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Briefing on

First Aid Training


Dr. Nyunt Wai,
Associate Professor, School of Medical Sciences, IMU First Aid/CPR Coordinator 2013

Has any one of you had first aid training?

If you have a nosebleed, what will you do?

Nosebleed = Epistaxis

A bleeding wound

Pressure/ elevation
At least 10 minutes to give time for the blood to clot

Need to wear gloves?

Video 1

Where arteries can be compressed against the bone to control bleeding

Pressure points

Anatomy of the cardiovascular system

Choking

Why?

Choking - Adults

Heimlich maneuver
May also give back blows

Video 2

Choking- infant under 1 yr

If YOU are alone and choking: Self- Heimlich maneuver


Position your fist slightly above your navel and give yourself quick, inward and upward thrusts, or lean forward and press your abdomen quickly over any firm object, such as the back of a chair or a porch railing.

The First Aid Course: Objective :

To provide basic introduction to first aid


Skill-based approach

Introductory first aid training ME 113

Refer to your timetable for

practical sessions

TRAINING STRUCTURE
3 training sessions 1 theory, 2 practical Assessment 30 mins theory, 30 mins practical Topics covered:
A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. Definition of First Aid Aims of First Aid Principles of First Aid Wounds and Bleeding Fractures Bandages Strains, Sprains and Cramps Dislocation Nose Injury CPR

What Is First Aid?


Immediate assistance or treatment given to someone injured or suddenly taken ill before the arrival of ambulance, doctor, or other appropriately qualified person

Aims of First Aid


The 3 Ps : To Preserve life To Prevent worsening of condition To Promote recovery
Note: Apply in every situation

Unconscious?

Primary Assessment
D anger R esponse Airway B reathing C irculation

Detect life threatening problems

Danger
Assess What has happened Danger to you, casualty, bystanders Number of casualties How??? Casualties condition Life threatening Available resources Special assistance

Response
Level of Consciousness AVPU
Alert, Verbal-Speak louder and closer to casualty Pain-Employ pain stimulus Unresponsive

Respond to command, touch, pain

Response by eye movement, movement or verbal response

Basic Life Support [BLS]: maintenance of ABC


Maintain an adequate open Airway Restore Breathing to reverse respiratory arrest
Electric shock Drowning Head injuries

Restore Circulation to keep blood circulating and carrying oxygen to


brain heart, and the body

Circulation
Check pulse Pulse?? No pulse??

Carotid artery pulse

With 2 fingers, feel for the Adams apple

Then slide the fingers to the side into the groove between the Adams apple and the strap muscle

Feeling our own carotid pulse

Lets do it!

Feeling our own radial pulse


Thumbs side, at the wrist

Lets do it!

airway
Head tilt chin lift maneuver Look for obstruction

Breathing
Head tilt chin lift maneuver Check breathing by: Look chest movement Listen movement of air Feel expired air

A procedure involving chest compressions and rescue breathing to maintain oxygenation to the brain in the case of a casualty with cardiac arrest.
Artificially pump the heart by chest compressions Cardio (= Heart)

Cardipulmonary Rescuscitation (CPR)

Artificial breathing by blowing air into lungs Pulmonary (= lung)

30 chest compressions, followed by 2 breaths performed until - it is too dangerous, the person recovers, you are too tired, someone else can take over, or advanced medical help has arrived

Unresponsive, no breathing

Videos 3 & 4: CPR


1. What NOT to do 2. What to do

TYPES OF WOUNDS
Incised wound Laceration Abrasion Contusion (bruise) Puncture wound Gunshot wound

Amputation

Treatment
Wash wound with antiseptic lotion or water. Dab dry, apply antiseptic cream and cover with clean gauze. control bleeding Use gauze, roller bandages etc If dressing gets soiled, DO NOT remove it. Apply a new dressing over.
For Bruises- Apply cold compress to minimize swelling.

Fractures
Break or crack in bone
Causes: Direct force (at the point of fracture) Indirect force (elsewhere from fracture point)

Note: Indirect force can be a twist or wrench

Closed vs open fracture


Closed = Simple fracture Skin surrounding the fracture is unbroken Bruising and swelling may occur Open = Compound fracture A wound accompanies the fracture. Overlying skin is broken

Management

- closed fracture

Dont move the casualty unless in danger Steady, support and secure the injured part Immobilise the injured part with bandages and splints Send to hospital DO NOT let the casualty have anything to eat or drink.

Management-open

fracture)

Cover the wound with a sterile dressing Control bleeding Place padding around any protruding bone and bandage over pads (Same steps with management of closed

fracture from Immobilise to Send to hospital)

Bandages
Sterile and absorbent dressings that cover and protect a wound. Funtions: To maintain direct pressure over a dressing To retain dressings and splints in position To prevent or reduce swelling To provide support for a limb or joint To restrict movement To assist in lifting and carrying casualty

Types of dressing: Adhesive Sterile Gauze Improvised

The bandage is too tight if theres


Blue tinge (cyanosis) of the finger or toe nails Tingling or loss of sensation of fingers and toes Coldness of the fingers and toes Inability to move the fingers or toes

Strains, sprains
A strain is a forcible overstretching or tearing of a muscle or tendon A sprain is an injury to a ligament at or near a joint, which is often caused by a wrenching movement at the joint tearing the surrounding tissues

Management

- strains and sprains

RICE- Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation


Rest- Rest and steady the injured part Ice- Apply ice or cold packs (not directly, but wrapped with cloth) Compression- Compress, applying even pressure to the injured part (can bandage) Elevation- Elevate the injured part Request medical assistance if necessary

Any take home messages?


Cardiac arrest: Better to break a bone than to let the person die Improvise! Apply basic science principles (emergency medical officer vs a paramedic) Use common sense (which is not very common)

And one more thing..


Thank you for your attention!