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Traits Differentiating Mandibular First and Second Premolar

Joshua Wong Siau Kwang DT0212031123 Aaron Pan Zhi Ying DT0212031130 Lim Nick DT0212031133 Wendy Wong Hui Yin DT0212031149 Yong Sing Ee DT0212031221 Ong Jinn DT0212031235

Introduction
Most anteriorly placed posteriors in the permanent dentition. Replace the primary first and second molars (Succedaneous) Both are distal to the permanent canine and mesial to the permanent molar after full eruption of the permanent dentition Assist the molars in grinding food with their occlusal surface; the canines in piercing and tearing with their cusps

Aspects to be explored
1. Facial 2. Lingual 3. Proximal 4. Occlusal 5. Contact Points 6. Right and Left 7. Root 8. Variation

Lingual Aspect

First Premolar

Second Premolar

1st premolar has a very nearly symmetrical bilaterally compared to 2nd premolar.
http://www.uic.edu/classes/orla/orla312/PREMOLAR.htm http://www.smartdraw.com/examples/view/right+mandibular+first+premolar+dentition/ http://www.smartdraw.com/examples/view/right+mandibular+second+premolar+dentition/

First Premolar

Second Premolar

1st premolar has a large, pointed buccal cusp 2nd premolars buccal cusp is less pronounced
http://www.uic.edu/classes/orla/orla312/PREMOLAR.htm http://www.smartdraw.com/examples/view/right+mandibular+first+premolar+dentition/ http://www.smartdraw.com/examples/view/right+mandibular+second+premolar+dentition/

Buccal Aspect

First Premolar

Second Premolar

1st premolar is the smallest lingual cusp of ANY of the premolars. More occlusal surface may be seen from this aspect.

http://www.uic.edu/classes/orla/orla312/PREMOLAR.htm http://www.smartdraw.com/examples/view/right+mandibular+first+premolar+dentition/ http://www.smartdraw.com/examples/view/right+mandibular+second+premolar+dentition/

First Premolar

Second Premolar

1st premolar has a distinctive feature is the mesiolingual developmental groove


http://www.uic.edu/classes/orla/orla312/PREMOLAR.htm http://www.smartdraw.com/examples/view/right+mandibular+first+premolar+dentition/ http://www.smartdraw.com/examples/view/right+mandibular+second+premolar+dentition/

Occlusal Aspect

Mandibular 1st premolar Large, well developed buccal ridge.

Mandibular 2nd premolar The buccal ridge is not well developed.

http://www.google.com.my/imgres?imgurl=http://2.bp.blogspot.com http://what-when-how.com/dental-anatomy-physiology-and-occlusion/review-of-tooth-morphology-dental-anatomy-physiologyand-occlusion-part-2 http://www.uic.edu/classes/orla/orla312/PREMOLAR.htm

Mandibular 1st premolar

Mandibular 2nd premolar


Three-cusp

The large buccal cusp tip is centered over the root tip, about at the long axis of this tooth. The very large buccal cusp and much reduced lingual cusp are very evident. The mesial marginal ridge is more cervical than the distal contact ridge.

Developmental grooves present a distinctive 'Y' shape and have a central pit.
Two-cusp

A single developmental groove crosses the transverse ridge from mesial to distal. H or U shape groove pattern.

http://www.smartdraw.com/examples/view/right%2Bmandibular%2Bfirst%2Bpremolar%2Bdentition http://www.uic.edu/classes/orla/orla312/PREMOLAR.htm

distal contact ridge

mesial marginal ridge

http://what-when-how.com/dental-anatomy-physiology-and-occlusion/review-of-tooth-morphology-dental-anatomy-physiologyand-occlusion-part-2 http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-8FGsRaMiaPk/Tn4IBhBJhkI/AAAAAAAAAwY/DayO3KtxECA/s1600/mandibular%2B1st%2Bpremolar.jpg http://www.uic.edu/classes/orla/orla312/PREMOLAR.htm

