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J.

McCalley
Double-fed electric machines
steady state analysis
Four configurations
2
We will study
only this one,
the DFIG.
Basic concepts
3
AC
DC
DC
AC
DFIG
Rotor
Power
Grid
DC Link
Rotor is wound: it has 3 windings.
Stator has three windings.
Induction machine looks like a transformer with a rotating secondary (rotor).
In DFIG, we will inject a voltage control signal via that converter.
Basic Concepts
4
p
f
n
s
s
60
= Balanced voltages applied to stator windings provides a
rotating magnetic field of speed
which induces an emf in the rotor windings according to
e
ind
=induced emf in one conductor of rotor
v=velocity of conductor relative to stator flux rotation
B=stator magnetic flux density vector
L=length of conductor in direction of wire
L B v e
ind
- = ) (
rotor
(f
s
: 60 Hz,
p: # of pole
pairs)
Basic concepts
5
rpm
60
;
; rad/sec 377 ;
p
f
n
n
n n
p s slip
s
s
s
m s
m m s
s
m s
=

=
O = =

= = e e
e
e e
We can manipulate to get:
) 1 (
) 1 (
s
s n n
s m
s m
=
=
e e
The induced rotor voltages have frequency of :
m s r
e e e =
Substitution into slip expression above yields:
s r s r
s
r
sf f s s = = = e e
e
e
Observe three modes of operation:

m
<
s

r
>0s>0Subsynchronous operation

m
=
s

r
=0s=0Synchronous operation

m
>
s

r
<0s<0Supersynchronous operation
Mechanical
rad/sec
Per-phase steady-state model
6
s s s s s
I jX R E V ) (
o
+ =
STATOR VOLTAGE EQUATION: at f
s

r r r rs r
I X j R E V ' ' + ' = ' ' ) (
o
ROTOR VOLTAGE EQUATION:
at f
r

=stator voltage with frequency f
s

s
V
s
E
s
I
s
R
s
X
o
= emf in the stator windings with frequency f
s

= stator current with frequency f
s

=stator resistance
=stator leakage reactance
=rotor voltage with frequency f
r

r
V'
rs
E'
r
I '
r
R'
r
X
o
'
=induced emf in the rotor windings with frequency f
r

=induced rotor current with frequency f
s

=rotor resistance
=rotor leakage reactance=
These quantities
are referred to
rotor side,
indicated by
prime notation.
These quantities
are referred to
stator side.
r r
L
o
e '
Referring quantities
7
Solve both relations for
m
and equate:
But recall:
Application of Faradays Law allows the stator back emf and the induced rotor
voltage to be expressed as:
m
r r r rs
m
s s s s
f N K E
f N K E
| t
| t
2
2
= '
=
K
s
, K
r
: stator and rotor winding factors, respectively,
which combine the pitch and distribution factors.
N
s
, N
r
: number of turns of stator & rotor, respectively.
f
s
, f
r
, frequency of stator & rotor quantities, respectively

m
: magnetizing flux
r r r
s s s
rs
s
r r r
rs
s s s
s
m
f N K
f N K
E
E
f N K
E
f N K
E
=
'

'
= =
t t
|
2 2
s r
sf f =
s N K
N K
sf N K
f N K
E
E
r r
s s
s r r
s s s
rs
s
= =
'

The ratio K
s
/K
r
is normally very close to 1, therefore
s N
N
E
E
r
s
rs
s
~
'
r
s
N
N
a = Define the effective turns ratio:
a
E s
E
s
a
E
E
s
rs
rs
s
= ' ~
'

Define the induced rotor voltage referred to the stator side:


a
E
E
s
rs
=
Referring quantities
8
We just derived that:
a
E s
E
s
rs
= '
At a locked rotor condition (s=1), the device is simply a static transformer,
and we have:
a I I
a E E
r r
rs rs
/ ' =
' =
rs s
s
rs
E a E
a
E
E ' = = '
This tells us it we want to move a voltage from rotor side to stator side, we multiply it
by a=N
s
/N
r
. We can obtain similar relationships for currents and impedances, and so
we define the rotor quantities referred to the stator according to:
2
2
a L L
a R R
r r
r r
o o
' =
' =
3
3
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r

j
r
L
r

E
rs

E
s

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s
I
r

V
s
V
r

Rotor quantities are referred
to the stator-side, indicated
by unprimed quantities.
This is locked rotor condition
(s=1), therefore
r
=
s
and
E
rs
=E
s
We can account for other
slip conditions using
r
=s
s

and from (*), aE
rs
=sE
s
.

(*)
Referring quantities
9
3
3
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r

js
s
L
r

E
rs
=sE
s

E
s

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s
I
r

V
s
V
r

Now write the rotor-side voltage equation (referred to stator):
r r s r s r
I L js R E s V ) (
o
e + =
Divide by s
r r s
r
s
r
I L j
s
R
E
s
V
) (
o
e + =
and we get the following circuit:
3
3
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r
/s
j
s
L
r

E
s

E
s

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s
I
r

V
s
V
r
/s
The voltage on both sides
of the xfmr is the same,
therefore, we may eliminate
the xfmr. .We represent a
magnetizing inductance
j
s
L
m
in its place.
Referring quantities
10
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r
/s
j
s
L
r

j
s
L
m

E
s

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
r
/s
Power relations
11
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r
/s
j
s
L
r

j
s
L
m

E
s

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
r
/s
s
s R
R
s
sR R
s
sR
s
sR sR R
s
R
r
r
r r r r r r r
) 1 (
+ =

+ =
+
=
s
s V
V
s
sV V
s
sV
s
sV sV V
s
V
r
r
r r r r r r r
) 1 (
+ =

+ =
+
=
Change the circuit accordingly.
We modify the above circuit slightly in order to clearly separate slip-dependent terms
from loss terms:
Power relations
12
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r

j
s
L
r

j
s
L
m

E
s

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
r

It is possible to prove that the mechanical power out of the machine is the power
associated with the slip-dependent terms R
2
(1-s)/s and V
r
(1-s)/s. To do so, use:
r loss s loss r s mech
P P P P P
, ,
+ =
where P
s
and P
r
are powers entering the machine through the stator & rotor windings,
respectively, and P
loss,s
and P
loss,r
are the stator and rotor winding losses, respectively.
Expressing the right-hand-terms of the power balance relation in terms of the above
circuit parameters leads one to identify the slip-dependent terms as P
mech
.
+ -
R
r
(1-s)/s
V
r
(1-s)/s
Knowing that the slip-dependent terms are those responsible for mechanical power,
we may obtain the power expressions from the circuit, as on the next slide.
Power balance relation:
Power relations
13
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r

j
s
L
r

j
s
L
m

E
s

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
r

( ) { }
{ }
*
2
*
2
*
2
Re
1
3
) 1 (
3
1
Re 3
) 1 (
3
Re 3 3
r r
r
r
r r
r
r
r eq eq r mech
I V
s
s
s
s R
I
I
s
s
V
s
s R
I
I V R I P
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

=
)
`

|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

=
=

+ -
R
eq
=
R
r
(1-s)/s
V
eq
=
V
r
(1-s)/s
If P
mech
>0the machine is delivering power through the shaft: MOTOR!
If P
mech
<0the machine is receiving power through the shaft: GEN!
Rotor current (I
r
) direction is out of positive side
of voltage source; therefore it supplies power to
circuit. But a normal (positive) resistance R
eq
always consumes power. So these two terms
should be opposite sign. Defining P
mech
>0 (see
below) as motor mode implies R
eq
term should
be added and V
eq
term should be subtracted.
P
mech

If 0<s<1R
eq
term is positive V
eq
term is positiveSupplying P to cct
If 0>s>-1R
eq
term is negative V
eq
term is negativeConsuming P from cct.
A first torque expression
14
{ }
*
2
Re
1
3
) 1 (
3
r r
r
r mech
I V
s
s
s
s R
I P
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

=
{ }
*
2
Re
1
3
) 1 (
3
r r
m
r
r
m m
mech em
m
em m em mech
I V
s
s p
s
s R
I
p p
P T
p
T T P
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

= = = O =
e e e
e
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r

j
s
L
r

j
s
L
m

E
s

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
r

+ -
R
eq
=
R
r
(1-s)/s
V
eq
=
V
r
(1-s)/s
(p: # of pole
pairs)
Recall from slide 5:
;
s
r
s
e
e
=
s
m
s m
s s
e
e
e e = = 1 ) 1 (
Therefore:
{ }
{ }
*
2
*
2
Re
3
3
Re 3 3
r r
r r
r r
r r
r
m
m r
m r
r
m
em
I V
p
R I p
I V
p R
I
p
T
e e
e
e
e e
e
e
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
r
m
r
s
s
m
s
s
e
e
e
e
e
e
= =
1
and
( )
i v r r
r r
r r
em
I V
p
R I p
T
e e
= cos
3
3
2
A second (equivalent) torque expression
15
{ }
*
Re 3
s s s
I V P =
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r

j
s
L
r

j
s
L
m

E
s

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
r

+ -
R
eq
=
R
r
(1-s)/s
V
eq
=
V
r
(1-s)/s
Stator power:
( ) ( )
m s r s s s s s s
L j I I L j R I V e e
o
+ + + =
Stator voltage:
Substitute V
s
into P
s
: { } ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) { }
( ) { }
*
2 2 2
* * * *
* *
Re 3
Re 3
Re 3 Re 3
s r m s s m s s s s s s
s r m s s s m s s s s s s s s
s m s r s s s s s s s s
I I L j I L j I L j I R
I I L j I I L j I I L j I I R
I L j I I L j R I I V P
e e e
e e e
e e
o
o
o
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ + + = =
The middle two terms are purely imaginary, therefore:
( ) { }
*
2
Re 3
s r m s s s s
I I L j I R P e + =
First term is purely real, only the second term contains real and imaginary, therefore:
{ }
*
2
Re 3 3
s r m s s s s
I I L j I R P e + =
A second (equivalent) torque expression
16
{ }
*
Re 3
r r r
I V P =
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r

j
s
L
r

j
s
L
m

E
s

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
r

+ -
R
eq
=
R
r
(1-s)/s
V
eq
=
V
r
(1-s)/s
Rotor power:
( )
( )
( ) ( )
m s r s r s r r r
m s r s r s
r
r
r
m s r s r s r r r r r
L js I I L js R I V
L j I I L j
s
R
I
s
V
L j I I L j
s
s
R R I
s
s
V V
e e
e e
e e
o
o
o
+ + + =
+ + |
.
|

