GENERAL CHEMISTRY

Water and Properties

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liquid . no definite shape or volume solid 1.particles closer together. gas . solid .particles widely separated. definite volume but no definite shape 3.2 Matter and Properties 2.particles are very close together.Three States of Matter 1. define shape and definite volume .

Three States of Water (a) Solid Gas (b) Liquid (c) .

2 Matter and Properties .Comparison of the Three Physical States 1.

• A water molecule is a polar molecule with opposite ends of the molecule with opposite charges. Gives water more structure than other liquids – Because oxygen is more electronegative. the region around oxygen has a partial negative charge.Polarity of Water • In a water molecule two hydrogen atoms form single polar covalent bonds with an oxygen atom. . – The region near the two hydrogen atoms has a partial positive charge.

3.1 Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .• Water has a variety of unusual properties because of attractions between these polar molecules.. – Each water molecule can form hydrogen bonds with up to four neighbors. forming a hydrogen bond. Fig. – The slightly negative regions of one molecule are attracted to the slightly positive regions of nearby molecules. Inc.

HYDROGEN BONDS • Hold water molecules together • Each water molecule can form a maximum of 4 hydrogen bonds • The hydrogen bonds joining water molecules are weak. break. and reform with great frequency • Extraordinary Properties that are a result of hydrogen bonds. about 1/20th as strong as covalent bonds. – Cohesive behavior – Resists changes in temperature – High heat of vaporization – Expands when it freezes – Versatile solvent . • They form.

Properties of Water • Polar molecule • Cohesion and adhesion • High specific heat • Density – greatest at 4oC • Universal solvent of life .

clinging of one substance to another. . contributes too.• Hydrogen bonds hold the substance together. as water adheres to the wall of the vessels. a phenomenon called cohesion Cohesion is responsible for the transport of the water column in plants Organisms Depend on Cohesion • Cohesion among water molecules plays a key role in the transport of water against gravity in plants • Adhesion.

3 Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education. Fig. a measure of the force necessary to stretch or break the surface of a liquid. – Water has a greater surface tension than most other liquids because hydrogen bonds among surface water molecules resist stretching or breaking the surface. publishing as Benjamin Cummings ..• Surface tension. is related to cohesion. 3. Inc.

Celsius Scale at Sea Level 100oC 37oC 25oC   Water boils Human body temperature Room temperature Water freezes 0oC .Moderates Temperatures on Earth Water stabilizes air temperatures by absorbing heat from warmer air and releasing heat to cooler air. Water can absorb or release relatively large amounts of heat with only a slight change in its own temperature.

2. Coastal areas having a mild climate 3. A stable marine . Prevention of temperature fluctuations that are outside the range suitable for life.Specific Heat is the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for one gram of a substance to change its temperature by 1oC. Three-fourths of the earth is covered by water. The water serves as a large heat sink responsible for: 1.

Evaporative Cooling • The cooling of a surface occurs when the liquid evaporates • This is responsible for: – Moderating earth’s climate – Stabilizes temperature in aquatic ecosystems – Preventing organisms from overheating .

Density of Water • Most dense at 4oC • Contracts until 4oC • Expands from 4oC to 0oC .

• There are two important quantitative proprieties of aqueous solutions.Most biochemical reactions involve solutes dissolved in water. Concentration 2. pH . 1.

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