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Carbon Dioxide Emission: 24 billion tons per year

CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE


Carbon capture and storage is mostly used to describe methods for removing CO2 emissions from large stationary sources, such as electricity generation and some industrial processes, and storing it away from the atmosphere.

Carbon Capture Technology


Post- combustion capture
React the flue gas with chemicals that absorb CO2 and then heat the chemicals to release CO2.

NOTE:
Flue gas : Mixture of nitrogen , water vapor and 15 % of Carbon dioxide

Carbon Capture Technology


Oxy-fuel combustion
Use pure oxygen to support the fossil fuel combustion. The flue gas is then mostly CO2 and water making it to separate easily.

Carbon Capture Technology


Pre- combustion capture
Remove carbon before combustion. By gasifying the coal through the reaction with more oxygen, it is possible to a mix of mostly CO2 and hydrogen.

Transportation
Many point sources of captured CO2 would not be close to geological or oceanic storage facilities. In these cases, transportation would be required. The main form of transportation
pipeline. Shipping

Carbon Storage technology


Geological storage Oceanic storage

Geological storage

Oceanic Storage
Two storage mechanism has been proposed
Dissolving CO2 at mid-depth. Injecting the CO2 at depths in excess of 3 km , where it would form lakes of liquid CO2 . Bellow 3 km liquid CO2 would be denser than sea water and would sink to the ocean floor.

Monitoring
Geochemical Monitoring Seismic Monitoring Non-Seismic Monitoring

What might Carbon Capture and Storage look like?

The diagram is from a BP news release from the abandoned Miller project, UK North Sea, which is no longer available online.

Carbon Storage Concerns


CCS technologies actually require a lot of energy to implement and run transporting captured CO2 by truck or ship, require fuel. Creating a CCS-enabled power plant also requires a lot of money. What happens if the carbon dioxide leaks out underground? We can't really answer this question. Because the process is so new, we
don't know its long-term effects. Slow leakage would lead to climate changing. Sudden catastrophic leakage is dangerous, and causes asphyxiation.

The more CO2 an ocean surface absorbs, the more acidic it becomes, higher water acidity adversely affects marine life.

FutureGen
FutureGen is a public-private partnership to build a first-of-its-kind coal-fueled, near-zero emissions power plant. It will use cutting-edge technologies to generate electricity while capturing and permanently storing carbon dioxide deep beneath the earth. The plant will also produce hydrogen and byproducts for possible use by other

Where are the proposed CCS projects?


http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/sccs/storage/storag eSites.html

More links http://network.carboncapturejournal.com/vid eo/2018151:Video:4342 http://www.futuregenalliance.org/about.stm