\
|
+ =
+ + |
.
|

\
|
+

+ =

+
1 1
Rotor voltage:
Substitute V
r
into P
r
: { } ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) { }
( ) { }
*
2 2 2
* * * *
* *
Re 3
Re 3
Re 3 Re 3
r s m s r m s r r s r r
r s m s r r m s r r r s r r r
r m s r s r s r r r r r
I I L js I L js I L js I R
I I L js I I L js I I L js I I R
I L js I I L js R I I V P
e e e
e e e
e e
o
o
o
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ + + = =
The middle two terms are purely imaginary, therefore:
( ) { }
*
2
Re 3
r s m s r r r
I I L js I R P e + =
First term is purely real, only the second term contains real and imaginary, therefore:
{ }
*
2
Re 3 3
r s m s r r r
I I L js I R P e + =
A second (equivalent) torque expression
17
{ }
*
2
Re 3 3
r s m s r r r
I I L js I R P e + =
Now substitute P
s
and P
r
into the power balance equation:
r loss s loss r s mech
P P P P P
, ,
+ =
{ }
*
2
Re 3 3
s r m s s s s
I I L j I R P e + =
{ } { }
r loss s loss r s m s r r s r m s s s mech
P P I I L js I R I I L j I R P
, ,
*
2
*
2
Re 3 3 Re 3 3 + + + = e e
Observe we have loss terms added and subtracted in the above, so they go away.
{ } { }
* *
Re 3 Re 3
r s m s s r m s mech
I I L js I I L j P e e + =
Now consider what happens when you take the real part of a vector multiplied by j
(or rotated by 90 degrees):
Re(ja)
a
ja
Im(a)
Observe that
Re(ja) = - Im(a)
Therefore:
{ } { }
* *
Im 3 Im 3
r s m s s r m s mech
I I L s I I L P e e =
A second (equivalent) torque expression
18
Lets consider another vector identity: taking imaginary part of a conjugated vector:
{ } { }
* *
Im 3 Im 3
r s m s s r m s mech
I I L s I I L P e e =
Im(a*)
a
a*
Im(a)
Observe that
Im(a*) = - Im(a)
Therefore:
{ } { }
{ } { }
{ } { } | |
{ }| | s I I L
I I s I I L
I I L s I I L
I I L s I I L P
r s m s
r s r s m s
r s m s r s m s
r s m s s r m s mech
=
=
=
=
1 Im 3
Im Im 3
Im 3 Im 3
Im 3 ) ( Im 3
*
* *
* *
*
*
*
e
e
e e
e e
Recall: ) 1 ( s
s m
= e e
{ }
*
Im 3
r s m m mech
I I L P e =
Therefore:
m
mech em
p
P T
e
=
Recall:
{ }
*
Im 3
r s m em
I I pL T =
Two equivalent torque expressions
19
{ }
*
Im 3
r s m em
I I pL T = ( )
i v r r
r r
r r
em
I V
p
R I p
T
e e
= cos
3
3
2
Torque expression #1: Need rotor
speed, rotor voltage and rotor current
Torque expression #2: Need stator
current and rotor current
A third set of equivalent torque expressions follow.
Additional equivalent torque expressions
20
If we assume the magnetic core of the stator and rotor is linear, then we may express
flux linkage phasors of each winding (stator winding and rotor winding, respectively):
r m s s s
I L I L + =
r r s m r
I L I L + =
Self inductances
Mutual
inductances
Stator winding
Rotor winding
ASIDE: Each self inductance is comprised of mutual and leakage according to:
r m r s m s
L L L L L L
o o
+ = + = ;
Therefore:
s s r s m
r m s s s m s
I L I I L
I L I L I L
o
o

+ + =
+ + =
) (
r r r s m
r r r m s m r
I L I I L
I L I L I L
o
o

+ + =
+ + =
) (
From stator winding equation:
; ;
m
s s s
r
s
r m s
s
L
I L
I
L
I L
I

=

=

From rotor winding equation:
m
r r r
s
r
s m r
r
L
I L
I
L
I L
I

=

=

;
Choose one of these equations and
substitute into torque expression #2.
{ }
*
Im 3
r s m em
I I pL T =
Additional equivalent torque expressions
21
From stator winding equation:
s
r m s
s
L
I L
I

=

From rotor winding equation:
r
s m r
r
L
I L
I

=

Substitute into torque expression #2.
{ }
*
Im 3
r s m em
I I pL T =
{ }
{ }
{ }
*
2
*
* *
*
Im 3
Im 3
Im 3
Im 3
r s
s
m
r m r s
s
m
r r m r s
s
m
r
s
r m s
m em
I
L
L
p
I L I
L
L
p
I I L I
L
L
p
I
L
I L
pL T

=
=
=
)
`


=
Using stator winding equation:
Purely
real
{ }
{ }
{ }
*
2
*
* *
*
Im 3
Im 3
Im 3
Im 3
r s
r
m
s m r s
r
m
s s m r s
r
m
r
s m r
s m em
I
L
L
p
I L I
L
L
p
I I L I
L
L
p
L
I L
I pL T

=
=
=

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
Using rotor winding equation:
Purely
real
Airgap and slip power
On slides 15 and 16, we derived the following relations for the power into the
stator and rotor respectively:
{ }
*
2
Re 3 3
s r m s s s s
I I L j I R P e + =
{ }
*
2
Re 3 3
r s m s r r r
I I L js I R P e + =
Subtracting losses from both sides, we obtain:
{ }
*
2
Re 3 3
s r m s s s s
I I L j I R P e =
{ }
*
2
Re 3 3
r s m s r r r
I I L js I R P e =
This quantity is the power that flows
from the stator terminals to the rotor
(negative for generator operation). In
other words, it is the power across
the airgap. Therefore:
{ }
*
2
Re 3 3
s r m s s s s airgap
I I L j I R P P e = =
This quantity is the power that is
transferred from the grid to the rotor
through the converter (negative
when it is into the grid). It is called
the slip power. Therefore:
{ }
*
2
Re 3 3
r s m s r r r slip
I I L js I R P P e = =
Bring out front the s in the slip power expression and use Re{ja}=-Im(a) (both):
Use Im(a*) = -Im(a) on slip expression:
22
{ }
*
2
Im 3 3
s r m s s s s airgap
I I L I R P P e = =
{ }
*
2
Im 3 3
r s m s r r r slip
I I L s I R P P e = =
{ }
r s m s r r r slip
I I L s I R P P
*
2
Im 3 3 e = =
The term 3Im{} in the slip power expression is P
airgap
. Therefore:
{ }
*
2
Im 3 3
s r m s s s s airgap
I I L I R P P e = =
airgap slip
sP P =
Airgap and slip power
23
So we just proved that:
Our power balance relation states:
Recall:
s
m
s
e
e
= 1

airgap
s
m
mech
P P
e
e
=
airgap
s m
airgap
s
m
m
mech em
P
p p
P
p
P T
e e e
e
e
= = =
slip
s
em
P
s
p
T
e

=
s
r
s
e
e
=
slip
s r
s
em
P
p
T
e e
e
=
slip
r
em
P
p
T
e

=

airgap slip
sP P =
where
{ }
*
2
Re 3 3
s r m s s s s airgap
I I L j I R P P e = = { }
*
2
Re 3 3
r s m s r r r slip
I I L js I R P P e = =

slip airgap
P
r loss r
P
s loss s r loss s loss r s mech
P P P P P P P P P
, , , ,
+ = + =
Therefore:
slip airgap mech
P P P + =
Substituting
airgap slip
sP P =
we obtain
( )
airgap airgap airgap mech
P s sP P P = = 1
Substituting:
slip airgap airgap slip
P
s
P sP P
1
= =
Approximate relations between active powers
24
On slides 15 and 16, we derived the following relations for the power into the
stator and rotor respectively:
{ }
*
2
Re 3 3
s r m s s s s
I I L j I R P e + =
{ }
*
2
Re 3 3
r s m s r r r
I I L js I R P e + =
If we neglect the stator losses (3R
S
I
s
2
) and rotor losses (3R
r
I
r
2
):
{ }
*
Re 3
s r m s s
I I L j P e =
{ }
*
Re 3
r s m s r
I I L js P e =
Bring out front the s in the rotor power expression and use Re{ja}=-Im(a) (both):
{ }
*
Im 3
s r m s s
I I L P e =
{ }
*
Im 3
r s m s r
I I L s P e =
Use Im(a*) = - Im(a) on the rotor power expression
{ }
*
Im 3
s r m s s
I I L P e =
{ }
r s m s r
I I L s P
*
Im 3 e =
The term 3Im{} in the rotor power expression is P
S
. Therefore:
s r
sP P =
Recall the power balance relation:
r loss s loss r s mech
P P P P P
, ,
+ =
Neglecting losses:
r s mech
P P P + =
Substituting P
r
expression:
s s s mech
P s sP P P ) 1 ( = =
Recall:
s
m
s
e
e
= 1

s
s
m
mech
P P
e
e
=
s
s m
s
s
m
m
mech em
P
p p
P
p
P T
e e e
e
e
= = =

r
s
em
P
s
p
T
e

=
s
r
s
e
e
=
r
s r
s
em
P
p
T
e e
e
=
r
r
em
P
p
T
e

=

Active power relations - summary
25
s r
se e =
Exact
Approximate
Both
{ }
*
2
Re 3 3
s r m s s s s
I I L j I R P e + =
{ }
*
2
Re 3 3
r s m s r r r
I I L js I R P e + =
{ }
*
2
Re 3 3
s r m s s s s airgap
I I L j I R P P e = =
{ }
*
2
Re 3 3
r s m s r r r slip
I I L js I R P P e = =
airgap slip
sP P =
r loss s loss r s mech
P P P P P
, ,
+ =
slip airgap mech
P P P + =
( )
airgap mech
P s P = 1
s
m
s
e
e
= 1
airgap
s
m
mech
P P
e
e
=
airgap
s
em
P
p
T
e
=
m
mech em
p
P T
e
=
slip
r
em
P
p
T
e

