MURDER OF AKBAR BUGTI : A NATIONAL LOSS

Hira Naeem Malik & Zamurrad Awan

ABSTRACT
Akbar Bugti was leader of Balochistan and also known as the “Tiger of Balochistan” shed his life’s 48 political years fighting for the rights and prosperity of his Balochi brother’s. During his life he got entangled in several skirmishes with our former President Musharraf in trying to uplift the living and political standard of the people of Balochistan. Even after his death, the Balochi’s are in the same condition and there is no one with whom Pakistani government can negotiate to settle the issues of Balochistan.

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
• One of the most distinctive and respected politician of
Pakistan and former chief minister of Baluchistan. Nawab Akbar Khan Bugti, was mercilessly killed by the Pakistani army on 26 August 2006. The assassination of Nawab Akbar Khan Bugti establishes the fact that the Pakistani army continues to commit grave human rights violations against its own people whether it is in Balochistan.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The consequent effect of deadlock between federation and the province (Balochistan) come out in Inflation Low economic development Movement of insurgents Decline in industrial sector

BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM
The Government of Pakistan has signed several peace deals with religious groups in the NWFP and FATA, but the political crisis in Balochistan has been totally ignored and no serious effort has been made to end Baloch suffering. Balochistan which produces the most gas in the country after sindh only consumes about one quarter of its production output. Gas from sui reached all major cities outside Balochistan in 1953, but reached Balochistan only in 1986 and many other areas in the province still do not receive any gas. Inflexible attitude of Pakistani government towards justified Baloch demands. Baloch want complete control over the resources and government of Balochistan.

RATIONALE
The researcher wants to highlight the demands and grievances of Balochistan and the living standard of Balochi people. To find out the conflict between federation and the province. To critically analyze the law and order situation emerged in Balouchistan after the murder of Nawab Akbar Bugti.

Hypothesis Formulation
“The murder of Nawab Akbar Bugti has closed all possibilities of negotiation and dialogues between the center and the province. Therefore his murder is a national loss which encouraged the parochial sentiments.”

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
• Mathson & Titus (1999) in the book “Tigers of
Balochistan.” Stated their own experience of living in one of the world's hottest and most arid deserts among the Bugtis. Jamal (2008) in his article “Why the Fight in Balochistan Matters” examines that the sacrred province Balochistan has been suffering

Sajdi (2006) in his book “Nawab Akbar Bugti : Qatal kyon hua” discussed the political life of Akbar Bugti his family background. He also stated about the problems occurred after Akbar Bugti s death. This book was of great help to the researcher during the research work. Siddiqi (1991) in his book “Baluchistan (Pakistan): Its Society, Resources and Development” did a critical evaluation of the westernmost province of Pakistan's society, land resources, and potential. Baluchistan's geographic position. Mustafa (2006) in her article “Balochistan unending misery” reviewed that today Balochistan is once again in trouble that has been brewing for several years.

Baker (2006) in his article,“How the death of a leader creates a bigger problem for Pakistan” The author of this article discusses that Pakistan's security forces may have thought they were ridding themselves of a particularly annoying problem that has plagued Islamabad for the past two years but it turns out, they only made things worse. Kandiyati (2008). In his book “Pipelines.” The author says that Oil and natural gas are now acknowledged to be the driving forces of international politics. Dr. Wirsing (2008) in his book“Baloch Nationalism and the Geopolitics of Energy Resources: The Changing Context of Separatism in Pakistan.” examines the energy context of the simmering Baloch separatist insurgency that has surfaced in recent years in Pakistan’s sprawling Balochistan province.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
To find out the aftermath of Balochistan after the murder of Nawab Akbar Bugti, which is a great national loss. To evaluate the demands and grievances of Balochistan and the living standard of Balochi people. • To find out the conflicts between Federal government and the people of Balochistan.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The work is based on literature available on “Akbar Bugti”. The research is historical descriptive. The qualitative research has been done to prove the hypothesis. The tools which the researcher has used for her research are: Books / E-books Newspapers Online journals Print Media and Research Articles The researcher has selected Nawab Akbar Bughti as her sample of research.

CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

The death of Nawab Akbar Bugti made the deeply wellestablished and centuries old tribal structure fragile.

His grandson Nawab Brahamdagh Bugti took over the party charge and changed its name from Jamhori Watan Party (JWP) to

Balochistan Republican Party (BRP) and also restructure the party agenda by adding the“ struggle for a separate Balochistan” which was never been the part of JWP’s manifesto.