Proximal Aspect

This picture shows the mesial aspect of right mandibular first premolar

Picture courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/syedsadatullah/mandibularpremolars

The features of mesial aspect of mandibular right first premolar


The crown outline is roughly rhomboidal The surface of crown is smooth except for mesiolingual groove The large buccal cusp tip is centered over the root tip The mesial surface of the root is smooth and flat from the buccal margin The tip of lingual cusp will be in line vertically with the lingual surface of the cervical part of the root
Reference from Dental Anatomy and Physiology ( Russell C. Wheeler) page 211 and Illustrated Dental Embryology, Histology and Anatomy (Bath-Balogh Fehrenbach) page 232

The slope of buccal triangular ridge is PARALLEL to the mesial marginal ridge

The cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) curvature is also more occlusal on the mesial surface. This is useful to distinguish right mandibular first premolar from the left

Reference from Dental Anatomy and Physiology ( Russell C. Wheeler) page 212 and Illustrated Dental Embryology, Histology and Anatomy (Bath-Balogh Fehrenbach) page 232

This picture shows the distal aspect of right mandibular first premolar

Picture courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/syedsadatullah/ma ndibular-premolars

The distal marginal ridge is higher above the cervical line compared to mesial marginal ridge Distal marginal ridge does not have extreme lingual slope of the mesial marginal ridge Major portion of the distal surface of crown is convex
Distal View Mesial View

Reference from Dental Anatomy and Physiology ( Russell C. Wheeler) page 212

This picture shows the mesial view of right mandibular second premolar

Picture courtesy of Illustrated Dental Embryology, Histology and Anatomy (BathBalogh Fehrenbach) page 234

The crown and root are wider buccolingually than first premolar The lingual lobe development is greater The buccal cusps is located more to the buccal and it is shorter than first premolar The mesial marginal ridge is at 90 degrees to the long axis of tooth The root is longer and slightly convex on mesial surface

Reference from Dental Anatomy and Physiology ( Russell C. Wheeler) page 222

This picture shows the distal view of right mandibular second premolar

Picture courtesy of Illustrated Dental Embryology, Histology and Anatomy (Bath-Balogh Fehrenbach) page 234

The distal view of right mandibular second premolar is almost same as mesial aspect However, more occlusal surface is seen because distal marginal ridge is at a lower level than mesial marginal ridge

Reference from Dental Anatomy and Physiology ( Russell C. Wheeler) page 223

Contact Points

Contact Points Mandibular 1st Premolar

Contact area is about the same height when viewed from the facial aspect
http://www.uic.edu/classes/orla/orla312/PRE MOLAR.htm

Contact Points Mand. 2nd Premolar

Mandibular Second Premolar

Contact area is not of the same height

Distal marginal ridge is lower than the mesial marginal ridge.


The mesial contact is more occlusal than the distal contact
http://www.uic.edu/classes/orla/orla312/PRE MOLAR.htm

Distinguishing Right From Left

Mandibular First Premolar

Larger distal occlusal fossa

Distal surface has larger radius of curvature than medial surface

http://what-when-how.com/dental-anatomy-physiology-and-occlusion/review-of-tooth-morphology-dental-anatomy-physiologyand-occlusion-part-2/

Mesial cusp slope of buccal cusp is shorter than the distal cusp slope

Mesial cusp slope

Distal Cusp slope

http://what-when-how.com/dental-anatomy-physiology-and-occlusion/review-of-tooth-morphology-dental-anatomyphysiology-and-occlusion-part-2/ http://www.uic.edu/classes/orla/orla312/PREMOLAR.htm

Deeper mesial cementoenemal junction curvature Presence of mesiolingual groove

Mesiolingual groove

Cementoenemal junction

http://what-when-how.com/dental-anatomy-physiology-and-occlusion/review-of-tooth-morphology-dental-anatomyphysiology-and-occlusion-part-2/ http://www.uic.edu/classes/orla/orla312/PREMOLAR.htm

Mandibular Second Premolar

2 cusps: lingual cusp shifted mesially 3 cusps: larger of the 2 lingual cusps is to mesial side

Fahrenbach, M (2011). Illustrated Dental Embryology, Histology and Anatomy. 3rd ed. United States of America: Elsevier Saunders. p235.

