Reaching Sensory Processing Disorders: Working to Benefit ADD/ADHD to Autism through Structure and Function

Charles W Chapple, DC, FICPA 360 E Irving Park RD, Roselle, IL (630) 894-8778

www.drchapple.com

Selected 2006-2008 “Guide To America’s Top Chiropractors” 2008 “ Five Star Excellence Award in Chiropractic”

What are Sensory Processing Disorders?
 Any condition which demonstrates the inability to process information through the Senses.  Interestingly the DMSR only acknowledges the sensory component in ASD as a secondary finding( Diagnosed by language, social and behavioral variations).

Inter-related Conditions?
ADD/ADHD AUTISM PDD SPD CHALLENGED “Normal” Children

Prevalence
 ADD/ADHD: 5 Million Children in USA alone  Autism: Every 21 minutes another Child is Diagnosed.  Challenged Child: 12 to 30% of Children.

How is Information Gathered for Our Sensory System?
 Through Senses  Through Reflexes  Reflexes and Sensory Processing Can’t be Separated

Body Senses Include
 Far Senses - Allow us to
respond to stimuli outside our body: Hear See Taste Touch Smell

 Near Senses - Or
Hidden Senses – Automatically respond within our body to stimuli: Body Position/Awareness Movement/Balance

Reflexes and the Sensory System:
 Primitive Reflexes

 Postural Reflexes

What are the Primitive Reflexes?
 Primitive reflexes are automatic survival responses to stimuli (Sensory Input) which develop during uterine life and should be fully present at birth.

Anatomy of Primitive Reflexes:
 Within the brainstem
– Oldest part of the brain (Reptilian or PreCortical) => Midbrain => Cortical
 Automatic vs Volitional  Stimulus elicited (e.g. A Chocolate Cookie)  Survival / Instinctual

Primitive Reflexes Charted

A Closer Look at Primitive Reflexes
Fear Paralysis Reflex
Fetal Tuck Reflex

Palmar Reflex
Grasping Reflex • Related to early feeding (hand/mouth) Stimulation bilaterally inhibits Moro Reflex • Matures to “Pincer Grip”

Moro Reflex
Clasping Reflex • Facilitates the 1st “Breath of Life” • Only PR connected to ALL senses • Matures to “Adult startle response” – Shoulders shrug w/ head turn • If underdeveloped maybe factor in SIDS

Plantar Reflex
Trouble w/Gait, Run, Toe Walk

Rooting/Suck Reflex
• Cardinal Points Reflex Hand-mouth neurologic link

A Closer Look at Primitive Reflexes Continued
Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex
Kicking & Vestibular reflex

Spinal Galant Reflex
Spinal reflex

In Utero provides continuous motion stimulating balance/ neural connections • Assists & reinforces birth process • First eye-hand coordination • Integrates vestibular w/ other senses; enhances myelination • If underdeveloped maybe factor in SIDS

• Assist birth process • Enables the fetus to “feel” sound • Reduced by Auditory Integrative Training

A Closer Look at Primitive Reflexes Continued
Symmetric Tonic Neck Reflex
Rolling reflex • First assistance of body to defy gravity • Influences body muscle tone in horizontal halves (crawl) • Crawl assist hand-eye coordination essential for reading & writing

Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex
Vestibular reflex – Forward & Backward • Backward emerges w/ Postural Reflexes • Early method of response to gravity - Giving sense of direction based where in space • Shared circuit of eyes & brain • Influences muscle tone throughout the body

What If Primitive Reflexes don’t Integrate?
 Primitive reflexes that remain and do not integrate, are “Retained” and therefore postural reflexes do not develop fully resulting in a “Reflexive No Man’s Land” or “ A Reflexive Seesaw” (e.g. Car stuck in the Snow).  Thus the body remains under the influence of involuntary responses instead of voluntary.

 Retained Primitive Reflexes cause:
 Difficult voluntary movements and Balance  Irregular Visual Perception  Irregular Auditory Processing  Irregular Sensory Perception

Observing SPD’s
An Individual defined as having SPD concerns exhibits variations of sensory activity in : Frequency Intensity Duration Observed as either as a Hypersensitivity or a Hyposensitivity

The Sensitivity of the Seven Senses in SPD
 Hypersensitive requires less stimulation
       Avoids sounds Overwhelmed by intense visual Object to textures and gag Avoid textures and being touched Avoids odors Rigid and uncoordinated Apprehensive running, climbing and swinging       

 Hyposensitive - requires
more stimulation
Appears to ignore sound Appears uninterested by visual Tastes inedible objects Chews and presses into objects Unaware of unpleasant odors Limp and clumsy Craves rocking, twirling and fidgets

How SPD Presents

More Specific Symptoms of Retained Reflexes:
Fear Paralysis Reflex
• • Oppositional Defiance “The Screaming Child” •

Palmar Reflex
Poor Manual Dexterity (Thumb) • Speech Difficulties • Manual Tasks Inhibit Talking • Difficult writing (w/Mouth Motion)