The separatist movement in Balochistan gained momentum and the relation between the center and the government are all time low. All avenues of development were closed to the inhabitants of this province. They remained isolated with no hope of progress and prosperity. The whole province is in a state of shock over the way the veteran Baloch leader has met his end. The 24-hour curfew was been announced in Quetta, Balochistan's main city. Nawaz Shaif, has said the death of Bugti is a "black day" in the history of Pakistan, and that "the blood would continue to flow from his wound for a long time.”

DISCUSSIONS
Balochistan is the largest of Pakistan’s four provinces along with oil, gas and coal resources. Balochistan also has significant copper, silver, gold, platinum aluminum and uranium reserves but still its under- developed province of Pakistan.
Map of Pakistan

Source: http://www.mapzones.com/maps/pakistan/balochistan.php

•Baloch grievances and demands.
The Balochis want peaceful environment. They protested against the construction of new garrisons by military, cancellation of all illegal land allotments in Gwadar district and disbanding all military and paramilitary check points which contravene the constitution. The demands also included equal wellhead prices and a 30% royalty for Balochistan, they want rights of the provinces on natural resources, and equal representation in Federal services.

• Political Autonomy
The military government’s refusal to negotiate the demands for provincial autonomy is primarily responsible for the conflict.

Socio-economic concern
Government should trust balochi’s and provide them the opportunities by offering various developmental projects.

Gawader
The Baloch have opposed the Gwadar port on the following three reasons:The Baloch people suffer from a growing fear of being deprieved of the resources which are being generated from their own land. Being economically the most backward ethnic community of Pakistan, the Balochi demand that first and top most priority should be given to them on job opportunities created at Gwadar Port.The Baloch leaders fear that they would be ousted from their mainland and Gwadar would transform into a garrison district.

Energy resources
Natural gas is a very important source of energy in Pakistan, supplying 49 percent of Pakistan’s energy needs. Balochistan is responsible for 36 per cent of Pakistan’s total gas production, but it consumes only 17 per cent of its own production. Disputes over sharing the revenues from Sui gas field which is the largest gas field in Pakistan is a major cause of bitter relations between the Baloch and the center government.

Centralized rule and baloch resistance
The traditional baloch homeland is divided between Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran. Balochistan links Pakistan with the oil rich gulf states and the sea lanes of the Arabian sea, this coast is very important for Pakistan military because three of its naval bases are located there. Ormara, Pasni and Gawader naval bases are there.

Musharraf Balochistan’s policy
The Musharraf regime pursued the policy that blatantly aimed at the absolute domination and control over Balochistan.The Pakistan government’s military action resulting in the violation of domestic and international conventions and human right violations.Argue against militancy, killings, enforced disappearances and mass arrests became the order of the day in the province. Akbar Bugti was totally against the policy of Musharraf.

Military operations
President Musharraf has warned the Baloch nationalists to end their attempts to provoke people with slogans like “sovereignty of Balochistan” and “rights of Balochistan”, warning that his government would forcefully control any attempts to slow down the development process.

On August 24, 2006, under controversial circumstances, some Bugti tribesmen announced an end to the Nawabi system and requested the handing over of Nawab Bugti to authorities.His property was seized, and he was declared as a "proclaimed offender."

• 26th August 2006 a Black Day
Negotiations with the Baloch leaders could have helped resolve tensions but before they reached current scope, the military enforced the writ of the state by force which led to the 26 August 2006 military operation that killed JWP leader Nawab Akbar Khan Bugti. Bugti was killed in a bombing operation that caused the cave roof to collapse on him. His location was traced through the satellite phone he was using, and Pakistani secret service agencies pin-pointed his location.

CONCLUSION
A great deal of mistrust exists between the Baloch people and centre. Most feel pain and were frustrated. Nawab Akbar Bugti was a man who was prepared to die for his beliefs. he will be praised by the the baloch and even by the unborn Baloch generation yet to come.

Recommendation
The intelligence agencies should cease their activities with immediate effect. Concurrent list from the constitution should be removed and the province should be given more autonomy as provided under the origin of 1973. National Finance Commission should provide resources as according to the requirement of the province. Grant of power to the provinces to manage foreign trade. Restructuring of the council of common interest to accommodate the provinces democratic rights. Provinces should have full control over its land and resources.

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