Distal marginal ridge is more cervically located, thus more occlusal surface is visible from distal view.

Distal Marginal ridge

Distal marginal ridge

http://what-when-how.com/dental-anatomy-physiology-and-occlusion/review-of-tooth-morphology-dental-anatomyphysiology-and-occlusion-part-2/ http://www.uic.edu/classes/orla/orla312/PREMOLAR.htm

Root

Facial

Distal view

Lingual view Facial Distal view

Lingual view

Mandibular First Premolar

Mandibular Second Premolar

http://www.uic.edu/classes/orla/orla312/PREMOLAR.htm http://www.slideshare.net/syedsadatullah/mandibular-premolars

Mandibular First Premolar

Facial

Distal view

Lingual view

Facial

Distal view

Lingual view

Mandibular First Premolar

Mandibular Second Premolar

1) The root of the mandibular first premolar is narrower on the lingual side as compared to the mandibular second premolar root .
http://www.uic.edu/classes/orla/orla312/PREMOLAR.htm http://www.slideshare.net/syedsadatullah/mandibularpremolars

Facial

Distal view

Lingual view

Facial

Distal view

Lingual view

Mandibular First Premolar

Mandibular Second Premolar

2) Root of mandibular second premolar is usually bigger than the root of mandibular first mandibular .

http://www.uic.edu/classes/orla/orla312/PREMOLAR.htm http://www.slideshare.net/syedsadatullah/mandibular-premolars

Facial

Distal view

Lingual view

Facial

Distal view

Lingual view

Mandibular First Premolar

Mandibular Second Premolar

3)Both mandibular first premolar and mandibular second premolar have single roots .However bifurcation of roots do sometimes occur in the mandibular first premolar .

http://www.uic.edu/classes/orla/orla312/PREMOLAR.htm http://www.slideshare.net/syedsadatullah/mandibular-premolars

Facial

Distal view

Lingual view

Facial

Distal view

Lingual view

Mandibular First Premolar

Mandibular Second Premolar

4) Apex of the root of the mandibular first premolar is sharper while the the apex of the mandibular second premolar is more blunt.

http://www.uic.edu/classes/orla/orla312/PREMOLAR.htm http://www.slideshare.net/syedsadatullah/mandibular-premolars

Facial

Distal view

Lingual view

Facial

Distal view

Lingual view

Mandibular First Premolar

Mandibular Second Premolar

5) A deep developmental groove is seen on the mesial aspect of the mandibular first premolar root while on the distal aspect there is a shallow depresssion devoid of any developmental groove . The mandibular second premolar does not have any grooves .
http://www.uic.edu/classes/orla/orla312/PREMOLAR.htm http://www.slideshare.net/syedsadatullah/mandibular-premolars

Variation

Facial

Distal view

Lingual view

Facial

Distal view

Lingual view

Mandibular First Premolar

Mandibular Second Premolar

This is a variable tooth in both crown and root. It may, in some persons, more nearly resemble the lower second premolar.

http://www.uic.edu/classes/orla/orla312/PREMOLAR.htm http://www.slideshare.net/syedsadatullah/mandibular-premolars

There may be one or two lingual cusps for the second mandibular premolar . This tooth is sometimes missing. only the third molars and upper lateral incisors are missing more frequently than this tooth.

http://www.uic.edu/classes/orla/orla312/PREMOLAR.htm http://www.slideshare.net/syedsadatullah/mandibular-premolars

Which premolar has a sharper and more pronounced buccal cusp? Why is the mesial contact point of the second mandibular premolar more occlusal than the distal? Which premolar has two cusp types?

Thank You