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Ch.

7: Transcendental

7.2 Natural Logarithms

Inverse functions:
= = + Solve for : = = Switch and :

=
Conseder

=
= is an exponential function.

The inverse of exponential called a logarithm function = = log ?

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Ch. 7: Transcendental

7.2 Natural Logarithms

The most commonly used bases for logs are 10 and e: = Natural common function What is the e ? and = Natural logarithm function

A logarithm is the inverse of an exponential function so that if f(x) = ax, then f 1(x) = loga x. The graph of y = loga x is therefore a reflection of y = ax in the line y = x.
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Ch. 7: Transcendental

7.2 Natural Logarithms

The number e is a famous irrational number, and the first few digits are: 2.718281828459045235360287 4713527.. It is often called Euler's number after Leonhard Euler. e is the base of the natural logarithms (invented by John Napier).

The natural logarithm function is not defined for negative values of x.

Ch. 7: Transcendental

7.2 Natural Logarithms

Ch. 7: Transcendental

7.2 Natural Logarithms

Example

Ch. 7: Transcendental

7.2 Natural Logarithms

Example

Ch. 7: Transcendental

7.2 Natural Logarithms

Example

Ch. 7: Transcendental

7.2 Natural Logarithms

Ch. 7: Transcendental

7.2 Natural Logarithms

Example

Logarithmic Differentiation
The derivatives of positive functions given by formulas that involve products, quotients, and powers can often be found more quickly if we take the natural logarithm of both sides before differentiating.

The process, called logarithmic differentiation, is illustrated in the next example.

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Ch. 7: Transcendental

7.2 Natural Logarithms

Example Solution We take natural logarithm of both sides and simplify the result with the properties of logarithms. Then derivatives of both sides with respect to x:

Solve for dy/dx:

Substitute for y
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Ch. 7: Transcendental

7.2 Natural Logarithms

Solution

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Ch. 7: Transcendental

7.2 Natural Logarithms

Solution

Solution

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Ch. 7: Transcendental

7.2 Natural Logarithms

Solution

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Ch. 7: Transcendental

7.2 Natural Logarithms

Solution

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Ch. 7: Transcendental

7.2 Natural Logarithms

Solution

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Ch. 7: Transcendental

7.2 Natural Logarithms

Solution

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Ch. 7: Transcendental

7.2 Natural Logarithms

Solution

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Ch. 7: Transcendental

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