=
{ }
*
Re 3
s r m s s
I I L j P e =
{ }
*
Re 3
r s m s r
I I L js P e =
{ }
*
Re 3
s r m s s airgap
I I L j P P e = =
{ }
*
Re 3
r s m s r slip
I I L js P P e = =
s r
sP P =
r s mech
P P P + =
s mech
P s P ) 1 ( =
s
s
m
mech
P P
e
e
=
s
s
em
P
p
T
e
=
r
r
em
P
p
T
e

=
Power balance
26
P
s

P
loss,s

P
airgap

P
slip

P
r

P
loss,r


slip airgap
P
r loss r
P
s loss s r loss s loss r s mech
P P P P P P P P P
, , , ,
+ = + =
These figures assume proper sign convention
(power flowing to the rotor is positive).
P
grid

P
s

P
airgap

P
slip

P
r
P
grid

With losses
Without losses
P
mech
P
mech

Generator modes
27
em
s
s
T
p
P
e
=
em
r
r
T
p
P
e
=
Mode Slip and speed P
mech
P
s
P
r

1. Motor
(T
em
>0)
s<0,
m
>
s

(suprsynchrnsm)

>0 (mch delivers
mech pwr)
>0 (mch receives
power via stator)
>0 (mch receives
power via rotor)
2. Generator
(T
em
<0)
s<0,
m
>
s

(suprsynchrnsm)

<0 (mch receives
mech pwr)
<0 (mch delivers
power via stator)
<0 (mch delivers
power via rotor)
3. Generator
(T
em
<0)
s>0,
m
<
s

(subsynchrnsm)

<0 (mch receives
mech pwr)
<0 (mch delivers
power via stator)
>0 (mch receives
power via rotor)
4. Motor
(T
em
>0)
s>0,
m
<
s

(subsynchrnsm)

>0 (mch delivers
mech pwr)
>0 (mch receives
power via stator)
<0 (mch delivers
power via rotor)
s r
se e =
Focusing on the generator modes, we observe the standard induction machine
generating mode, supersynchronism, where
m
>
s
(mode 2). We also observe a
subsynchronous mode (mode 3), where
m
<
s
, which is available to the DGIG as a
result of the machine receiving power from the grid via the rotor circuit.
For each mode, we may use the three relations to track the sign P
s
,
r
, and P
r
from the
signs of T
em
and s. For example, for mode 2, T
em
<0P
s
<0 and T
em
<0, s<0
r
<0P
r
<0
Generator modes
28
s m
e e >
s m
e e <
These figures show actual flow
direction for generator operation.
They also neglect losses.
P
m
= P
mech

Mode 2
Mode 3
Recall the approximate
relation
s r
sP P =
Operation must have
|s|<1, so rotor power is
always smaller than
stator power.
In fact, DFIGS always
run within about
-0.3<s<0.3.
Therefore, the rating of
the PE converter circuit
need be only about 30%
of the stator winding
rating.
A question on rating
29
This figure assumes proper
sign convention (power
flowing to the rotor or into
the stator is positive).
P
s

P
airgap

P
slip

P
r
P
grid

Without losses
P
mech

r s mech
P P P + =
s
P
P
mech
s

=
1
r s g
P P P + =
s
sP
P
mech
r

=
1
Assume an operating condition
such that P
mech
=P
WTrating
. Then
WTrating g mech
P P P = =
s
P
P
WTrating
s

=
1
s
sP
P
WTrating
r

=
1
For example, consider P
mech
=P
WTrating
=-2 MW. In supersynchronous mode, with s=-0.3,
MW. 5385 . 1
3 . 0 1
2
=
+
=
s
P
Therefore stator winding must be rated for 1.5385 MW.
But in the subsynchronous mode, s=+0.3, then MW 8571 . 2
3 . 0 1
2
=

=
s
P
Question: Does this mean that the stator of a 2 MW turbine must be rated for 2.8571?
Answer: No. In subsynchronous mode, the mechanical power from the generator shaft
is lower that that in the supersynchronous mode. If P
mech
increases beyond a certain
level, then machine speed increases into the supersynchronous mode. So above
situation never occurs. We can obtain the maximum power in subsynchronous mode as:
MW 0769 . 1 ) 3 . 0 1 ( 5385 . 1 ) 1 ( = = = s P P
s mech
Question on sign of losses
30
Question: Since stator losses (3R
S
I
s
2
) and rotor losses (3R
r
I
r
2
) are always
positive, and since we get sign changes with the numerical values of P
mech
,
P
s
, and (sometimes) P
r
, do the loss terms in the above equation need to
have different signs for motor operation than for generator operation? That
is, do we need to do the following?
r loss s loss r s mech
P P P P P
, ,
+ =
r loss s loss r s mech
P P P P P
, ,
+ =
Motor operation:
r loss s loss r s mech
P P P P P
, ,
+ + + =
Generator operation:
Answer: No. Our original equation applies for both motor & generator operation.
Remember: P
mech
is positive for motor operation; P
s
, and P
r
are positive when
flowing into the device from the grid.
It may help to think about the equation in two different, but equivalent forms.

r loss s loss
Input
r s
Output
mech
P P P P P
, ,
+ =

Motor operation:

r loss s loss
Input
mech
Output
r s
P P P P P
, ,
+ + = +

Generator operation:
50 = 45 +10 - 3 - 2
- 50 = - 55 + 3 + 2
Per-unitization
31
In general, per-unitization enables inclusion of DFIGs within a system model.
It also facilitates identification of inappropriate data. Finally, a per-unitized
voltage provides the ability to know how far it is from its nominal value
(usually also the normal value) without knowing that nominal value.

The procedure is to choose three base quantities and compute other
necessary base quantities. We will choose our base quantities as
rated rms line-to-neutral stator voltage, V
base
=|V
s
|
rated
(rms volts);
rated rms stator line current, I
base
=|I
s
|
rated
(rms amperes)
rated stator synchronous frequency,
base
=
s
,
rated
(rad/sec))
Then we compute:
base
base
base
I
V
Z =
Base impedance:
base
base
base
I
L

=
Base inductance:
base
base
base
V
e
=
Base flux:
|
.
|

\
|
A = A
A
A
~ = t V
t dt
d
v

: ion Justificat
base base base
I V S 3 =
Three-phase
power base: base m
base
base
S
T
,
O
=
Base torque:
p
base
base m
e
= O
,
Base speed:
Per-unitization stator side
32
Once all base quantities are obtained, then per-unitization is easy:
base
s
pu s
V
V
V =
,
Stator voltage in pu:
base
s
pu s
I
I
I =
,
Stator current in pu:
base
s
pu s

=
,
Stator flux in pu:
{ }
base
s s
pu s
S
I V
P
*
,
Re
3 =
Stator active power in pu:
{ }
base
s s
pu s
S
I V
Q
*
,
Im
3 =
Stator reactive power in pu:
As usual, only the magnitude is transformed (angle remains unchanged).
Per-unitization rotor side
33
base
r
pu r
V
V
V =
,
Rotor voltage in pu:
base
r
pu r
I
I
I =
,
Rotor current in pu:
base
r
pu r

=
,
Rotor flux in pu:
{ }
base
r r
pu r
S
I V
P
*
,
Re
3 =
Rotor active power in pu:
{ }
base
r r
pu r
S
I V
Q
*
,
Im
3 =
Rotor reactive power in pu:
For the rotor side, we
use the same base
quantities as on the
stator side (with
actual quantities
referred to the stator
side).
As usual, only the magnitude is transformed (angle remains unchanged).
Per-unitization torque, speed, R, L
34
base
em
pu em
T
T
T =
,
Torque in pu:
base m
m
pu m
,
,
O
O
= O
Speed in pu:
base
r
pu
Z
R
r =
Resistances in pu:
base
pu
L
L
l =
Inductance in pu:
As usual, only the magnitude is transformed (angle remains unchanged).
Note that the
resistances and
inductances when
expressed in pu are
lower case.
On the rotor side, we
use the same base
quantities as on the
stator side (with
actual quantities
referred to the stator
side).
Voltage equations expressed in per unit
35
From slides 15, 16, we obtain voltage equations for stator and rotor circuits:
( ) ( )
m s r s s s s s s
L j I I L j R I V e e
o
+ + + = ( ) ( )
m s r s r s r r r
L js I I L js R I V e e
o
+ + + =
s s r s m s
I L I I L
o
+ + = ) (
r r r s m r
I L I I L
o
+ + = ) (
From slide 20, we obtain the equations for stator and rotor flux linkages:
which we rearrange by collecting terms in j
s
:
( ) | |
m r s s s s s s s
L I I I L j R I V + + + =
o
e
( ) | |
m r s r r s r r r
L I I I L js R I V + + + =
o
e
We recognize the flux linkage expressions in the voltage equations. Therefore:
s s s s s
j R I V e + =
r s r r r
js R I V e + =
Now we can replace voltages, currents, and flux linkages with the product of their
per-unit value and their base quantity, then the base quantities can be used to per-
unitize the resistances and frequency to obtain:
pu s s pu s pu s
j r I V
, , ,
+ =
pu r r pu r pu r
js r I V
, , ,
+ =
(*)
Voltage equations expressed in per unit
36
s s s s s
j R I V e + =
r s r r r
js R I V e + =
Replace voltages, currents, flux linkages with the product of their pu value and
their base quantity, then base quantities are used to per-unitize resistances and
frequency to obtain:
pu s s pu s pu s
j r I V
, , ,
+ =
pu r r pu r pu r
js r I V
, , ,
+ =
Now consider the flux linkage equations:
r r s m r
I L I L + =
r m s s s
I L I L + =
Replace currents and flux linkages with the product of their pu value and their
base quantity, then base quantities are used to per-unitize inductances to obtain:
pu r r pu s m pu r
I l I l
, , ,
+ =
pu r m pu s s pu s
I l I l
, , ,
+ =
Per-unitize one of the torque equations (#2) { }
*
Im 3
r r em
I p T =
as follows:
p
I V S
T
base m
base base
base m
base
base
/
3
, ,
e
=
O
=

{ }
{ }
*
, ,
*
,
,
*
,
Im 3
/
Im 3
/
3
Im 3
pu r pu r
base
r
base m base
r
base m
base base
r r
pu em
I
I
I
V
p
I V
I p
T
e

= =
Per-unitize the power expressions to obtain:
) sin( ); cos(
) sin( ); cos(
, , , , , ,
, , , , , ,
i v pu r pu r pu r i v pu r pu r pu r
i v pu s pu s pu s i v pu s pu s pu s
I V Q I V P
I V Q I V P
| | | |

= =
= =
Homework #3
37
Homework #3: This homework is due Monday, March 26.

