You are on page 1of 61

Kingdom Eubacteria and Cyanobacteria

Depending on their cells reaction to the Grams stain


1. Gram positive thick layer of peptidoglycan N-acetylglucosamine N-acetylmuramic acid 2. Gram negative thin peptidoglycan - thick LPS (lipopolysaccharide) toxic to animals e.g. Salmonella & Shigella

CELL WALL

Bacterial forms
Pleomorphic various shape, no cell wall Bacilli rod shaped Cocci spherical

Spirilla long coils

Cocci

Staphylococci

Bacilli- rod shaped Bacilus in single Diplobacilli


Streptobacilli

Spirilla- long coils

Treponema pallidum

Genetic material
Nucleoid -DNA in the form of closed circles - Without histones

Ribosomes 70s ribosomes

FLAGELLAR CHARACTERISTICS
Monotrichous flagellum on one pole Lopotrichous tuffs of flagella on one pole Amphitrichous- tuffs of flagella on both poles Peritrichous flagella over the entire surface.

Cell DIVISION
BINARY FISSION - cell pinches in two. FRAGMENTATION separation of a filament into several fragments

EXCHANGE OF GENETIC MATERIAL


Transformation foreign genes are usually
digested and accidentally inserted into the cells DNA circle.

Transduction- a bacterium incorporates DNA carried in by a virus. Conjugation DNA is passed through a tube (pilus) that joins two adjacent cell.

CLASSIFICATION
Division Eubacteria 1. Gliding Bacteria non-flagellated
inhabit areas rich in H2S such as sewage, deep mud layers of lake. e.g. Beggiatoa Cytophaga

2. Nitrogen fixing Bacteria


Absorb N2 and fix it into organic compounds. 1. free living Azotobacter 2. symbiotic Agrobacterium, Rhizobium

3. Nitrifying
1. oxidize ammonium to nitrite Nitrosomonas

2. oxidize nitrite to nitrate - Nitrobacter

4. Denitrifying
Conversion of nitrogen compounds to Nitrogen gas (N2).

Cyanobacteria blue green bacteria

SECTION CYANOBACTERIA
Formerly known as blue green algae Phycobilins present: 1. phycocyanin blue green pigment 2. phycoerythrin red pigment Biliproteins in association with protein Phycobilisomes aggregation of phycobilins in small nodules.

Thalli organization
1. 2. Unicellular Chroococcus Colonies with mucilaginous matrix - Microcystis 3. Unbranched filaments Oscillatoria 4. Branched filamentsHapalosiphon

heterocyst

Nostoc

Two groups of cyanobacteria 1.Homocystous

2. Heterocystous

Microcyctis shake

Trichome Separation disc hormogone

Oscillatoria

Micrococcus

Spirulina

ARCHAEBACTERIA ANCIENT BACTERIA, LIVING FOSSILS

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FUNGI


Eukaryote Achlorophyllous Heterotrophs 1. biotrophs draw nutrients from the host without killing it. 2. necrotrophs draw nutrients from the host and eventually kill it.

Body- Cellular Construction


Hyphae filamentous construction of fungi 1. septated with partition wall or cross walls 2. aseptate or coenocytic without cross wall, mutinucleated

Mycelium- mass of hyphae

Fruiting Body Organization


Morel, truffles, mushroom, bracket, or puffball Three types of hyphae 1. generative thin-walled with spores 2. skeletal- thick walled, unbranched 3. binding- thick walled, highly and irregularly branched.

Spores
Sporangiospores (sporangium) in Subdivision Mastigomycotina and Zygomycotina. Conidia - (not inside a sporangium) Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina, Deuteromycotina Sclerotia - compact aggregate of mycelium, more resistant

Heterokaryosis and parasexuality


Do not involve gametes Involve two different mating types (+ and - hyphae) Plasmogamy - fusion of two hyphae Heterokaryosis - (mixture of + and - nuclei) Homokaryosis - (nuclei are identical) Parasexuality - premature fusion of compatible nuclei)

Metabolism
Aerobic and anaerobic respiration (brewing, vinting, dough making) Rusts and smuts - plant diseases Athletes foot, ring worm, candidiasis Thermophiles - 50C Psychrophilous - -10C to -15C Xerophilous - grow on dry substrates

Mycelium mass of hyphae

Fungi
Chitinous cell wall Absorptive phagotrophs Extracellular digestion Toxins alternaric acid, giberellins, Phytoalexins plants defense mechanism

Essential nutrients carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous, magnesium, and sulfur Agents of decay, rot, spoilage, and decomposition,

Division Myxomycota
Are commonly called Slime Molds

Division Eumycota (True Fungi)


Subdivision Mastigomycotina 1. Class Chytridiomycetes - live on dead chitinous insects 2. Class Oomycetes - only fungi with cellulose on walls, commonly called water molds. e.g Saprolegnia

Subdivision Zygomycotina Rhizopus stolonifer, Black Bread Molds)

Zygote

suspensor

Columella

Zygospore

Subdivision Basidiomycotina - Club Fungi

Cub Fungi
Mushrooms Puffballs Bracket fungi Birds nest Stinkhorns Jelly fungi Bracket fungi ear fungi rust and smut earth stars

mushroom

Bracket fungi

Stinkhorn

Earth star

Bracket fungi

Stinkhorn Dictyophora

Auricularia tengang daga Edible fungi

Ascomycota commonly called sac fungi

Peziza

Cookeina

Ascus with 8 ascospores

Apothecium of Cookeina

Xylaria Deadmans finger

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bakers yeast

Fermentation carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol

Truffles most expensive fungi

PHYLUM DEUTEROMYCOTA imperferct fungi


without known sexual stage

Aspergillus green mold

Penicillium red mold

Ross D. Vasquez