO2 and N2 Proportionately increases flame length, and helps in easier ignition of coal Sets minimum limit on the furnace height and volume 72 mesh coal 900-950 C for 7 minutes

Proximate analysis
Ash Content : Ash is an impurity that will not burn Reduces handling and burning capacity. Increases handling costs. Affects combustion efficiency and boiler efficiency Causes clinkering 1-2 gm 72 mesh 800 C (burned) Fixed carbon: Solid fuel left in the furnace after volatile matter is removed consists mostly of carbon may contains some H2, O2, S and N2 gives a rough estimate of heating value of coal

Moisture Content

moisture- It is a term used to describe that part of the total moisture retained in the 72-mesh analysis sample after it has been exposed to the laboratory atmosphere and has attained approximately equilibrium with it.

Free moisture- Surface moisture present on apparently dry coals, which is dried off when coal is exposed to the air without heating. Inherent moisture- The moisture retained in the process of coal substance when free moisture has evaporated

Total moisture- It is the sum of free and inherent moisture. Typical range of moisture is 0.5 20 %

Determination of Air Dried Moisture

Weigh accurately 1 gm of sample in a silica dish (with cover). Spread it thinly, keep it in electrically heated air oven and temperature is controlled at 108 +/- 2oc for 1 hour. Then take out the dish and keep it in a desiccators to cool and weigh, from which calculate the percentage loss as moisture. Decrease in weight of coal * 100 = ------------------------------------------Wt of sample taken

% moisture

Determination of Ash content

Weigh 1 gm of sample in a silica dish (with cover). Spread it uniformly , keep it in an air electrically heated muffle furnace and temperature is raised to815 +/- 10oc in 1 hour. Maintain it for 1 hour. Then take out the dish and keep it in a desiccators to cool and weigh, from which calculate the percentage of ash. weight of ash * 100 % Ash = ------------------------------------------Wt of sample taken

Fixed Carbon

It is a calculated figure: Fixed carbon = 100

(moisture + volatile matter + ash), all expressed as

per cent on the same basis.

Its purpose is to measure the coke residue from the volatile matter determination Fixed carbon gives a rough idea of the heating value of coal

Determination of Volatile matter

Heat an empty, clean V.M crucible with lid at 900 +/- 10oc for 07 minutes, remove and cool it for 10 mins in a desiccators, then take empty weight (W1). Take 1 gm of coal in it. Keep on a silica stand in an electrically heated furnace maintained at 900 +/10oc for 07 minutes. Take out ,cool for 1 min on a metal plate ,then in a desiccators for 10 min and weigh (W2).

Determination of Volatile matter

A = (W2-W1) / Wt of coal taken V.M % = (A-Moisture %)*100

Calorific Value Of Coal

Calorific value is the amount of heat per unit mass that evolved on complete combustion and is expressed in kJ/kg. This is normally determined at constant volume by burning a known weight of coal in a bomb calorimeter under condition of excess oxygen and measuring the amount of heat evolved.

CV is two types : GCV and NCV

Reporting of Analysis Concept of TM Basis & AD Basis

Analysis is done on AD Basis Reported on TM Basis

12.5mm coal (1kg) For surface moisture (x)
Weigh 1kg sample in a container expose to lab condition for 24 hrs. Weigh again. Loss in weight represents Surface Moisture (x)

Total moisture TM= x+y{(1-x)/100}

2.8mm coal (10g) For inherent moisture (y)

Weigh 1gm sample in a moisture dish and keep it at 1080C for 1.5 to 3 hrs in oven till constant weight Weigh again. Loss in weight represents inherent moisture (y)

For TM basis report =(100-TM moisture)/(100-AD) Thus Reported moisture = T.M. Reported Ash ={(100-TM moisture)/(100-AD)}*Ash Reported TM basis VM ={(100-TM moisture)/(100-AD)}*VM Reported TM basis GCV ={(100-TM moisture)/(100-AD)}*GCV

Coal Payment
Equilibrated moisture: moisture@400C 60RH Seam Moisture: As calculated by CFRI =9 Thus Total Moisture= 9+EM TM>9+EM them moisture from outside. Thus main motive of doing EM is to calculate deduction Deduction for excess moisture =TM-(9+EM)

Net Calorific Value

NCV is the difference between the GCV and heat absorbed by water (due to combustion and surface moisture. NCV= GCV--53 H Kcal/kg where H is the percentage of hydrogen present including hydrogen of moisture and water of constitution of the mineral matter.

Useful Heat Value

Power coals (non coking coal ) in India are presently graded by UHV. UHV (Kcal/kg)= 8900-138(A+M) for V.M >19% , A and M at 60% RH & 40OC

Classification Of Coal By UHV

GRADE Calorific value range (kcal/kg)


5600-6200 4940-5600


3360-4200 2400-3360 1300-2400