A. Using previous relations provided in these slides, derive the following
torque expressions.
{ }
s s em
I p T , Im 3 . 1
*
=
{ }
*
, Im 3 . 2
r r em
I p T =
{ }
s r
s r
m
em
L L
L
p T
o
, Im 3 . 3
*
=
(and identify )
B. Use Q = 3Im{V I
*
} and the equivalent circuit to derive reactive power
expressions, in terms of I
s
and I
r
for
1. The stator, Q
s

2. The rotor, Q
r

C. For each DFIG condition below, compute P
airgap
and P
slip
and draw the power
flows similar to slide 28.
1. P
mech
=-1 MW with s=+0.30 (subsynchronous operation).
2. P
mech
=-1MW with s=-0.30 (supersynchronous operation).
D. Complete the table on the next slide (the boxed section) by computing the
per-unit values of the indicated five resistances/inductances for the 2 MW
machine.
Homework
38
u (or a)
R
s

L
s

L
m

R
r

L
r

R
r

L
r

L
s

L
r

V
base

I
base

R
s

l
s

l
m

r
r

l
r

Phasor diagrams for generator operation
39
We have developed the following relations:
pu s s pu s pu s
j r I V
, , ,
+ =
pu r r pu r pu r
js r I V
, , ,
+ =
pu r m pu s s pu s
I L I L
, , ,
+ =
(3) Stator winding flux equation
(4) Rotor winding flux equation
(2) Rotor voltage equation
(1) Stator voltage equation
Draw phasor diagram per below (CCW rotation is pos angle):
Step 1: Draw V
s
as reference (0).
Step 2: For gen, Q
s
>0, lag; for gen Q
s
<0, lead. Draw I
s
phasor.
Step 3: Use (1) to draw the stator flux phasor
s
:
Step 4: Use (3) to draw the rotor current phasor I
r
:
Step 5: Use (4) to draw the rotor flux phasor
r
:
Step 6: .
) (
, , , s pu s pu s pu s
r I V j =
m pu s s m pu s pu r
l I l l I / /
, , ,
=
pu r r pu s m pu r
I l I l
, , ,
+ =
V
s

I
s

I
s
r
s

V
s
- I
s
r
s

s
= -j(V
s
I
s
r
s
)
l
s
I
s
/l
m

s
/l
m

I
r
=
s
/l
m
l
s
I
s
/l
m

l
m
I
s

l
r
I
r

r
=l
m
I
s
+l
r
I
r

pu r r pu s m pu r
I l I l
, , ,
+ =
Phasor diagrams for generator operation
40
Draw phasor diagram per below (CCW rotation is pos angle):
Step 1: Draw V
s
as reference (0).
Step 2: For gen, Q
s
>0, lag; for gen, Q
s
<0, lead. Draw I
s
phasor.
Step 3: Use (1) to draw the stator flux phasor
s
:
Step 4: Use (3) to draw the rotor current phasor I
r
:
Step 5: Use (4) to draw the rotor flux phasor
r
:
Step 6: Use (2) to draw the rotor voltage phasor V
r
:
) (
, , , s pu s pu s pu s
r I V j =
pu r r pu r pu r
js r I V
, , ,
+ =
V
s

I
s

I
s
r
s

V
s
- I
s
r
s

s
= -j(V
s
I
s
r
s
)
l
s
I
s
/L
m

s
/l
m

I
r
=
s
/l
m
l
s
I
s
/l
m

l
m
I
s

l
r
I
r

r
=l
m
I
s
+L
r
I
r

js
r
, s>0, sub-sync
I
r
r
r

V
r
=I
r
r
r
+js
r
, s>0
js
r
, s<0
V
r
=I
r
r
r
+js
r
, s<0
super-syn
Observe that the angle of V
r
is
heavily influenced by the sign of s.
m pu s s m pu s pu r
l I l l I / /
, , ,
=
pu r r pu s m pu r
I l I l
, , ,
+ =
Question: How to know quadrant of I
s
?
41
Consider the circuit below, which is analogous to our stator winding circuit.
At any operating condition, we may
characterize the circuit as an impedance
Z=R+jX=Z/_, as indicated. Then we may
express the current according to
u Z
= +
=
Z
jX R
Z
V
I
u
u
u Z =
Z
= = Z =
Z
V
Z
V
Z
V
I I
i
Real pwr Reactive pwr
P>0
motor
R>0
Q>0
absorbing
X>0
Observe that current angle is always
negative of impedance angle,
i
=-
Real pwr Reactive pwr
P>0
motor
R>0
Q<0
supplying
X<0
Real pwr Reactive pwr
P<0
gen
R<0
Q>0
absorbing
X>0
Real pwr Reactive pwr
P<0
gen
R<0
Q<0
supplying
X<0
Z
I
I
Z
Z
I
Z
I
V
V
V
V
Lag
Lead
Machine
Lag
Lead
Example Problem
42
(a) Synchronous speed
(b) Line-to-neutral voltage
(c) Line current
(d) Stator flux
(e) Rotor current
(f) Rotor flux
(g) Rotor voltage
(h) Rotor real power
(i) Rotor reactive power
(j) Total real power generated
(k) T
em

(b) Line-to-neutral voltage:
volts 0 4 . 398 0
3
690
Z = Z =
s
V
(c) Line current:
amps 180 4 . 1673
0 4 . 398 3
10 2
3
3 0
*
6
*
*
Z =
|
|
.
|

\
|
Z

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = +
s
s
s s s s
V
P
I I V j P
(d) Stator flux
( )
webers 90 28 . 1
16 . 314
10 6 . 2 ) 180 4 . 1673 ( 0 4 . 398 ) (
3
Z =
Z Z
=

=

j j
R I V
s
s s s
s
e

s s s s s
j R I V e + =
(a) Synchronous speed:
rad/sec 16 . 314 ) 50 ( 2 2 = = = t t e
s s
f
Alternatively, the synchronous speed was given as 1500 rpm, therefore:
sec / 08 . 157
sec 60
min 2
min
1500
rad
rev
rad rev
s
= = O
t

sec / 16 . 314 ) 08 . 157 ( 2 rad p
s s
= = O = e
The 2 MW DFIG given by the data on slide 38 is delivering, from the stator, rated
load (2 MW) at rated voltage with zero stator reactive power in a 50 Hz grid. The
slip is s=-0.25 (super-synchronous). Compute:
Example Problem
43
(a) Synchronous speed
(b) Line-to-neutral voltage
(c) Line current
(d) Stator flux
(e) Rotor current
(f) Rotor flux
(g) Rotor voltage
(h) Rotor real power
(i) Rotor reactive power
(j) Total real power generated
(k) T
em

(e) Rotor current
(f) Rotor flux
(g) Rotor voltage
r m s s s
I L I L + =
amps 5 . 16 4 . 1807
10 5 . 2
) 180 8 . 1673 ( 10 587 . 2 90 28 . 1
3
3
Z =

Z Z
=

m
s s s
r
L
I L
I

This is the referred rotor current!
We can obtain the actual rotor current from a (or u) =0.34:
amps 5 . 16 5 . 614 5 . 16 4 . 1807 ) 34 . 0 ( Z = Z = = '
r r
I a I
This phasor is at the rotor
frequency, of
f
r
=sf
s
=-0.25(50)=-12.5 Hz
r r s m r
I L I L + =
weber 4 . 77 358 . 1 5 . 16 4 . 1807 10 587 . 2 180 8 . 1673 10 5 . 2
3 3
Z = Z + Z =

r

volts 9 . 165 2 . 102 ) 4 . 77 358 . 1 )( 16 . 314 )( 25 . 0 ( 10 9 . 2 ) 5 . 16 4 . 1807 (


3
Z = Z + Z =

j V
r
r s r r r
js R I V e + =
Actual rotor voltage: Z =
Z
= =
'
9 . 165 6 . 300
34 . 0
9 . 165 2 . 102
a
V
V
r
r
The 2 MW DFIG given by the data on slide 38 is delivering, from the stator, rated
load (2 MW) at rated voltage with zero stator reactive power in a 50 Hz grid. The
slip is s=-0.25 (super-synchronous). Compute:
Example Problem
44
The 2 MW DFIG given by the data on slide 38 is delivering, from the stator, rated
load (2 MW) at rated voltage with zero stator reactive power in a 50 Hz grid. The
slip is s=-0.25 (super-synchronous). Compute:
(a) Synchronous speed
(b) Line-to-neutral voltage
(c) Line current
(d) Stator flux
(e) Rotor current
(f) Rotor flux
(g) Rotor voltage
(h) Rotor real power
(i) Rotor reactive power
(j) Total real power generated
(k) T
em

(h) Rotor real power
(i) Rotor reactive power
(j) Total real power generated
{ }
*
Re 3
r r r
I V P =
{ } MW 55 . 0 ) 5 . 16 4 . 1807 ( 9 . 165 2 . 102 Re 3
*
= Z Z =
r
P
{ }
*
Im 3
r r r
I V Q =
{ } kVAR 4 . 23 ) 5 . 16 4 . 1807 ( 9 . 165 2 . 102 Im 3
*
= Z Z =
r
Q
MW 55 . 2 55 . 0 2 = = +
r s
P P
r loss s loss r s mech
P P P P P
, ,
+ =
Comments:
1. P
m
must be larger in magnitude to supply losses
2. This wind turbines rating should be 2.55 MW.
3. The DFIG stator winding is rated for 2MW.
Example Problem
45
(a) Synchronous speed
(b) Line-to-neutral voltage
(c) Line current
(d) Stator flux
(e) Rotor current
(f) Rotor flux
(g) Rotor voltage
(h) Rotor real power
(i) Rotor reactive power
(j) Total real power generated
(k) T
em

(k) T
em

{ }
*
Im 3
r s
s
m
em
I
L
L
p T =
( ) { } kNm T
em
9 . 12 5 . 16 4 . 1807 90 28 . 1 Im
10 587 . 2
10 5 . 2
2 3
*
3
3
= Z Z

