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ANTHROPOMETRY- refers to measurement of human individual

Alphonse Bertillon, a French Criminologists devised scheme using anthropometrical measurement of the human body.

Basis for Bertillon System

1. Human skeleton does not change after 20 years 2. It is impossible to find two human beings having bones exactly the same. 3. Measurement can be easily taken by using simple instrument.

Importance in the Study of Skeleton

1. It can be determined whether the skeleton is human origin or not. 2. Determination of Sex 3. Determination of Race 4. Determination of height 5. Determination of age 6. Determination of Ante or Post Mortem Injuries 7. Determination of duration of interment

Remember!!! Female bones are usually smaller, lighter and smoother than that of male

Examination of the Skeleton

206 human bones The oval or the round shape of the skull and less prominence lower jaw and nasal bones suggest that it is from human remains The pelvis gives the best indication of sex particularly the ischium-pubic index Bones used to determine sex; skull, sternum, humerus and femur.

Differences Between Male & Female Pelvis

Scientific Methods of Identification

1. Dactylography -art and study of recording finger prints. Dactyloscopy -art or identification by comparison of fingerprints Poroscopy -study of pores found in papillary ridges of the skin. **Fingerprinting is considered to be the most valuable method of identification & is universally accepted.

Practical uses of Fingerprints 1. Establish the identity of a missing or unknown person. 2. Fingerprints recovered from the crime scene may associate the person or weapon 3. Substitute for signature among illiterate, written congenital anomalies in the hand.

Bibliotics - science of hand writing analysis, study of documents, it genuiness or authorship Bibliotist - a person who had acquired special knowledge of the science of handwriting. Graphology -study of handwriting for purpose of determining writers personality, character and aptitude.

2. Determination of Age
Importance of Age determination 1. Classification of a person whether infant, child, adolescence, adult or old age 2. To determine criminal liability. 3. For right of surfage or in the exercise of political rights 4. To determine the capacity to contract marriage 5. An element by which contain crime are committed, e.g rape, seduction, abduction and infanticide

Circumstances which exempt from criminal liability- Article 12, RPC

1. Person under 9 years of age 2. Persons over 9 and under 15 years.

4 Periods of the Life of a Person

1. Age of absolute irresponsibility- under 9 years 2. Age of conditional responsibility- between 9 and 15 years old 3. Age of full responsibility- over 18 years old to 70 years old 4. Age of full responsibility- over 9 and under 15 years old offer activity with discernment.

Determination of Age of the Fetus

Rules in the determination of Age of the Fetus 1. For fetus less than 25 cms long, find the square root of the length in centimeters and the result in the age of the fetus in lunar month. 1 lunar month is equivalent to 28 days. Example: Length of the fetus- 9cms 9= 3 (3 months)

Determination of Age of Childhood and Adulthood 6 moths-2 years- Eruption of decidous or temporary teeth

6th year- 17 to 18 years- eruption of permanent teeth

2. For fetus 25 cms long or more, divide the length of the fetus in centimeters by 5, the result will be age in months. Example: length- 30 cms 30/5= 6 months

Points to be Considered in Determination of age in Adulthood

1. Appearance and growth of pubic hair, mustache and beard. Pubic hair- 13 years old female, 14 male Mustache- 16-18 years old male 2. Enlargement of breasts in females- 13-14 years old 3. Change of Voice- occurs at 16-18 years old

5. Grade or year in school 5. Menstruation- usually starts 1t 12-13 years old 7. Atheromatous changes in the aorta and cataract formation usually appears at 40 years old and above 8. Wrinkles of the skin usually appear at 40 years old and above

Examination of the Product of Conception/Pregnancy

1 month- ovum 1cm long, weight is 2.5 grams, eyes are seen as 2 dark spots 2 months- 4 cm, 10 g, eyes & nose recognizable. Anus is seen as dark spot 3 months- 8 cm, 30 g, nails begin to appear, placenta is formed, sex organs have appeared

4 months- 13 cm, 204 g, sex can be distinguish, lanugo formation, fingerprints begin to appear 5 months- 22 cm, 450 g, vernex caseossa, dental gums begin to appear 6 months- 30 cm, 1 kg, skin wrinkled, hair at head, eyebrows & lashes appearance 7 months- 35 cm, 1.5 kg, open eyelids 28 weeks-the child is viable

8 months- 42 cm, 2-2.5 kg, shedding of lanugo hair, nails reach end of fingers 9 months- 45-40 cm, 3-3.5 kg, scalp is covered with dark hair

3. Identification and determination of blood

Medico-legal importance in the study of blood a. For identification whether the blood stain in human origin b. For blood transfusion and cross matching c. For disputed parentage d. Corroborative evidence against or in favor of perpetrator e. Determination of cause of death f. Determination of direction of escape of the victim or assailant g. Determination of approximate time the crime was committed

The Human Blood

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