You are on page 1of 48

TERMS RELATED:

Nutrition.
Food. nutrient.

COMPOSITION OF FOOD:
Macronut . protein s Micronut .
minerals
vitamins

water

CHO
lipids

ENERGY REQUIREMENTS:
Depend
both

on energy expenditure.

energy requirements and expenditure should be in a balance. 3000 kcal for reference man and 2200 kcal for reference woman.

Approximately

Reference

man: Young adult male aged 25 years old, weighting 65 kg and works 8 hours/day in a comfortable temperature. Reference woman: young adult female aged 25 years old, weighting 55kg and working 8 hours/day in a comfortable temperature.

ENERGY EXPENDITURE IS AFFECTED BY:


Age.
Sex. Climate. physical

activity.

MEAL PLANNING:
It

is the process of combination of food stuffs from different food groups to form a meal.
is the base for constructing an adequate balanced diet.

It

CONSIDERATIONS:
The

presence of the essential elements in balanced proportions. The nutritional requirements of the individual. Economic, social and health conditions.

A HEALTHY BALANCED DIET:

Provides an adequate amount of all nutrients in a balanced proportion.

FOR EXAMPLE: REFERENCE MAN


CHO

supply = 3000 X 60%= 1800 cal./ 4=450 gm. supply = 3000 X 30% = 900 cal./9= 100gm. supply 10% = 3000 X10 =300 cal. / 4= 75 gm.

Fat

Protein

TOOLS USED:
Food
Food

groups.
guide pyramid.

Food

composition tables.
and energy density. list.

Nutrient Dietary

guidelines.

Exchange

FOOD GROUPING:

Building
proteins

Energy supplying
energy

Vitality
vitamins and minerals

MACRONUTRIENTS:

Types.
Dietary sources.

Function.
Requirements.

Deficiency.
Toxicity.

Types source

Animal protein Meat, egg, milk, fish High biologic value. Complete protein.

Plant protein Peas, beans, lentils. Low biologic value. Incomplete protein.

characters

INCREASING VALUE :

Intake of a variety of plant food all-over the day so that The missing amino acids of one food can be supplemented by the others.

FUNCTIONS:
Formation
o o

of :

Cells both new and injured cells. Enzymes& hormones, hg and other essential compounds.

Fluid

balance. Acid base balance. May provide part of energy Transport molecules e.g. lipoprotein Contributing to the immune function
through formation of antibodies.

RECOMMENDED INTAKE:
Infants

and children: 2-3 gm. / kg. of the body weight. adults: 0.8 1 gm. /kg. of the ideal body weight. pregnancy: 1.3-1.5 gm/kg.
2gm./kg.

For

During

Lactation:

DEFICIENCY:
General

effects. Loss of weight and debility, muscle wasting in adults. Hypo-proteinaemia and nutritional edema in
severe cases.
Fatty

liver.

Pure protein deficiency, in infant and young children cause kwashiorkor. With severe energy deficiency cause marasmus in

young children

EXCESS INTAKE:
Impairment

in kidney functions especially in patients with diabetes. is a link between cancer colon and increased consumption of red meat. High protein foods are usually high in fats which may cause hyperlipidemia.

There

TYPES:
Simple

carbohydrates (sugars):
( glucose, fructose, and galactose) include: sucrose, maltose & lactose.

oMonosaccharide oDisaccharides

Complex

carbohydrates:

(starch, glycogen, fibers).

FUNCTIONS:
Main
o

source of energy;.

Red blood cells and brain: can use only glucose and other simple carbohydrate forms for energy. o Spare protein as a source of energy :for its primary purpose of building and repairing tissues and preventing ketosis.
Used

as flavoring and sweetening agents in food industry. Fibers promote healthy intestinal function
& prevent hypercholesterolemia and heart diseases.

FIBERS :

Insoluble:e.g. cellulose and


hemicellulose, is important in the diet for: Maintenance of the peristaltic movem. Removal of waste products from the intestinal tract. Present mainly in fresh fruits and vegetables and wheat bran.

FIBERS :

Soluble :e.g. gum, pectin, and some


hemicellulose.

Fermented by bacteria in the colon to produce

gases and volatile fatty acids.

Slow gastric emptying and the movement of chyme through the intestine, Delay the absorption of glucose Lower elevated blood cholesterol level.

The best sources are: oats, fruits and legumes.

DIETARY SOURCES:

1-Plant sources:
cereal

grains (wheat and corn).

Refined

products.

2- Animal sources: only glycogen and lactose of milk.

RECOMMENDED INTAKE:
60% of the total energy (50% complex &10% sugars).

The maximum is about 4 mg/kg/min which are


approximately 400 g / day.

The minimum:100 g to supply energy as glucose for brain and red blood cells; and to minimize the breakdown of body protein for gluconeogenesis.

20-35 g of fiber daily or 10-13 g/1000 kcal.

DEFICIENCY:
Rare. With:
Restricted carbohydrate intake or

Impairment in its metabolism,


Fat is utilized to provide the greater part

of energy, with the risk of incomplete


combustion and the development of ketosis.

EXCESS INTAKE:
Acute: rapid effect Osmotic diarrhea. Gastrointestinal tract disturbances Hyperglycemia. Excess intake of fibers without increased intake of water can cause hard stool and even intestinal blockage.

minerals especially calcium, zinc, and iron making them less available to the body.

EXCESS INTAKE:
Long run effect:
Predispose Dental Cause

to obesity.

caries. stress on patients with respiratory intake of fibers reduce

insufficiency.
Excessive

absorption of minerals (calcium, zinc, iron)


.

TYPES:
Fats

and oils in the foods are mostly in the form of triglycerides (glycerol core linked to it three fatty acids).
nature of the fat, whether solid or liquid, depends on the kind of fatty acids linked to the glycerol core.

The

FATTY ACIDS:
Saturated:
o o

Mainly in

Animal fats, solid at room temperature. Tropical oils (coconut and palm leave oils)

Unsaturated
o

Present in plant oils , liquid at room temperature; which may be : Monounsaturated: mainly present in olive and canola oils. Polyunsaturated: mainly present in corn, soybeans, and safflower oils.

ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS:


Alpha-linolenic
should

acid and linoliec acid

supply 1-2% of the total caloric intake that corresponds to about 1 tablespoon of plant oil each day.

DIETARY SOURCES:
Visible

fat: present in animal fats, butter, ghee, vegetable oils, and margarine. fat: fat is hidden in whole milk, pastries, cookies, cake, cheese and crackers. This type of fat should be considered when eating a low fat diet.

Invisible

FUNCTIONS:
Source

of energy. Source of essential fatty acids Supply fat -soluble vitamins. Protection of the body and support the organs . Prolongation of the emptying time of the stomach, thus giving the sense of satisfaction after meals. Providing flavor and texture to foods .

RECOMMENDED INTAKE:
About

30% of the total calories in a balanced diet, a maximum of one third of those (10%) as saturated fats. Limit cholesterol to about 300 mg /day. The least amount of fat, to maintain good health is that supply about 15% of the total energy requirements.

EXCESSIVE INTAKE:
Digestive
Obesity. The

disturbances.

risk of hyper-lipidaemia and its role in the development of atherosclerosis. Increased rate of cancer e.g. colon, rectum, prostate, and endometrium.

DEFICIENCY:
Not

a common condition. May occur with severe dietetic, and anorexia nervosa patients.
Very

low fat diet can cause:

o Disturbance in the blood glucose level especially


o

in diabetic patients. Deficiency of fat soluble vitamins.