The 2 MW DFIG given by the data on slide 38 is delivering, from the stator, rated
load (2 MW) at rated voltage with zero stator reactive power in a 50 Hz grid. The
slip is s=-0.25 (super-synchronous). Compute:
Wind turbine control levels
46
Level I: Regulates power flow
between grid and generator.
Level II: Controls the amount
of energy extracted from the
wind by wind turbine rotor.
Level III: Responds to wind-
farm or grid-central control
commands for MW dispatch,
voltage, frequency, or inertial
control.
Rotor-side converter (RSC) is
controlled so that it provides
independent control of T
em

and Q
s
. Lets study the
steady-state actions of this
particular control function.
Level 1 control
47
This (open-
loop) control
not heavily
used for DFIGs
Assume DC bus voltage is
controlled by grid-side
converter (GSC) to a pre-
determined value for
proper operation of both
GSC and RSC.
We achieve
control objectives
by controlling
rotor-side
voltage.
We control rotor
voltage to achieve a
specified torque and
stator reactive power.
Level 1 control
48
Our objective here is, for a fixed stator voltage (fixed by the grid), and a
desired torque T
em,ref
and a desired stator reactive power Q
s,ref
, we want to
determine the rotor voltage to make it so. We are also interested in the
stator flux, stator current, rotor current, and rotor flux, and stator real power,
as shown in the diagram below.
Level 1 control
49
We draw the phasor diagram with stator flux as the reference (0 degrees). Here,
the stator flux, denoted by
s
(instead of
s
), is specified as the reference. We
have identified particular angles in this phasor diagram. It is operating as a
motor (current is almost in phase with voltage), and the stator is absorbing
reactive power (I
s
has a negative angle relative to V
s
, so Z
motor
=V
s
/I
s
has a
positive angle, indicating it is inductive and therefore absorbing.
Level 1 control: Q
s
equation
50
From voltage equation (slide 35):
s s s s s
j R I V e + =
If we neglect drop across the stator resistance (it is typically very small), then:
s s s
j V e ~
Substitute into the stator reactive power equation: { } { }
* *
Im 3 Im 3
s s s s s s
I j I V Q e = =
Use Im(ja)=Re(a):
{ }
*
Re 3
s s s s
I Q e =
From previous slide, note that
i
is the angle by which I
s
leads
s
, i.e.,
i s s s s
I I Z = Z = ; 0
Substituting:
{ } { }
{ }
i s s s i i s s s
i s s s i s s s s
I j I
I I Q
e e
e e
cos 3 sin cos Re 3
Re 3 0 Re 3
= =
Z = Z Z =
Final equation for Q
s
:
i s s s s
I Q e cos 3 =
Level 1 control: T
em
equation
51
From HW3 (see slide 37):
Again (from phasor diagram), note that
i
is the angle by which I
s
leads
s
, i.e.,
i s s s s
I I Z = Z = ; 0
Substituting:
Final torque equation:
{ }
s s em
I p T , Im 3
*
=
{ } { }
{ }
i s s i i s s
i s s i s s em
I p j I p
I p I p T


sin 3 sin cos Im 3
Im 3 0 Im 3
= + =
Z = Z Z =
i s s em
I p T sin 3 =
Level 1 control: I
s
equation
52
From phasor diagram:
But recall our Q
s
and T
em
equations:
Substituting into I
s
equation:
i s i s s
jI I I sin cos + =
i s s em
I p T sin 3 =
i s s s s
I Q e cos 3 =
s s
s
i s
Q
I
e

3
cos =
s
em
i s
p
T
I

3
sin =
s
em
s s
s
s
p
T
j
Q
I
e 3 3
+ =
Recall from slide 50:
s s s
j V e ~
s s s
V e ~

Substituting into I
s
equation:
s
em s
s
s
s
pV
T
j
V
Q
I
3 3
e
+ =
Level 1 control:
r
equation
53
Using these relations, together with:
From slide 20:
r m s s s
I L I L + =
r r s m r
I L I L + =
r
r s
m
s
s
s
L L
L
L
I
o

o
=
1
r
r
s
r s
m
r
L L L
L
I
o

o
1
+ =
r s
m
L L
L
2
1 = o
s s s
j V e ~
s
em s
s
s
s
pV
T
j
V
Q
I
3 3
e
+ =
we may derive:
(

=
m
r s
s
em s
m
r s
s
s
m
r
s
s
r
L
L L
pV
T
j
L
L L
V
Q
L
L V o e o
e

3 3
(

=
m
s
s
em s
m
s
s
s
m s
s
r
L
L
pV
T
j
L
L
V
Q
L
V
I
3 3
1 e
e
Level 1 control:
r
equation
54
(

+
(

=
m
r s
s
s
m
r
s
s
r
m
r s
s
em s
r r
L
L L
V
Q
L
L V
j
L
L L
pV
T
V
o
e
e
o e
e
3 3
Neglecting the voltage drop in the rotor resistance, we may derive:
Now use the rotor flux equation derived on the previous slide
together with the rotor voltage equation (slide 35):
(

=
m
r s
s
em s
m
r s
s
s
m
r
s
s
r
L
L L
pV
T
j
L
L L
V
Q
L
L V o e o
e

3 3
r s r r r
js R I V e + =
Level 1 control: summary
55
(

+
(

=
m
r s
s
s
m
r
s
s
r
m
r s
s
em s
r r
L
L L
V
Q
L
L V
j
L
L L
pV
T
V
o
e
e
o e
e
3 3
(

=
m
r s
s
em s
m
r s
s
s
m
r
s
s
r
L
L L
pV
T
j
L
L L
V
Q
L
L V o e o
e

3 3
(

=
m
s
s
em s
m
s
s
s
m s
s
r
L
L
pV
T
j
L
L
V
Q
L
V
I
3 3
1 e
e
s
em s
s
s
s
pV
T
j
V
Q
I
3 3
e
+ =
Also, we have stator and rotor powers as a function of T
em
:
s
s
s
V
e
=
em
s
s
T
p
P
e
=

em
r
r
T
p
P
e
=
Level 1 control: magnitudes
56
2
2
2
2 2
3 3
(

+
(

=
m
r s
s
s
m
r
s
s
r
m
r s
s
em s
r r
L
L L
V
Q
L
L V
L
L L
pV
T
V
o
e
e
o e
e
2 2
2
3 3
(

+
(

=
m
r s
s
em s
m
r s
s
s
m
r
s
s
r
L
L L
pV
T
L
L L
V
Q
L
L V o e o
e

2 2
2
3 3
1
(

+
(

=
m
s
s
em s
m
s
s
s
m s
s
r
L
L
pV
T
L
L
V
Q
L
V
I
e
e
2 2
2
3 3
(

+
(

=
s
em s
s
s
s
pV
T
V
Q
I
e
And this shows that these terms are functions of our desired reference quantities.
) , , (
em s s Is
T Q V f =
) , , (
em s s r
T Q V f

=
) , , (
em s s Ir
T Q V f =
) , , , (
r em s s Vr
T Q V f e =
Magnitudes are attractive because then we can plot them.
The above relations are given as a function of
r
, but it may be more intuitive
to plot them as a function of rotor speed,
m
, where we can compute

r
=s
m
/(1-s). You can think of the rotor speed as
m
=(1-s)
s
which shows
that for low positive slips, rotor speed is just below synchronous speed, and
for low negative slips, rotor speed is just above synchronous speed.
s
s
s
V
e
=
) (
s s
V f

=
em
r
r
T
p
P
e
=
) , (
Pr r em
T f e =
Level 1 control
57
Fixed Q
s
=0
Fixed T
em
=-1
2 2
2
3 3
(

+
(

=
s
em s
s
s
s
pV
T
V
Q
I
e
I
s
is independent of
m
but increases with |T
em
| and with |Q
s
|
I
s
is the same independent of whether machine is absorbing or supplying vars.
Above equation indicates I
s
should be the same for T
em
=1, T
em
=-1. However,
above equation neglected stator resistance R
s
. Assuming fixed V
s
, in motor
mode (T
em
=1), R
s
causes voltage across rotor circuit to be less, and so I
r
must
be greater to deliver same torque. In gen mode, R
s
causes voltage across
rotor circuit to be more, and so I
r
must be less to deliver same torque.
Level 1 control
58
2 2
2
3 3
1
(

+
(

=
m
s
s
em s
m
s
s
s
m s
s
r
L
L
pV
T
L
L
V
Q
L
V
I
e
e
Fixed T
em
=-1
I
r
is independent of
m
for fixed torque but increases as Q
s
moves from + (absorbing)
to (supplying).
{ }
*
Im 3
r s
s
m
em
I
L
L
p T =
Fixed torque implies fixed rotor
current if stator flux is fixed.
Because T
em
=P
mech
p/
m
, P
mech

must decrease as
m
increases.
Level 1 control
59
Both rotor current and stator current equations have real part determined by Q
s

and imaginary part determined by T
em
(V
s
is at 90 so real part of currents is in
quadrature with V
s
)
0<Q
s
<3V
s
2
/L
s

s
(reactive power into stator, abs)
Magnetized from rotor current
Q
s
=0 (no stator reactive power):
(

s
s
V
Q
3
Magnetized from stator current.
Magnetized from both currents.
s
em s
s
s
s
pV
T
j
V
Q
I
3 3
e
+ =
(

=
m
s
s
em s
m
s
s
s
m s
s
r
L
L
pV
T
j
L
L
V
Q
L
V
I
3 3
1 e
e
(

+
(

+ =
(

+ + = + =
m
s
s
em s
s
em s
m
s
s
s
m s
s
s
s
m
s
s
em s
m
s
s
s
m s
s
s
em s
s
s
r s m
L
L
pV
T
pV
T
j
L
L
V
Q
L
V
V
Q
L
L
pV
T
j
L
L
V
Q
L
V
pV
T
j
V
Q
I I I
3 3 3
1
3
3 3
1
3 3
e e
e
e
e
e
Very close to zero since L
s
~L
m
.
Magnetizing component.
(

m s
s
L
V 1
e
Q
s
<0 (reactive power from stator, sup):
Q
s
=3V
s
2
/L
s

s
(reactive power into stator, abs)
Magnetized from both currents.
Add them to
obtain
magnetizing
current
Level 1 control
60
Fixed Q
s
=0
Fixed T
em
=-1
P
r
linearly decreases w/
m
for T
em
(gen) and linearly increases w/
m
for +T
em
(mot).
P
r
is independent of whether machine is absorbing or supplying vars.
em
r
r
T
p
P
e
=
Remember:
m
=(1-s)
s
,

r
=s
s
.
Level 1 control
61
Fixed Q
s
=0
Fixed T
em
=-1
V
r
is linearly decreasing with
m
to
m
=
s
and then linearly increasing with
m.
V
r
depends mainly on speed of machine.
V
r
does not change much with T
em
or with Q
s
because V
s
L
r
/
s
L
m
tends to dominate.
2
2
2
2 2
3 3
(

