Energy Related Applications of Conducting Polymers

Presented ByMohammad Rameez

FUTURE OUTLOOK

WHY CONDUCTING POLYMER?
 architectural flexibility (e.g. nanotubes, nanofibres, nanoparticles, core-shell nanomaterials,..)  versatile properties  tunable surface functionalities  ease of processing and fabrication  inexpensiveness  “plastic metals”

Polymer Science: Emissive Materials Nanomaterials (199), Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany), 199-207 (2006)

AREA OF APPLICATIONS

APPLICATIONS OF CONDUCTING POLYMERS:

APPLICATIONS OF CONDUCTING POLYMERS IN ENERGY STORAGE
 Rechargeable Batteries
 Higher energy and power densities (light weight) than conventional ones using lead-acid or Ni-Cd  e.g. polyaniline used in 3V coin-shaped batteries

( Poly. Adv. Tech . 1990 , 1 , 33)
 Rechargeable -> reversible doping

Li-ion Batteries

APPLICATIONS OF CONDUCTING POLYMER
Polymeric Battery

ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS

Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

• Solar cells are energy conversion devices that convert sunlight to electric energy. • Conducting polymers have unique properties of light absorbance and hole transporting • when combined with metal oxide, which may contribute to the improvement of the photovoltaic efficiencies

 Fuel Cells
 Fuel cells convert the chemical energy directly into electricity by electrochemical reactions.  high energy conversion efficiency, fuel portability and environment  The effects of an electrocatalyst on the performance of DMFCs have been extensively studied  conducting polymers with 1D-nanostructures have become good candidates as electrocatalyst supports

ENZYMATIC BIOFUEL CELLS
 The enzymatic biofuel cells use enzymes obtained from living cells. However,  The primary requirement is that the enzymes which allow the fuel cell to operate must be stably immobilized as the anode and cathode.  The enzymes [glucose oxidase ( GOx) or horseradish peroxidase (HRP)] were immobilized onto the conducting polymer layer through covalent bond formation, which allowed the direct electron transfer processes of the enzymes. The anode with immobilized GOx and the cathode with immobilized HRP were used as model enzyme systems in biofuel cells .  Resulted in approximately a seven fold increase in the power density of the biofuel cell  Moreover, the conjugated polymers extended the lifetime of biofuel cell to 4 months through the stabilization of immobilized enzymes.  The biofuel cell operated in a solution containing glucose and anode produced H 2 O 2 generated an open -circuit voltage of approximately 366.0 mV, while the maximum electrical power density extracted from the cell was 5.12 µW cm −2 at an external optimal load of 25.0 kΩ .

LED Display
• Light emission resulted from the recombination of holes and electrons in a semiconductor

ORGANIC LIGHT EMITTING POLYMER
 First reported in 1990 ( Nature 1990 , 347 , 539)  Based on poly( p -phenylenevinylene) (PPV), with a bandgap of 2.2 eV

ITO: Indium-tin-oxide -A transparent electrical conductor

A Two-Layer Photovoltaic Devices
• Conversion of photos into electrons • Solar cells (Science 1995, 270, 1789; Appl. Phys. Lett. 1996, 68, 3120)
(Appl. Phys. Lett. 1996, 68, 3120)

490 nm
Max. quantum efficiency: ~ 9 % Open circuit voltage Voc: 0.8 V

A Photodiode fabricated from polymer blend
( Nature 1995 , 376 , 498)

Device illuminated at 550 nm (0.15 mW/cm2) Open circuit voltage (Voc): 0.6 V Quantum yield: 0.04 %

 Field Effect Transistors (FET)
 Using poly(3-hexylthiophene) as the active layer  “All Plastics” integrated circuits
( Appl. Phys. Lett . 1996, 69 , 4108; recent review: Adv. Mater . 1998, 10 , 365)

ELECTROSTATIC MATERIALS AND MOLECULAR ELECTRONICS

A Molecular Switch to be used in Molecular Electronics

A polymer Lithium Sheet Battery

Shield for computer screen against electromagnetic "smart" windows radiation Solar cell Photographic Film

smart" windows

Light-emitting diodes

Important Potential Applications of Conducting Polymers
Electrical conduction • Anti-static • ESD • EMI shielding Sensors • Chemical sensor • Bio-sensor Electronic devices

Electrical field protection
• Cable shielding • Radar shielding Chemical potential protection

• Smart window
• Solar cell • Light emitting diode • Electrochromic display

• Anti-corrosion
Charge storage • Capacitor • Rechargeable battery Semiconductor • Lithography • Via-hole electroplating

• Field effect transistor
• NLO Miscellaneous application • Gas separation membrane • Plastic welding • Conductive adhesive • Conductive gasket

Thank You!

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful