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• Welding Technology had a significant impact on industrial developments. • “Connections” refers to those locations in a structure where elements are joined to reconcile changes in geometry and/or accommodate fabrication or service requirements.

• Failures in engineering structures occur predominately at component connections.

WELD DISCONTINUITIES Weld discontinuities may be divided into three categories: 1) Crack like discontinuities • Cracks • Lack of fusion • Lack of penetration • Overlap 2) Volumetric discontinuities • Porosity • Slag inclusions 3) Geometric discontinuities • Undercut • Incorrect profile • Misalignment .

Imperfections and cracks in welded joints .Figure 1:.

DEFECTS • Discontinuities are designated as defects only when their size. . orientation. Usually crack and crack-like discontinuities are prohibited. • Codes and specifications define acceptance levels for discontinuities in terms of their type. orientation and distribution. size. and distribution exceed specification limits and their presence affects the integrity of the component and renders it unfit for its intended application.

Various codes differ in methodologies employed for fatigue life assessment. • The calculated stress fluctuations are compared to the appropriate material fatigue curve derived from small smooth specimen test results and fatigue life is determined from the stress value from either a mean data curve or adjusted design curve. .METHODOLOGIES OF VARIOUS CODES AND STANDARDS • Intent of these design and construction codes is to ensure that safe and reliable structures are produced at reasonable cost .

The local stresses can be calculated with the Finite Element Method. Local methods can be applied for determination of fatigue life of welded joints under multiaxial fatigue. . • The hot spot method should be developed in future.FUTURE METHODS • The burden in the analytical approach can be over come by using finite element methods with the help of commercially available FEA software.

. ABAQUS finite element software is used to simulate various weld shapes due to limitation in use of analytical and empirical solutions. • The solutions of SIFs from FEA have been compared with solutions from IIW literature.OBJECTIVE OF THE THESIS PROJECT • Based on the use of Finite Element Analysis of the cracks inserted in the models of the damaged zones. The aim of the proposed methodology is to predict crack initiation and crack growth in industrials structures until failure.

.TYPE OF DEFECT ANALYSED AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE CRACK LIKE IMPERFECTIONS • Generally the severity of the discontinuity increases as the size increases. cracks or crack-like defects are identified by non-destructive testing and inspection. • Planar discontinuities. and the geometry becomes more planar and orientation more perpendicular to the direction of the tensile stresses. crack like discontinuities. Thus volumetric discontinuities are less injurious than planar.

CRACK LIKE IMPERFECTIONS NDT indications are idealized as elliptical cracks for which the stress intensity factor is calculated accordingly RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FATIGUE DESIGN OF WELDED JOINTS AND COMPONENTS IIW Fatigue Recommendations IIW-1823-07/XIII-2151r4-07/XV-1254r4-07 Dec. 2008 .

Transformation of NDT indications to elliptic or semi-elliptic cracks .Figure 3:.

Table -1: Dimensions for assessment of crack-like imperfections (example) .

STRESS INTENSITY FACTORS The stress intensity factor K defines the magnitude of local stresses around the crack tip. crack shape and geometric boundaries.crack size. σ remote stress applied a crack length f(g) correction factor that depends on specimen and crack geometry Stress intensity factor solution have been obtained for wide variety of problems and published in hand book . This factor depends on loading . General form.

• For simple geometry and linear elastic materials fracture parameters can be easily calculated based on existing analytical equations. .SIGNIFICANCE OF FEA SOFTWARE FOR CALCULATION OF SIF • Fracture mechanics concerns the interaction of the applied crack driving force and material fracture resistance. • The main purpose of these computational exercises is to use ABAQUS to calculate the fracture parameters of a 2D plane. • For complicated geometry and elastic-plastic materials finite element method is necessary.

It is constant through the thickness. The shell bending stress σb is linearly distributed through the thickness of the plate.STRESS DISTRIBUTION OVER THE PLATE THICKNESS σm membrane stress σb shell bending stress σnl non linear stress peak The membrane stress σm is equal to the average stress calculated through the thickness of the plate. .

CALCULATION OF STRESS INTENSITY FACTORS BY PARAMETRIC FORMULAE First. The effects of the any remaining stress raising discontinuity or notch (non-linear peak stress) can to be covered by additional factors Mk . The effects of the crack shape and size are covered by the correction function Y. the stress should be separated into membrane and shell bending stress components. Ideally. the relevant applied stress (usually the local nominal or the structural hot spot stress) at the location of the crack is determined. assuming that no crack is present. The stress intensity factor (SIF) K results as a superposition of the effects of both stress components.

The correction functions Ym and Yb can be found in the literature. For most cases. . the formulae for stress intensity factors given in Table are adequate. Mk-factors may be found in references .




Table -3: Stress intensity factors at welds .

In addition. sizes and shapes. use was made of the correction functions and the local weld geometry correction given in Table . given in Table 5.75% of the wall thickness. between the limits of an initial crack size ai and a final crack size af of 0.SIMPLIFIED PROCEDURE The simplified procedure makes use of the fatigue resistance at 2x106 cycles (analogous to FAT classes for the classified structural details) for a ranges of crack types. These were obtained by integration of the crack propagation law for steel. of which the data are presented in Tables.

the fatigue curves of welded joints are independent of the tensile strength of the material. This value is the fatigue class (FAT). within the limits imposed by static strength considerations. Table -5: Parameters of the Paris power law and threshold data for steel Table : Stress ranges at 2x106 cycles (FAT classes in N/mm2) of welds containing cracks for the simplified procedure .FAT –Fatigue Class Furthermore. Each fatigue strength S-N curve is identified by the characteristic fatigue strength of the detail in MPa at 2 million cycles.



. The entire fatigue process in welded joint has been modelled by pure fracture mechanics approach.PHASEII-EXPECTED RESULTS The ABAQUS is used to simulate various weld shapes due to limitation in use of analytical and empirical solutions.

CONCLUSION The methodology has to be developed to determine crack initiation and crack propagation in industrial welded structures. The generalization and sub modelling will allows to perform fast computation while representing correctly the local stresses and stress intensity factors. It's then a set of tools and methods based on the same principles and helping the engineer to solve complex and non-linear crack issues. . Depending on the type of issues to be solved. part of the overall methodology can be processed.

“Fracture and fatigue control in structures: Application of fracture mechanics” . Hübner. “Multi-scale approach for crack initiation and propagation” (2007). Tom Lassen and Naman Recho. International Institute of Welding (IIW).Al Mukhtar. Biermann. R. Rolfe. Third Edition (1999).Lebaillif. “Fatigue life analyses of welded structures”. “Fatigue Crack Initiation and Propagation: a complete industrial process compared with experiments on industrial welded structure” (2005). France. Recho . ISTE. Serror. E. 3) 4) D. M. Barsom . London.Petitpas . International Institute of Welding.“In Fatigue Crack Propagation Life Calculation in Welded Joints”( 2007). N. 5) 6) . M.REFERENCES 1) 2) John M. A. Stanley T. H. Huther. doc. XIII-2151r407/XV-1254r4-07.Paris. ISBN 1-905209-54-1 (2006).“Recommendations for Fatigue Design of Welded Joints and Components”. Serror. Lebaillif. October 2008.Paquet . I. P. D.