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4-Chapter

Allowable stresses
contents
Introduction
2.6.1(p8) Compression element, Axial or
bending
Axial tension
Allowable shear stress q
all
Axial compression
Bending stress
Allowable crippling stress in web q
all

Combined stresses
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Introduction
The actual stresses in any part of steel
bridge must not exceed the elastic limit of
the material otherwise permanent
deformation would occur. All structural
calculations are approximate even if all
loads are carefully considered. In trusses
neglect the secondary stresses due to the
rigidity of joints.

The forces in members are determined under the
assumption that the connections are hinge and the
forces along the members are axial. Only the primary
stresses can be calculated. In some cases the
secondary stresses may reach 30 60 % of the
primary stresses. The analyses neglect also the
torsion in the main girders due to the deflections of
the X-girders. The unequal distribution of stresses
over the cross section due to bolts holes hasnt taken
into consideration
The allowable stresses (maximum stresses used in the
calculation) must therefore be lower than the elastic limit.
The more accurate calculations of steel bridge and the
better shop work, the higher allowable stresses may be
taken. Also, in the calculation if all possible forces are
taken into account the allowable stresses can be taken
higher than in case that only D.L., L.L, and Impact are
considered.


The permissible stresses for standard grade
structural steel determined according to the grade of
steel. Structural sections shall be classified,
depending on dw/tw for web and c/tf for flanges
under compression, axial bending, to compact,
noncompact, and slender sections as shown Fig(4-1)
Figure-4.1
F
y
and F
u
(t/cm
2
) depend on the thickness
t(1.4-p2).

Grade of
steel

t|40mm 100mm/ t >400mm
Fy

Fu

Fy

Fu

ST37

2.40

3.60

2.15

3.40

ST44

2.80

4.40

2.55

4.10

ST52

3.60

5.20

3.35

4.90

2.2.1(p6) Primary + additional stresses (wind load
or earthquake loads, lateral shock, etc.)
2.2.3(p7) Additional stresses
Additional stresses (allowable) = Primary
stress 31.20
2.3(p7) Secondary stresses in truss members
1. Chord member's depth > 1/10 of their length.
Diagonal member's depth > 1/15 of their length.
2. Truss with sub-panel.
Reduce 20 % of the allowable stress
back
2.6.1(p8) Compression element, Axial or
bending

y
F
Factor
and
Selender
Noncompact
Compact
s
|
|
.
|

\
|

f
f
w
w
t
C
t
d

Factor depends on:
1. Support of element ((One side (unstiffened
element) or two sides (stiffened element))
and shape of the cross section, I, C, , L, etc.
2. Load on element [(N) or (M) or (M+N)]
(p9,10,11-Table 2.1.a,b&c)
2.6.2(p13) Axial tension
}
y
y
y
y
F F
F mm t mm
F mm t
F get , 1.4 clause rom
100 40
40
58 . 0 F
t

)
`

s <
s
=
Hence for,

=
=
=
s
2 5 ST / 10 . 2 F
4 4 ST / 60 . 1 F
37 ST / 40 . 1 F
40
2
t
2
t
2
t
cm t
cm t
cm t
mm t

=
=
=
s <
2 5 ST / 00 . 2 F
4 4 ST / 50 . 1 F
37 ST / 30 . 1 F
100 40
2
t
2
t
2
t
cm t
cm t
cm t
mm t mm
back
2.6.3(p13) Allowable shear stress
q
all

}
y all
F get 1.4, clause rom
100 40
40
35 . 0 q F
F mm t mm
F mm t
F
y
y
y

)
`

s <
s
=
Hence for,

=
=
=
s
2 5 ST / 26 . 1 q
4 4 ST / 98 . 0 q
37 ST / 84 . 0 q
40
2
all
2
all
2
all
cm t
cm t
cm t
mm t

=
=
=
s <
2 5 ST / 17 . 1 q
4 4 ST / 89 . 0 q
37 ST / 75 . 0 q
100 40
2
all
2
all
2
all
cm t
cm t
cm t
mm t mm
2.6.3.1(p13) Effective web area
Rolled section = Total height 3t
w

Built up section = Web height 3t
w

2.6.3.2(p14) Shear buckling of web
y
w
w
F
105
t
d
s
d
d
1
= o
Stiffened web
2
q
34 . 5
4 K 1
o
+ = s o
2
q
4
34 . 5 K 1
o
+ = > o
d
1

d
Unstiffened web
o = K
q
= 5.34
If
80 . 0 ,
F
K
45
t
d
q
y
q
w
w
< s
no web buckling occur q
p
= 0.35 F
y


If,

F
K
45
t
d
y
q
w
w
>
Check web buckling
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
y
q
b q
y q b q
y b q
q
y
w
w
q
F 35 . 0
90 . 0
q 20 . 1
F 35 . 0 625 . 0 50 . 1 q 20 . 1 80 . 0
F 35 . 0 q 80 . 0
K
F
57
t
d

= >
= < <
= s
=
(no web buckling occur)

back
2.6.4(p15) Axial compression
r
l k
=
1.4 F
40
40
10
) 75 . 0 58 . 0 (
58 . 0 F
y
2
4
c
from get
mm t
mm t
F
F
y
y

>
s
)
`

=
2
c
000065 . 0 40 . 1 F =
2
c
000055 . 0 30 . 1 F =
2
c
000085 . 0 60 . 1 F =
2
c
000075 . 0 50 . 1 F =
2
c
000135 . 0 1 . 2 F =
2
c
000125 . 0 0 . 2 F =
Grade
of steel





F
c
(t/cm
2
)
ST37

ST44

ST52

t | 40 mm 40 < t < 100 mm
F
c
(t/cm
2
)
- For compact and Non-compact
sections use full area(Table2.1-p9-11).
- For slender sections use effective
area(Tables 2.3&2.4-p23&24).
- For one angle reduce F
c
by 40
%(p15).

back
2.6.5(p16) Bending stress
1- For compact sections and the laterally
unsupported length (L
u
)of the compression flange is
limited by:
(L
u
is the smaller of)
- Box sections


Or



f
y
u
b
F
L s
84
y
f
u
F
b
M
M
L
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ s
2
1
84 137
I-shape sections
y
f
u
F
b
L
20
s
b
y
f
u
C
F d
b
L

s
1380
Or



C
b
From Table2.2
- Then
F
b
= 0.64 3F
y
(M
x
) Boxand I-shapes Clause 2.6.5.1
F
b
= 0.72 3F
y
(M
y
) I-shapes Clause 2.6.5.2
F
b
= 0.64 3F
y
(M
y
) Box shapes Clause 2.6.5.3
1- 1- For Non-compact sections:
F
b
= 0.58 3F
y
(M
x
& M
y
) Box shapes Clause 2.6.5.4
2- 2- For slender (Box and I-shapes) and Non-compact (I-
shapes) sections:
-

Tension Clause 2.6.5.5
F
bt
= 0.58 3F
y

- Compression Clause 2.6.5.5
1- L
u
| L
all

F
bc
= 0.58 3F
y

2- L
u
> L
all

i ( Shallow thick flanged section L
u
xt
f
/ b
f
xd >10 (P18))
For any value of

(eq 2.23)

ii - ( Deep thin flanged section L
u
xt
f
/ b
f
xd <0.4 (P18))
y b
f u
ltb
F C
A d L
F 58 . 0
/
800
1
s

=
t
u
y
b
r
L
F
C
> 84
(eq2.24)
y ltb
F F 58 . 0
2
=
y
b
t
u
y
b
F
C
r
L
F
C
188 84 s s
(eq 2.25)
y y
b
y T u
ltb
F F
C
F r L
F 58 . 0
10 176 . 1
) / (
64 . 0
5
2
2
s
|
|
.
|

\
|


=
y
b
t
u
F
C
r
L
188 >

(eq2.26) y b
T u
ltb
F C
r L
F 58 . 0
) / (
12000
2
2
s =
(eq2.27)
y ltb ltb ltb
F F F F 58 . 0
2
2
2
1
s + =
- II - For Channels( p21) F
ltb
;
(eq2.29)

) ( 58 . 0
/
800
x y b
f u
ltb
M F C
A d L
F s

=
III - For slender sections use effective width (b
e
)
and the stress for non-compact(p21).
- Effective width b
e
for slender sections(Table
2.3& 2.4 p23&24);

1
2
f
f
= +
( ) ( ) | | ( )
) 2.3 (
1 1 112 . 0 1
16
5 . 0
2 2
Table K
+ + + + + + +
=
o
For any value of get from tables 2.3, and 2.4 for
stiffened and unstiffened elements respectively.

o
K
+
Calculate
o

K
F
t b
y
44
/
=
(plate slenderness)
( ) 0 . 1 05 . 0 15 . 0
2
s + =


Calculate
b
b
e
=
b
f u
ltb
C
A d L
F

=
/
800
1
t
u
y
b
r
L
F
C
> 84
y ltb
F F 58 . 0
2
=
y
b
t
u
y
b
F
C
r
L
F
C
188 84 s s
y
b
y T u
ltb
F
C
F r L
F
|
|
.
|

\
|


=
5
2
2
10 176 . 1
) / (
64 . 0
y
b
t
u
F
C
r
L
188 >
b
T u
ltb
C
r L
F =
2
2
) / (
12000
2
2
2
1 ltb ltb ltb
F F F + =
y ltb
F F 58 . 0 s






Summary Table for Lateral Torsional Buckling
(L
u
> L
all
)

For all
back
2.6.6 (p22)Allowable crippling stress in web q
all

}
y y crp
F get 1.4, clause rom F
mm 40 t
mm 40 t
F 75 . 0 F
>
s
=
In tension members we get smaller cross
sections by using high tensile stresses St. 52.
While in compression members we get smaller
section if l/i is less than 100 but if l/i is more than
100 we get same section for all kinds of steel.
2.6.7 Combined stresses
In a continuous beam we have a state of
combined shear and bending
back
pc pt
f f q
f f
F s s +
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
2 , 1
2 2
This stress may be greater than the bending stress
in the outside fibers.
The modern theory of equivalent structure is given
by;
( )
pt e
f q f F s + = 10 . 1 3
2
2
2.6.7.1- Axial Compression And Bending


0 . 1
2 1
s A + A +
bcy
bcy
bcx
bcx
c
ca
F
f
F
f
F
f
1.0 15 . 0
2 1
= A = A
c
ca
F
f
When
|
|
.
|

\
|

= A
|
|
.
|

\
|

= A
EY
ca
my
EX
ca
mx
F
f
C
F
f
C
1
,
1
2 1
2
EY
2
7500
F ,
7500

= =
EX
F
C
mx
, C
my
from code
2.6.7.2- Axial Tension And Bending
0 . 1 s + +
bty
bty
btx
btx
t
ta
F
f
F
f
F
f