This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Teaching and Research Office of Fundamental Nursing Lan yutao
【master】 Characteristics of nursing profession; 【comprehend】 Florence Nightingale’s deeds and her Contributions to nursing science; Concept and Dimensions of Nursing 【understand】 Historical Perspectives of Nursing
Nursing began as a desire to keep people healthy and to provide comfort and assurance to the sick. Although the general goals of nursing have remained relatively the same over the centuries, ever-advancing science and the changing of society’s needs have deeply influenced the practice of nursing.
Stages of Nursing Nursing from Ancient times to the nineteenth century Early Civilization Christianity Middle Ages Fifteenth to Nineteenth Century .
. They also hired women. These women were the first records nurses. later known as midwives.Early Civilization Egyptian physicians are believed to have specialized in certain diseases (such as internal diseases. to assist with childbirth. and wounds). fractured bones.
not magical.C..Early Civilization Greece The Greeks believed in Apollo. . the famous Greek physician Hippocrates believed that disease had natural. the Greek god of healing and prayed to him for magic cures for their illness. causes. 400 B.
early physicians built on the groundwork of their Egyptian and Greek predecessors.. .Early Civilization Roman Empire After 300 B. The Romans are best known for advances in the health of the public.C.
devotedness to the patient. early hospitals were staffed by male nurses who were required to meet four qualifications: knowledge of the manner in which drugs should be prepared for administration. cleverness. and purity of mind and body.Early Civilization India In ancient India. .
Led by the belief that love and caring for others were important. male gave nursing care and buried the dead. Nursing became a respected vocation. women made the first visits to sick people.Christianity With the beginning of Christianity. nursing began to have a formal and more clearly defined role. .
flourished. . as one of the oldest nursing roles. Nurse midwifery. Much nursing care was provided by monks and nuns. Nurses delivered custodial care and depended on physicians for direction. which was segregated by sex.Middle Ages More hospitals were built.
and expansion of knowledge. . the lack of hygiene and sanitation and the increasing poverty in urban centers resulted in serious health problem. exploration.Fifteenth to Nineteenth Century The extensive population growth in cities. Society changed from one with a religious orientation to one that emphasized warfare.
leading to a tremendous shortage of people to care for the sick. . The only acceptable nursing role was within a religious order where services were provided as part of Christianity charity.Fifteenth to Nineteenth Century Many monasteries and convents closed. Women who had committed crimes were recruited into nursing in lieu of serving sentences.
Fifteenth to Nineteenth Century Period of Nightingale Florence Nightingale was born in 1820 in a wealthy family. .
science. art and music. literature. history. philosophy. mathematics. religion.Fifteenth to Nineteenth Century Period of Nightingale her education included the mastery of several ancient and modern language. .
Fifteenth to Nineteenth Century Period of Nightingale she was determined to become a nurse since she believed she was “called by God to help others and to improve the well-being of mankind”. . she visited Kaiserswerth and received nurse’s training at 1850 for three months.
Nightingale and her nurses transformed the military hospitals by setting up diet kitchens. recreation centers. a laundry. and reading rooms.Fifteenth to Nineteenth Century Period of Nightingale the outbreak of the Crimean War gave Nightingale an opportunity for achievement. and organizing classes for orderlies. .
Nightingale established the Nightingale Training School for Nursed at St. the school served as a model for other training school. .Fifteenth to Nineteenth Century Period of Nightingale after the war. as the founder of modern nursing. Florence Nightingale established the first nursing philosophy based on health maintenance and restoration. Thomas’ hospital in London.
research-based defined body of nursing knowledge and practice was seen. a movement toward a scientific.Stages of Nursing Development of modern nursing In the early twentieth century. .
one of the schools of nursing was set up at Yale University. the Rockefeller Foundation funded a survey on nursing education. which recommended that nursing schools be independent of hospital and on a college level. . in 1924.Stages of Nursing Development of modern nursing Nursing Education: in 1923.
Stages of Nursing Development of modern nursing Nursing practice: by 1920’s. . from period of Nightingale. nursing specialization was developing. the system of nursing management has been improving. the concept of the clinical nurse specialist arose.
care on the basis of differential diagnosis. From the middle period of 19th century to the middle of the 20th century During the latter half the 20th century .Nursing in China Ancient nursing practice the concept of holism.
preventing disease or peaceful death. nursing is to assist the individual. patient centered and human health centered International Council of Nurses.Concept of Nursing 3 stages of the concept of nursing: disease centered. in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery . in 1973. . sick or well.
Concept of Nursing The American Nurses Association. nursing is the diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual or potential health problems. in 1980. .
Tasks of Nursing Relieving pains Maintaining health Restoring health Promoting health and wellness .
community nursing nursing management nursing education . specialty nursing.Body of Nursing knowledge Fundamental knowledge: physical science fundamental medical psychological and social science Knowledge specific to nursing: clinical nursing: fundamental nursing.
Is basically intellectual (as opposed to physical). Improves its techniques by the use of scientific method.Characteristics of a Profession Has practitioners who are motivated by altruism Can be taught through a process of professional education. . Functions autonomously.
There is a special body of knowledge which is continually enlarged through research. .1981 The services provided are vital to humanity and the welfare of society. Kelly. individual responsibility (accountability) is a strong feature. The services involve intellectual activities.Nursing as a Profession.
Nursing as a Profession. Kelly. Practitioners are motivated by service (altruism) and consider their word an important component of their lives.1981 Practitioners are educated in institutions of higher learning. Practitioners are relatively independent and control their own policies and activities (autonomy). .
Kelly. There is an organization (association) which encourages and supports high standards of practice.Nursing as a Profession.1981 There is a code of ethics to guide the decisions and conduct of practitioners. .
directed toward a specific population or group within the community . Community-based health care. knowledge and skills.Dimensions of Nursing Practice Clinical Nursing: fundamental nursing. based on nursing science and specialty theories. to meet basic needs of clients. specialty nursing.
equipment. Nursing Research: . Nursing Management: systematic management of factors as nursing professional staff. financing.Dimensions of Nursing Practice Nursing Education: based on nursing science and education theories. controlled by the state education and health care guide. technologies. information.
Forms of nursing in hospital Case management：cared by some fixed nurses Functional nursing：centered by orders Nursing in groups： Primary nursing： Systematic holistic nursing：philosophy. forms . responsibility.
Case management .
Functional nursing Orders. Fundamental nursing Shifts of nurses: day/night shift .
Nursing in groups Group A Group B .