Moro Reflex
Aggressive or Withdrawn • Overactive (Ready-Fire-Aim) • Overemotional (Weeping Anger) • Learning Difficulty (Pupils problem w/ black print on white paper • Visual attention drawn to outside edges (Peripheral Vision) • Hypersensitive to ALL senses • Adrenal Fatigue=> Weak Immune • Overall effects emotional profile •

Plantar Reflex
• Trouble w/Gait, Run, Toe Walk

More Specific Symptoms of Retained Reflexes:
Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex:
• Easily Distracted • Poor Pencil Grip, Excessive Grip • Missing Visual Reading Fields When reading • Difficult Distance Perception • Poor Ball Skills • Difficult cross crawling on stomach (Barrier crossing midline) • Difficult tasks involving both sides of Body ; Favors same side motion & since choice of side not automatic becomes unnecessary source of confusion • Learning Difficulty

Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex:
• Poor Judgment of Balance, Space, Distance, Depth, Motion & Time • Motion Sickness & Dislike P.E. • “Floppy” or “Rigid” Child • Fatigue when Neck Flexed Learning/Visual Difficulty (Mirror Write)

More Specific Symptoms of Retained Reflexes:
Rooting/Suck Reflex
• Difficult Chew, Speech and Dribble • Relation to manual dexterity •

Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex
• • • Poor Posture, (Ape like) Walk “W” leg position w/ floor sitting Poor Hand-eye coordination- eating

Spinal Gallant Reflex:
Delayed Sitting • Abnormal Gait/Posture • Poor Bladder & Bowel/ Bed Wetting • “Ant’s in Pants” Child • Poor Concentration & Learning Difficulty •

Swim better underwater w/ less gravity

The Next Developmental Step
 As higher brain centers mature or the PR’s Integrate more voluntary Postural Reflexes and Cortical development occurs Postural Reflexes:
• The Righting Reflexes (Quadruped) • Equilibrium Reactions (Bipedal)

Developmental Movement Patterns
The Building Blocks of movement and understanding
CONTRALATERAL
Integrates all previous patterns; Gains ability to intend

HOMOLATERAL
Differentiates right and left side of the body; Gains mobility

HOMOLOGOUS
Differentiates upper and lower halves of the body; Gains the ability to act

SPINAL MOVEMENT
Differentiates front and back of the body; Gains the abilityto attend

NAVEL RADIATION
Differentiation and connection

MOUTHING
First limb to reach, grasp, hold and let go

BREATHING
Simplest ground of physical presence

The Significance of Primitive to Postural Reflexes:
 Primitive Reflexes
 Form foundations for later body functions

 Postural Reflexes
 Provide the framework within which body systems operate

The Integrity of one effects the Integrity of the Other
(The Model Home)

Learning Hierarchy
Academic Functioning
Development of logic and reasoning for schooling-reading, writing and math

Conception
Making sense of the world

Language
Development of speech

Perception
Development of sight, hearing and touch

Motor Patterns
Development of correct motor pattern, crawling and climb

Postural Reflexes
Development of ability to be in an upright posture and balance against gravity

Primitive Reflexes
Emergence and integration of survival reflexes along with hearing and touch competence

Difficulty with Senses and Reflexes
Difficulty with Skills
Motor/ Muscle Tone Cognition Communication Socialization Independence

Difficulty with Behaviors
Impulsiveness Self Control Distractibility Frustration Social Emotional

SPD Expression
 Cause:
Difficulty with Senses and Reflexes

 Effect
Difficulty with Skills and Behavior

Low Self Esteem

Intervention
 Traditional
Treats causes as genetic, prepostnatal trauma and unknown Treatment is geared from outside the body to inside the body ( e.g.
Behavioral Modification)

 Alternative
Treats the structure in order to improve the function as cause is a Sensory & Reflex imbalance System Overwhelmed Treatment is geared from inside the body to outside the body (e.g.

Reactive
(The Model Home)

Chiropractic and Craniosacral Therapy (CST)

Proactive
(The Model Home)

Controlling the Senses and the Reflexes
 The Central Nervous System (CNS), comprised of the brain, brain stem, the cranial nerves, the spinal cord and the nerve attachments controls the senses and the reflexes.

CNS Involvement
 Hear………………………………CN 8 (Vestibular Cochlear)  See………………………..CN 2(Optic)..CN 3(Occulomotor), CN 4(Trochlear)..CN 6 (Abducens)  Taste………………………………..CN 9(Glossopharyngeal)  Touch……..............................Afferent and Spinal Pathways  Smell…………………………………………..CN 1 (Olfactory)  Body Position...................CN 8, Brain stem and Spinal cord  Movement………………………..Brain stem and Spinal cord

Cranial Nerves Involvement

CNS Structure and Function
 The Cranium and Spinal Cord are the boney structures protecting the CNS.
Improper Structure Processing
(Alignment and Position)

Improper Function

Improper Sensory and Reflex

(Motion and Nerve Communication)

Improve Structure

Improve Function

Improve Sensory and Reflex Processing

The “PROFOUND” Link
 The CNS and its intimately related boney protective network form the profound link of communication and functional interaction between an individual’s internal and external environments.