+
(

=
m
r s
s
s
m
r
s
s
r
m
r s
s
em s
r r
L
L L
V
Q
L
L V
L
L L
pV
T
V
o
e
e
o e
e
Remember:
m
=(1-s)
s
,

r
=s
s
.
Level 1 control
62
Fixed Q
s
=0
Fixed T
em
=-1
Efficiency increases with
m
under all conditions (see next slide):
In the subsynchronous mode, stator windings carry |P
mech
|+|P
r
|.
In the supersynchronous mode, stator windings carry |P
mech
|-|P
r
|.
Efficiency decreases as |Q
s
| increases (most efficient for unity power factor).
More efficient when absorbing (magnetized from stator) than supplying
(magnetized from rotor)
Generator modes
63
s m
e e >
s m
e e <
P
m
= P
mech

Mode 2
Mode 3
Representing RSC with impedance
64
It can be convenient in analyzing the steady-state performance of the DFIG to
represent the RSC as an equivalent impedance, as indicated in the below figure.
We can follow our earlier development (see slide 9), but with our RSC
equivalent impedance represented:
3
3
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r

js
s
L
r

E
rs
=sE
s

E
s

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s
I
r

V
s
V
r

r r s r s r
I L js R E s V ) (
o
e + =
Divide by s
r r s
r
s
r
I L j
s
R
E
s
V
) (
o
e + =
3
3
R
eq

j
r
L
eq
=js
s
L
eq

In slide 9:
r r s r s eq s eq r
I L js R E s L js R I ) ( ) (
o
e e + = +
Divide by s
r r s
r
s
eq s eq r
I L j
s
R
E
s
L js R I
) (
) (
o
e
e
+ =
+
Now:
r r s
r
s eq s
eq
r
I L j
s
R
E L j
s
R
I ) ( ) (
o
e e + = +
Representing RSC with impedance
65
3
3
R
eq
/s
j
s
L
eq

eq r eq eq
L j R Z e + =
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r
/s
j
s
L
r

j
s
L
m

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
r
/s
Equivalent RSC impedance is:
eq s
eq eq r eq eq
L j
s
R
s
L j
s
R
s
Z
e
e
+ = + =
Represent it in the circuit with:
Lets assume the DFIG operates at unity power factor. Then Q
s
=0, and for V
s
=V
s
/_0,
( ) ( )
s s s s s s s s s loss s airgap
I I R V I R I V P P P = = = 3 3
2
,
Question: Do we need to specify motor or generator operation in the above equation?
Answer: Not for the relation P
airgap
= P
s
-P
loss,s
(see slide 30). For motor op, P
s
>0 and
losses subtract so that P
airgap
is smaller than P
s
, consistent with the fact that power
flows from stator to rotor. For gen op, P
s
<0 and losses add so that P
airgap
is larger than
P
s
, consistent with the fact that power flows from rotor to stator.
However, the relation on the right assumes that I
s
is a magnitude (positive), and so it
is correct for motor op. For gen op, we must use a negative magnitude to get the sign
of V
s
I
s
correct. We could correct this by writing the RHS as V
s
I
s
-R
s
I
s
2
= (V
s
-R
s
I
s
)I
s
, i.e.
use phasor notation for the current instead of just magnitude.
V
m

Representing RSC with impedance
66
3
3
R
eq
/s
j
s
L
eq

3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r
/s
j
s
L
r

j
s
L
m

V
m

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
r
/s
( )
s s s s s loss s airgap
I I R V P P P = = 3
,
From slide 25, we know for the model (with losses) that
em
s
airgap airgap
s
em
T
p
P P
p
T
e
e
= =
Equating the two airgap expressions:
( )
s s s s em
s
I I R V T
p
= 3
e
Rewriting, we find a quadratic in I
s
:
0
3
2
= +
em
s
s s s s
T
p
I V I R
e
Obtain roots:
s
em
s s
s s
s
R
T
p
R
V V
I
2
3
4
2
e

=
Could be positive (motor) or
negative (generator)
With stator current calculated, we can use the circuit to find V
r
and I
r
.
Representing RSC with impedance
67
3
3
R
eq
/s
j
s
L
eq
=jX
eq
/s
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r
/s
j
s
L
r

j
s
L
m

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
r
/s
V
m

( )
s s s s s m
L j R I V V
o
e + =
From KVL we can compute V
m
:
Then compute the magnetizing current I
m
:
I
m

( )
m s
s s s s s
m s
m
m
L j
L j R I V
L j
V
I
e
e
e
o
+
= =
Then compute the rotor current I
r
:
( )
s
m s
s s s s s
s m r
I
L j
L j R I V
I I I
+
= =
e
e
o
Then compute the rotor voltage V
r
:
( )
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + =
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
r s
r
r s s s s s
r s
r
r m r
L j
s
R
I L j R I V
L j
s
R
I V s V
o o
o
e e
e /
We can now obtain Z
eq
/s or Z
eq
:
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
= = +
r
r s
r
r m
r
r
eq s
eq
eq
I
L j
s
R
I V
I
s V
L j
s
R
s Z
o
e
e
/
/
( )
|
|
.
|

\
| + +
= = +
r
r s r r m
r
r
eq s eq eq
I
L js R I V s
I
V
L js R Z
o
e
e
where I
r
is computed from above relations.
(X
eq
=
r
L
eq
)
Representing RSC with impedance
68
{ }
*
Im 3
r s
s
m
em
I
L
L
p T =
T
em
is increasing here.
R
eq
<0converter
transfers active
power to rotor.
R
eq
>0rotor
delivers active
power to the
converter.
Homework #4
69
Consider a 1.5 MW, 690 v, 50 Hz 1750 rpm DFIG wind energy system. The
parameters of the generator are given on the next slide. The generator operates
with a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) system so that its mechanical
torque T
em
is proportional to the square of the rotor speed. The stator power factor
is unity. For each of the following speeds: 1750, 1650, 1500, 1350, and 1200 rpm,
compute:
Slip
T
em
(kN-m)
V
r
(volts)
I
r
(amps)
R
eq
(ohms)
X
eq
(ohms)
What kind of machine is this at 1500 rpm?
Homework #4
70
Homework #4
71
Converter equivalent impedance at 1500 rpm:
sec / 0796 . 157
sec 60
min 2
min
1500
rad
rev
rad rev
m
= = O
t
sec / 1592 . 314 0796 . 157 * 2 rad p
m m
= = O = e
Hz f
m m
50 2 / 1592 . 314 2 / = = = t t e
So 1500 rpm is synchronous speed!
Homework #4
72
There is another solution which has very
large current and is clearly not realistic.
Be careful here because this
solution assumed the direction
of current I
r
opposite to what we
have assumed.
Observe that slip=0. This implies that a DC current flows through the rotor circuit
from the converter and the rotor leakage reactance and equivalent reactance
are zero. The DFIG is operating like a synchronous machine where the rotor flux
is produced by a DC current through a DC exciter.
SCIG Torque-slip characteristic
73
You may recall, from EE 303 or your undergraduate course on electric machines that
the torque-slip characteristic of the squirrel-cage induction generator (SCIG) appears
as below. One observes that the SCIG operates as a generator only when it is in
supersynchronous mode and a motor only when it is in subsynchronous mode.
Motoring
Generating
Lets see how we obtain this curve for SCIG, and lets also compare what
we do to what we need to do to obtain the analogous curves for the DFIG.
Subsynchronous Supersynchronous
Comparison of equivalent circuits: SCIG vs DFIG
74
3
3
R
eq
/s
j
s
L
eq
=jX
eq
/s
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r
/s
j
s
L
r

j
s
L
m

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
r
/s
V
m

I
m

(X
eq
=
r
L
eq
)
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r
/s
j
s
L
r

j
s
L
m

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
m

I
m

SCIG
DFIG
The difference between the machines in terms of steady-state models is
the ability to electrically absorb or supply complex power S via the rotor.
Where do we see rotor losses in these circuits? (next slide)
Comparison of equivalent circuits: SCIG vs DFIG
75
3
3
R
eq

j
s
L
eq
=jX
eq
/s
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r

j
s
L
r

j
s
L
m

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
r
/s
V
m

I
m

(X
eq
=
r
L
eq
)
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r

j
s
L
r

j
s
L
m

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
m

I
m

SCIG
DFIG
Split up the R/s terms in each circuit as R+R(1-s)/s
and the rotor losses become immediately apparent.
Where do we see mechanical power in these circuits? (next slide)
R
r
(1-s)/s
R
eq
(1-s)/s
R
r
(1-s)/s
Comparison of equivalent circuits: SCIG vs DFIG
76
3
3
R
eq

j
s
L
eq
=jX
eq
/s
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r

j
s
L
r

j
s
L
m

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
r
/s
V
m

I
m

(X
eq
=
r
L
eq
)
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r

j
s
L
r

j
s
L
m

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
m

I
m

SCIG
DFIG
The mechanical power is represented
by the slip-dependent resistances.
But what do the other two terms in the DFIG circuit represent? (next slide)
R
r
(1-s)/s
R
eq
(1-s)/s
R
r
(1-s)/s
Comparison of equivalent circuits: SCIG vs DFIG
77
3
3
R
eq

j
s
L
eq
=jX
eq
/s
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r

j
s
L
r

j
s
L
m

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
r
/s
V
m

I
m

(X
eq
=
r
L
eq
)
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r

j
s
L
r

j
s
L
m

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
m

I
m

SCIG
DFIG
These terms represent the real and reactive power exchange between the rotor
and the RSC. As we saw on slide 68, these terms, R
eq
and X
eq
can be pos (rotor
transfers power to RSC) or neg (RSC transfers power to rotor).
How to compute torque in for these machines? (next two slides)
R
r
(1-s)/s
R
eq
(1-s)/s
R
r
(1-s)/s
Comparison of equivalent circuits: SCIG vs DFIG
78
Torque equation for SCIG
79
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r

j
s
L
r

j
s
L
m

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
m

I
m

SCIG
R
r
(1-s)/s
s
s R
I P
r
r mech
) 1 (
3
2

=
Note that the s on the denominator provides
that P
mech
is positive for s>0, motor action,
and negative for s<0, generator action.
s
R
I
p
s
s R
I
s
p
s
s R
I
p
P
p
P T
r
r
s
r
r
s
r
r
m
mech
m
mech
m
em
2 2
2
3
) 1 (
) 1 (
3
) 1 (
3
1
e e
e e
=

