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MONETARY AND FISCAL POLICIES

Inflation
Inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services in an economy over a period of time. When the price level rises, each unit of currency buys fewer goods and services. A chief measure of price inflation is the inflation rate.When Prices rise the Value of Money falls.

STAGES OF INFLATION
1. CREEPING INFLATION 2. WALKING INFLATION 3. RUNNING INFLATION 4. HYPER INFLATION (0%-3%) ( 3% - 7%) (10% - 20 %) ( 20% and abv)

TYPES OF INFLATION 1. Demand Pull Inflation 2. Cost Push Inflation

Causes of Inflation
1. Demand pull Inflation Causes for Increase in Demand :a) b) c) d) e) f) Increase in Money Supply Increase in Black Marketing Increase in Hoarding Repayment of Past Internal Debt Increase in Exports Deficit Financing

Cont.
g)Increase in Income h)Demonstration Effect i)Increase in Black money j) Increase in Credit facilities

Cont.
2) Cost Push Inflation Causes for Increase in Cost :a) Increase in cost of raw materials b) Shortage of Supplies c) Natural calamities d) Industrial Disputes e) Increase in Exports f) Increase in Wages g) Increase in Transportation Cost h) Huge Expenditure on Advertisement

Effects of Inflation
Inflation can have positive and negative effects on an economy. Negative effects of inflation include loss in stability in the real value of money and other monetary items over time; uncertainty about future inflation may discourage investment and saving, and high inflation may lead to shortages of goods if consumers begin hoarding out of concern that prices will increase in the future. Positive effects include a mitigation of economic recessions, and debt relief by reducing the real level of debt.

Cont..
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Effect on Producers Effect on Debtors Effect on Creditors Effect on Fixed Income Group Effect on Wage Earners Effect on Equity Holders Effect on farmers Effect on Prodution

9.Effect on Hoarding 10.Effect on value of Money 11.Effect on Investment 12. Effect on savings

RBI
The central bank of the country is the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). It was established in April 1935 with a share capital of Rs. 5 crores on the basis of the recommendations of the Hilton Young Commission. The share capital was divided into shares of Rs. 100 each fully paid which was entirely owned by private shareholders in the begining. The Government held shares of nominal value of Rs. 2,20,000.

Governing Body
Reserve Bank of India was nationalised in the year 1949. The general superintendence and direction of the Bank is entrusted to Central Board of Directors of 20 members, the Governor and four Deputy Governors, one Government official from the Ministry of Finance, ten nominated Directors by the Government to give representation to important elements in the economic life of the country, and four nominated Directors by the Central Government to represent the four local Boards with the headquarters at Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and New Delhi. Local Boards consist of five members each Central Government appointed for a term of four years to represent territorial and economic interests and the interests of co-operative and indigenous banks. RBI has four subsidiariesNHB ( National Housing Bank) NABARD( National bank for Agriculture and development) DICGC( Deposit Insurance and Credit guarantee corporation of India) BRBNMPL( Bhartiya Reserve bank Note Mudra private limited)

Functions of RBI
Bank of Issue Banker to Government Bankers' Bank and Lender of the Last Resort Controller of Credit Custodian of Foreign Reserves Supervisory functions Promotional functions

What is the Monetary Policy?


The Monetary and Credit Policy is the policy statement, traditionally announced twice a year, through which the Reserve Bank of India seeks to ensure price stability for the economy. These factors include - money supply, interest rates and the inflation. In banking and economic terms money supply is referred to as M3 - which indicates the level (stock) of legal currency in the economy. Besides, the RBI also announces norms for the banking and financial sector and the institutions which are governed by it.

How is the Monetary Policy different from the Fiscal Policy?


The Monetary Policy regulates the supply of money and the cost and availability of credit in the economy. It deals with both the lending and borrowing rates of interest for commercial banks. The Monetary Policy aims to maintain price stability, full employment and economic growth. The Monetary Policy is different from Fiscal Policy as the former brings about a change in the economy by changing money supply and interest rate, whereas fiscal policy is a broader tool with the government. The Fiscal Policy can be used to overcome recession and control inflation. It may be defined as a deliberate change in government revenue and expenditure to influence the level of national output and prices.

What are the objectives of the Monetary Policy?


The objectives are to maintain price stability and ensure adequate flow of credit to the productive sectors of the economy. Stability for the national currency (after looking at prevailing economic conditions), growth in employment and income are also looked into. The monetary policy affects the real sector through long and variable periods while the financial markets are also impacted through short-term implications.

INSTRUMENTS OF MONETARY POLICY


1. Bank Rate of Interest 2. Cash Reserve Ratio 3. Statutory Liquidity Ratio 4. Open market Operations 5. Margin Requirements 6. Deficit Financing 7. Issue of New Currency 8. Credit Control

Bank Rate of Interest


It is the interest rate which is fixed by the RBI to control the lending capacity of Commercial banks . During Inflation , RBI increases the bank rate of interest due to which borrowing power of commercial banks reduces which thereby reduces the supply of money or credit in the economy .When Money supply Reduces it reduces the purchasing power and thereby curtailing Consumption and lowering Prices.

Cash Reserve Ratio


CRR, or cash reserve ratio, refers to a portion of deposits (as cash) which banks have to keep/maintain with the RBI. During Inflation RBI increases the CRR due to which commercial banks have to keep a greater portion of their deposits with the RBI . This serves two purposes. It ensures that a portion of bank deposits is totally risk-free and secondly it enables that RBI control liquidity in the system, and thereby, inflation.

Statutory Liquidity Ratio


Banks are required to invest a portion of their deposits in government securities as a part of their statutory liquidity ratio (SLR) requirements . If SLR increases the lending capacity of commercial banks decreases thereby regulating the supply of money in the economy.

Open market Operations


It refers to the buying and selling of Govt. securities in the open market . During inflation RBI sells securities in the open market which leads to transfer of money to RBI.Thus money supply is controlled in the economy.

Margin Requirements
During Inflation RBI fixes a high rate of margin on the securities kept by the public for loans .If the margin increases the commercial banks will give less amount of credit on the securities kept by the public thereby controlling inflation.

Deficit Financing
It means printing of new currency notes by Reserve Bank of India .If more new notes are printed it will increase the supply of money thereby increasing demand and prices. Thus during Inflation, RBI will stop printing new currency notes thereby controlling inflation.

Issue of New Currency


During Inflation the RBI will issue new currency notes replacing many old notes. This will reduce the supply of money in the economy.

Fiscal Policy
It refers to the Revenue and Expenditure policy of the Govt. which is generally used to cure recession and maintain economic stability in the country.

Instruments of Fiscal Policy


1. Reduction of Govt. Expenditure 2. Increase in Taxation 3. Imposition of new Taxes 4. Wage Control 5.Rationing 6. Public Debt 7. Increase in savings 8. Maintaining Surplus Budget

Other Measures
1. Increase in Imports of Raw materials 2. Decrease in Exports 3. Increase in Productivity 4. Provision of Subsidies 5. Use of Latest Technology 6. Rational Industrial Policy