Craniosacral Therapy (CST)
 Focuses on relieving pressure on the brain and spinal cord through manual pressure techniques used at the cranium and sacrum.

The Craniosacral System
 Consists of membranes and cerebral spinal fluid, which protect the CNS.  Restrictions in this system are detected, and corrections are identified through manual monitoring of the craniosacral rhythm (CSR).

The Bones to the Senses and Reflexes

The Bones in Motion

Variations in CSR.
 Variations in the CSR (6-12 bpm) could indicated any number of motor, sensory, reflex or neurological impairments, as well as causes of pain.

The Chiropractic Approach to the CNS
 Chiropractors identify the necessity for the reduction of Subluxations, and utilize gentle spinal pressure techniques called Adjustments in order to remove Subluxations.

What are Subluxations?
 CNS irritation characterized by:
– – – – – Irregular boney mechanics or spinal misalignment Nerves imbalances Muscle irritations Tissue inflammation Degenerative wear

The poor structure or mechanics involved in creating Subluxations results in poor motor, sensory, reflex and neurological function, as well as causes of pain.

Spinal Involvement

A Step in the Right Direction
 75% of imperfections from poor foot mechanics are transmitted up through the spine via Presso-receptors.
 Digital Foot Scan…. Orthotics

The Best of Both Worlds
 CST and Chiropractic adjustments work to restore more appropriate motor, sensory, reflex and neurological input and therefore improve function.  Improve Structure Improve Function

 Working inside to out and not outside to in.

Synchronizing Structure and Function
 Primitive Reflexes
 CST Chiropractic

 Postural Reflexes
 CST Chiropractic

 Core Activation
 CST Chiropractic

 Presso-Receptors
 Orthotics

Homework: Primitive Reflexes
 Starburst  Snow Angel  Stomach Fly  Stomach Twist

Homework: Postural Reflexes
* Gross motor function proceeds Fine motor function * Exercise is in essence Gross motor function and correlates to higher academic achievement * Chiropractic has been shown to increase exercise performance 2 to 4x’s when compared to exercise alone.

The Better Alignment, Motion, Balance and Strengthen….The Better the Posture, Health and Life.

Measuring CNS Function
 Health care practitioners are challenged to quantify variations of the CNS communication with SPD conditions.  Frequently conventional tests such as blood markers, MRI’s and EEG’s appear unremarkable.

The CNS Simplified

Noninvasive Testing of the CNS
 Infrared Thermography
Measures temperature variations along the spine as indications of imbalances in the Autonomic nervous system which result from subluxations within the CNS.

 Surface Electromyography
Illustrates the effectiveness of motor nerves by measuring the amount of current at the muscle, with imbalances being indication of subluxations within the CNS.

Infrared Thermography

Surface Electromyography

More Scans

Clarification:
 There is no HealthCare that is guaranteed or without risk.  However, Chiropractic and CST are among the most safe effective in benefiting the CNS.

A Mom’s Story
Dear Parents, After a frustrating year of indifferent doctors who ignored my concerns about my son, finding Dr Chapple was like a gift. Over weeks of therapy he has improved considerably. He no longer cocks his head. Spins or presses his forehead onto me. In Fact, we took him for a haircut, and for the first time he sat still for the whole thing….No unfinished haircut, frantic barber or parents. It’s sad, but I had never really noticed that he didn’t run very much before. When he did…he ran on his toes with a very awkward gait. Now he races around on his little feet for the sheer joy of running that all children have.

More Resources:
 www.icpa4kids.com  www.upledger.com  www.autismspeaks.com  www.movementbasedlearning.com

Some Help from Michelangelo…
 “the danger that exist is not aiming to high and reaching it, but aiming to low and achieving it.”  We can never aim to high for our children

The Structure and Function of Sensory Processing Disorders:
Working to Benefit from
ADD/ADHD to Autism
Charles W Chapple, DC, FICPA 360 E Irving Park RD, Roselle, IL (630) 894-8778 www.drchapple.com

Selected 2006-2008 “Guide To America’s Top Chiropractors” 2008 “ Five Star Excellence Award in Chiropractic”

Abstract
Reaching Sensory Processing Disorders: Working to Benefit ADD/ADHD to Autism through Structure and Function So frequently Sensory Processing Disorders: ADHD to Autism, are addressed through a variety of behavioral and biochemical approaches that the significance of the biomechanical aspects of these conditions can be underestimated. Experts state that if a cluster of irregular nervous system reflexes remain unaddressed they will prevent ”sustained long term improvement". This presentation introduces the importance of the nervous system with its biomechanical relationships to the spine and cranium, and the noninvasive approaches of Chiropractic and Craniosacral therapy for the benefit of individuals struggling with sensory processing concerns and retained primitive reflexes.

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