= =
O
=
How to obtain I
r
? . (next slide)
Torque equation for SCIG
80
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r

j
s
L
r

Z
m
=j
s
L
m

Z
s
=R
s
+jX
s

I
s

I
r

V
s

V
m

I
m

R
r
(1-s)/s
Find Thevenin looking in here.
m s
m
s th
Z Z
Z
V V
+
=
m s
m s
th
Z Z
Z Z
Z
+
=
r r th
th
r
jX s R Z
V
I
o
+ +

=
) / (
3

3

3

3

R
r

j
s
L
r

Z
th

I
s

I
r

V
th

R
r
(1-s)/s
( )
2
2
2
/ 3
3
r th
r
th
s r th r
r
s
em
X X
s
R
R
s R pV
s
R
I
p
T
o
e
e
+ +
|
.
|

\
|
+
= =
Comment: Z
m
>>Z
S
, so
V
th
V
s
, Z
th
=Z
s
is not a
bad approximation.
SCIG Torque-slip characteristic
81
You may recall, from EE 303 or your undergraduate course on electric machines that
the torque-slip characteristic of the squirrel-cage induction generator (SCIG) appears
as below. One observes that the SCIG operates as a generator only when it is in
supersynchronous mode and a motor only when it is in subsynchronous mode.
Motoring
Generating
Now lets take a look at the torque-speed curves for the DFIG. (next slide)
Subsynchronous Supersynchronous
Torque equation for DFIG
82
3
3
R
eq

j
s
L
eq
=jX
eq
/s
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r

j
s
L
r

j
s
L
m

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
r
/s
V
m

I
m

R
eq
(1-s)/s
R
r
(1-s)/s
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
s
s R R
I P
eq r
r mech
) 1 )( (
3
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
= =
O
=
s
R R
I
p
s
s R R
I
s
p
s
s R R
I
p
P
p
P T
eq r
r
s
eq r
r
s
eq r
r
m
mech
m
mech
m
em
2 2
2
3
) 1 )( (
) 1 (
3
) 1 )( (
3
1
e e
e e
How to obtain I
r
? . (next slide)
Comparison of equivalent circuits: SCIG vs DFIG
83
3
3
R
eq

j
s
L
eq
=jX
eq
/s
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r

j
s
L
r

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
r
/s
V
m

I
m

R
eq
(1-s)/s
R
r
(1-s)/s
Find Thevenin looking in here.
3
3
R
eq

j
s
L
eq
=jX
eq
/s
3

3

3

3

R
r

j
s
L
r
I
s

I
r

V
th

V
r
/s
R
eq
(1-s)/s
R
r
(1-s)/s
Z
th

Z
m
=j
s
L
m

m s
m s
th
Z Z
Z Z
Z
+
=
m s
m
s th
Z Z
Z
V V
+
=
) / ( / ) ( s X X j s R R Z
V
I
eq r eq r th
th
r
+ + + +

=
o
2 2
2
2
/ ) ( 3
3
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
| +
=
s
X
X X
s
R R
R
s R R pV
s
R R
I
p
T
eq
r th
eq r
th
s eq r th eq r
r
s
em
o
e
e
Comment: Z
m
>>Z
S
, so
V
th
V
s
, Z
th
=Z
s
is not a
bad approximation.
Torque-slip characteristic for DFIG
84
So how do we obtain the torque-slip characteristic for the DFIG?
1. Develop values of Z
eq
for various values of torque-speed control point (slides 66-67):
s
em
s s
s s
s
R
T
p
R
V V
I
2
3
4
2
e

=
( )
s s s s s m
L j R I V V
o
e + =
( )
s
m s
s s s s s
s m r
I
L j
L j R I V
I I I
+
= =
e
e
o
( )
|
|
.
|

\
| + +
= = +
r
r s r r m
r
r
eq s eq eq
I
L js R I V s
I
V
L js R Z
o
e
e
Aside: The above points result from the turbine control characteristic. This characteristic
originates from the maximum power extracted from the wind, which is given by the
power curve, described by P
mech
~
m
3
.
But P
mech
=T
em

m
therefore T
em
~
m
2
.

2. For each value of Z
eq
, express T
em
as a function of s (or
m
=
s
(1-s)) for various
values of s. torque-speed control point (slides 66-67):
2 2
2
2
/ ) ( 3
3
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
| +
=
s
X
X X
s
R R
R
s R R pV
s
R R
I
p
T
eq
r th
eq r
th
s eq r th eq r
r
s
em
o
e
e
Torque-slip characteristic for DFIG
85
The sign of R
eq
and X
eq

are for rotor current
direction defined out of
the rotor. These signs
reverse for rotor
current direction into
the rotor as we have
done.
Efficiency
86
Consider our HW assignment, at a speed of 1750 rpm and unity power factor.
Compute the efficiency of the DFIG.
kW
s s R R I P
r eq r mech
1500
) 1667 . 0 /( ) 01667 . 0 1 )( 00263 . 0 05375 . 0 ( ) 6 . 1125 ( 3
/ ) 1 )( ( 3
2
2
=
+ + =
+ =
At 1750, the slip is s=(1500-1750)/1500=-0.1667
The mechanical power supplied to the generator
3
3
R
eq

j
s
L
eq
=jX
eq
/s
3
3
3

3

3

3

j
s
L
r

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
r
/s
V
m

I
m

R
eq
(1-s)/s
R
r
(1-s)/s
Z
m
=j
s
L
m

From your homework, you should compute that I
s
=1068.2 amperes
I
r
=1125.6 amperes, R
eq
=0.05375 ohms, X
eq
=0.02751 ohms.
Efficiency
87
Consider our HW assignment, at a speed of 1750 rpm and unity power factor.
Compute the efficiency of the DFIG.
kW
R I P
eq r r
29 . 204
) 05375 . 0 ( ) 6 . 1125 ( 3
3
2
2
=
=
=
The rotor power is
3
3
R
eq

j
s
L
eq
=jX
eq
/s
3
3
3

3

3

3

j
s
L
r

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
r
/s
V
m

I
m

R
eq
(1-s)/s
R
r
(1-s)/s
Z
m
=j
s
L
m

This power is negative (because R
eq
is negative); it is supersynchronous, therefore it
is flowing out of the rotor to the RSC.
From your homework, you should compute that I
s
=1068.2 amperes
I
r
=1125.6 amperes, R
eq
=-0.05375 ohms, X
eq
=-0.02751 ohms.
Efficiency
88
Consider our HW assignment, at a speed of 1750 rpm and unity power factor.
Compute the efficiency of the DFIG.
kW
R I P
r r r losses
0 . 10
) 00263 . 0 ( ) 6 . 1125 ( 3
3
2
2
,
=
=
=
The rotor and stator winding losses are
3
3
R
eq

j
s
L
eq
=jX
eq
/s
3
3
3

3

3

3

j
s
L
r

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
r
/s
V
m

I
m

R
eq
(1-s)/s
R
r
(1-s)/s
Z
m
=j
s
L
m

From your homework, you should compute that I
s
=1068.2 amperes
I
r
=1125.6 amperes, R
eq
=0.05375 ohms, X
eq
=0.02751 ohms.
kW
R I P
s s s losses
07 . 9
) 00265 . 0 ( ) 2 . 1068 ( 3
3
2
2
,
=
=
=
Efficiency
89
Consider our HW assignment, at a speed of 1750 rpm and unity power factor.
Compute the efficiency of the DFIG.
The stator active power is
3
3
R
eq

j
s
L
eq
=jX
eq
/s
3
3
3

3

3

3

j
s
L
r

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
r
/s
V
m

I
m

R
eq
(1-s)/s
R
r
(1-s)/s
Z
m
=j
s
L
m

From your homework, you should compute that I
s
=1068.2 amperes
I
r
=1125.6 amperes, R
eq
=0.05375 ohms, X
eq
=0.02751 ohms.
kW I V P
s s s s
64 . 1276 ) 180 cos( 2 . 1068
3
690
cos 3 = = = |
Efficiency
90
Consider our HW assignment, at a speed of 1750 rpm and unity power factor.
Compute the efficiency of the DFIG.
The total power delivered to the grid is
3
3
R
eq

