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Time for replication, transcription
Chromosomes contain the genetic material Genes are physically located within the chromosomes Chromosomes are composed of DNA and proteins Primary function of genetic material is to store needed information 2 .
linear. double-stranded DNA molecule DNA must be folded and packaged Chromatin is the DNA-protein complex making up chromosomes 3 . Typical chromosome contains a single.
Proteins in chromatin are: ◦ histones: small. positively charged ◦ non-histone proteins: transcription factors. which facilitates fitting the DNA into the nucleus . enzymes Packaging of DNA with proteins leads to compacted structure. Chromatin is the combination of DNA and proteins found in eukaryotic chromosomes.
Stains darkly (highly condensed) Repetitive sequences Replicates later in the cell cycle Little or no recombination Transcriptionally repressive: silences gene expression Stains lightly (decondensed) Single copy sequences (genes) Replicates early in the cell cycle Recombines Transcriptionally active: permissive for gene expression .
repair and transcribe tightly packaged DNA? •Diameter of nucleus = 5-10 mm •DNA must be packaged to protect it.• How do you fit approximately 2 meters (human diploid nucleus) into a space that averages maybe 5 millionths of a meter wide? • How do you replicate. but must still be accessible to allow gene expression and cellular responsiveness .
2. Nucleosome (11 nm) Solenoid (30 nm) Loops (300 nm) Coiled loops (700 nm) 5.1. 3. 4. Metaphase chromosome (1400 nm) .
Level 1: nucleosome formation Level 2: 30 nm fiber Level 3: Nuclear scaffolding Level 4: Mitotic (metaphase) chromosome .
H1. Nucleosomes are formed by winding about 200 base pairs of the DNA duplex around a core of histone proteins. . binds outside the core. The histone core is made of: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ 2 2 2 2 molecules molecules molecules molecules histone histone histone histone H2A H2B H3 H4 Another histone.
“string on a bead” for obvious reasons Linker can vary (8-114bp or more) Compaction ratio is approx 7 fold .
30 nm fiber is coil of nucleosomes with 6/turn .
A 30 nm diameter chromatin fiber The zig-zag model. H1 histone has a role in contraction of nucleosomes Compaction ratio approx 100 fold .
The 30nm fiber is organized to loops that can be opened up individually 300 nm coiled chromatin fibers radial loops .
•Form a structural scaffolding to which loops of chromatin are attached nuclear matrix (or chromosome scaffold) •2 scaffold proteins are found (Non histones proteins) •30-nm fibers interact with the nuclear matrix •Compacts 30-nm fiber by participating in the formation of radial loop domains •Anchored to nuclear matrix .
Total lenght of mitotic chromosome is:180 mm .Haploid genom: 2 m 1.