j
s
L
eq
=jX
eq
/s
3
3
3

3

3

3

j
s
L
r

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
r
/s
V
m

I
m

R
eq
(1-s)/s
R
r
(1-s)/s
Z
m
=j
s
L
m

From your homework, you should compute that I
s
=1068.2 amperes
I
r
=1125.6 amperes, R
eq
=0.05375 ohms, X
eq
=0.02751 ohms.
93 . 1480 29 . 204 64 . 1276 | | | | = + = + =
r s g
P P P
The difference between P
m
and P
g
is the losses on the stator and rotor windings:
07 . 19 93 . 1480 1500 | | | |
, ,
= = + =
s losses r losses g m
P P P P
Efficiency is:
% 7 . 98
1500
93 . 1480
= = =
m
g
P
P
q
DFIG for non-unity power factor
91
FERC 661-A [1] specifies that large wind farms must maintain a power factor within the
range of 0.95 leading to 0.95 lagging, measured at the POI as defined in the Large
Generator Interconnect Agreement (LGIA) if the Transmission Provider shows, in the
system impact study that they are needed to ensure the safety or reliability of the
transmission system..
[1] Order for Wind Energy, Order No. 661-A, 18 CFR Part 35 (December 12, 2005). See also Interconnection for Wind Energy,
Order No. 661, 70 FR 34993 (June 16, 2005), FERC Stats. & Regs. 31,186 (2005) (Final Rule); see also Order Granting
Extension of Effective Date and Extending Compliance Date, 70 FR 47093 (Aug. 12, 2005), 112 FERC 61,173 (2005).
E. Camm and C. Edwards, Reactive Compensation Systems for Large Wind Farms, IEEE Transmission and Distribution
Conference and Exposition, 2008.
The Electrical System Operator (IESO) of Ontario essentially requires reactive power
capabilities for large wind farms that are equivalent to that for synchronous generators,
taking into consideration an equivalent impedance between the generator terminals
and the POI [2]. The requirements include: Supplying full active power continuously
while operating at a generator terminal voltage ranging from 0.95 pu to 1.05 pu of the
generators rated terminal voltage.
The Alberta Electric System Operators requirements [4] include: The wind farms
continuous reactive capability shall meet or exceed 0.9 power factor (pf) lagging to 0.95
pf leading at the collector bus based on the wind farm aggregated MW output.
DFIG for non-unity power factor
92
E. Camm and C. Edwards, Reactive Compensation
Systems for Large Wind Farms, IEEE Transmission
and Distribution Conference and Exposition, 2008.
DFIG for non-unity power factor
93
Along with the evolution of wind turbine technology, technical standards of wind
generation interconnections become more restrictive. For example, unity power factor
has been required for wind generation interconnections in many utilities or control
areas in earlier years. Recently, the more restrict requirement with 0.95 lead and lag
power factor has been under discussion since the DFIG and full converter wind turbine
technology has become mainstream of wind generation interconnection requests.
I. Green and Y. Zhang, California ISO experience with wind farm
modeling, IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2011.
DFIG for non-unity power factor
94
3
3
R
eq

j
s
L
eq
=jX
eq
/s
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r

j
s
L
r

j
s
L
m

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
r
/s
V
m

I
m

R
eq
(1-s)/s
R
r
(1-s)/s
|
|
cos 3
cos 3
s
s
s s s s
V
P
I I V P = =
Define: as power factor angle: -180<<180
Identify the current phasor as
) sin (cos | | j I I
s s
=
Therefore: )
cos
sin
1 (
3
) sin (cos
cos 3 |
|
| |
|
j
V
P
j
V
P
I
s
s
s
s
s
= =
Recalling | | | |
2 2 2
cos 1 sin 1 cos sin = = + , we may write
)
cos
cos 1
1 (
3
2
|
|
= j
V
P
I
s
s
s
P
s
is negative for gen; then cos is also negative;
P
s
is positive for motor; then cos is also positive;
so I
s
is always positive.
We have just made the numerator
positive for all values of .
DFIG for non-unity power factor
95
3
3
R
eq

j
s
L
eq
=jX
eq
/s
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r

j
s
L
r

j
s
L
m

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
r
/s
V
m

I
m

R
eq
(1-s)/s
R
r
(1-s)/s
The sign of P
s
determines the sign of the real part of the current.
P
s
is negative if machine is in generating mode (supplying real power).
In this case, cos is negative because is in quadrant 2 or 3.
If machine is supplying Q, then sign of Q
s
should be negative, sign of Im{I
s
*
} should
be negative, and therefore sign of Im{I
s
} should be positive. Given cos is negative:
)
cos
cos 1
1 (
3
2
|
|
= j
V
P
I
s
s
s
If machine is absorbing Q, then sign of Q
s
should be positive, sign of Im{I
s
*
} should
be positive, and therefore sign of Im{I
s
} should be negative. Given cos is negative:
)
cos
cos 1
1 (
3
2
|
|
+ = j
V
P
I
s
s
s
)
cos
cos 1
1 (
3
2
|
|
= j
V
P
I
s
s
s
DFIG for non-unity power factor
96
3
3
R
eq

j
s
L
eq
=jX
eq
/s
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r

j
s
L
r

j
s
L
m

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
r
/s
V
m

I
m

R
eq
(1-s)/s
R
r
(1-s)/s
Define the magnetizing current factor: rated s m m
rated s
m
m
I K I
I
I
K
,
,
= =
From the circuit, KCL requires:
s m r
I I I =
But the magnetizing current is entirely imaginary:
m m
jI I = or
rated s m m
I jK I
,
=
Substitution of the I
m
expression into the rotor current expression yields:
s rated s m r
I I jK I =
,
If the machine is absorbing Q, then
. Substituting into I
r
:
)
cos
cos 1
1 (
3
2
,
|
|
+ = j
V
P
I jK I
s
s
rated s m r
)
cos
cos 1
1 (
3
2
|
|
+ = j
V
P
I
s
s
s
DFIG for non-unity power factor
97
3
3
R
eq

j
s
L
eq
=jX
eq
/s
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r

j
s
L
r

j
s
L
m

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
r
/s
V
m

I
m

R
eq
(1-s)/s
R
r
(1-s)/s
)
cos
cos 1
1 (
3
2
,
|
|
+ = j
V
P
I jK I
s
s
rated s m r
Assume the machine is operated at rated power, P
s,rated
, and recall
| | cos 3 cos 3
,
,
s
rated s
rated s
s
s
s
V
P
I
V
P
I = =
Recall from slide 94:
)
cos
cos 1
1 (
3
2
,
,
|
|
+ = j
V
P
I jK I
s
rated s
rated s m r
and the substitute into previous expression :
)
cos
cos 1
1 (
3 cos 3
2
, ,
|
|
|

+ = j
V
P
V
P
jK I
s
rated s
s
rated s
m r
Factor out the P
s,rated
/3V
s
.(next slide):
DFIG for non-unity power factor
98
3
3
R
eq

j
s
L
eq
=jX
eq
/s
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r

j
s
L
r

j
s
L
m

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
r
/s
V
m

I
m

R
eq
(1-s)/s
R
r
(1-s)/s
)
cos
cos 1
1 (
3 cos 3
2
, ,
|
|
|

+ = j
V
P
V
P
jK I
s
rated s
s
rated s
m r
Factor out the -P
s,rated
/3V
s

(
(


+ +

= )
cos
cos 1
1 (
cos 3
2
,
|
|
|
j
jK
V
P
I
m
s
rated s
r

Combine terms with j
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

+

=
|
|
| cos
cos 1
cos
1
3
2
,
m
s
rated s
r
K
j
V
P
I
Simplify
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
|
cos
cos 1
1
3
2
,
m
s
rated s
r
K
j
V
P
I
DFIG for non-unity power factor
99
3
3
R
eq

j
s
L
eq
=jX
eq
/s
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r

j
s
L
r

j
s
L
m

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
r
/s
V
m

I
m

R
eq
(1-s)/s
R
r
(1-s)/s
So this is for absorbing
(underexcited operation)
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
|
cos
cos 1
1
3
2
,
m
s
rated s
r
K
j
V
P
I
If we repeat the exercise for
supplying (overexcited operation),
we will obtain this:
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
|
|
cos
cos 1
1
3
2
,
m
s
rated s
r
K
j
V
P
I
The difference in sign on the square root term indicates higher rotor current is required
for overexcited operation than for underexcited operation. No big surprise there!
And so the rotor winding should be rated for the overexcited operation, at
rated stator active power output. This would be. (next slide)
DFIG for non-unity power factor
100
3
3
R
eq

j
s
L
eq
=jX
eq
/s
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r

j
s
L
r

j
s
L
m

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
r
/s
V
m

I
m

R
eq
(1-s)/s
R
r
(1-s)/s
Rotor current for rated stator
active power and reactive power
generation
2
2
,
cos
cos 1
1
3
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
|
|
m
s
rated s
r
K
V
P
I
It is interesting to see the relative magnitude
between I
r
and I
s
. Again, from slide 94: | | cos 3 cos 3
,
,
s
rated s
rated s
s
s
s
V
P
I
V
P
I = =
2
2
,
, ,
cos
cos 1
1
3
cos 3
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
|
|
m
s
rated s
rated s
s
rated s
r
rs
K
V
P
P
V
I
I
K
2
2
cos
cos 1
1 cos
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
|
|

m
rs
K
K
DFIG for non-unity power factor
101
3
3
R
eq

j
s
L
eq
=jX
eq
/s
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r

j
s
L
r

j
s
L
m

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
r
/s
V
m

I
m

R
eq
(1-s)/s
R
r
(1-s)/s
Rotor current for rated stator
active power and reactive power
generation
2
2
,
cos
cos 1
1
3
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
|
|
m
s
rated s
r
K
V
P
I
Rotor current for rated stator
active power and stator unity
power factor
2 , 0 . 1
1
3
m
s
rated s pf
r
K
V
P
I + =
=
Ratio of rotor current required for
a given stator power factor when
supplying Q and that required for
unity stator power factor, all at
rated stator active power
2
2
2
0 . 1
1
cos
cos 1
1
m
m
pf
r
r
K
K
I
I
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=
=
|
|
DFIG for non-unity power factor
102
3
3
R
eq

j
s
L
eq
=jX
eq
/s
3
3
3

3

3

3

R
r

j
s
L
r

j
s
L
m

R
s
j
s
L
s
I
s

I
r

V
s

V
r
/s
V
m

I
m

R
eq
(1-s)/s
R
r
(1-s)/s
K
rs
factor for a given stator power
factor at rated stator active power.
Ratio of K
rs
factor for a given
power factor to K
rs
factor for unity
power factor, for rated stator
active power.
2
2
2
0 . 1
1
cos
cos 1
1
cos
m
m
pf
rs
rs
K
K
K
K
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=
=
|
|
|
2
2
cos
cos 1
1 cos
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
|
|

m
rs
K
K
K
rs
factor for unity stator power
factor at rated stator active power.
2 0 . 1
1
m
pf
rs
K K + =
=
DFIG for non-unity power factor
103
K
rs
factor for a given stator power
factor at rated stator active power.
2
2
,
cos
cos 1
1 cos
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ = =
|
|

m
rated s
r
rs
K
I
I
K
rated s m m
rated s
m
m
I K I
I
I
K
,
,
= =
The prime notation on the K
rs



at the top of the graph
indicates the values have been
referred to the rotor for an
a of about 0.3.
DFIG for non-unity power factor
104
Ratio of K
rs
factor for a given
power factor to K
rs
factor for unity
power factor, for rated stator
active power.
2
2
2
0 . 1
1
cos
cos 1
1
cos
m
m
pf
rs
rs
K
K
K
K
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=
=
|
|
|
rated s
r
rs
I
I
K
,
=