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CHAPTER 14 NOTES SEX-LINKED TRAITS

Karyotype: a picture of chromosomes.

Autosomes: the first 22 homologous pairs of chromosomes. Autosomes are the same for both males and females.

Sex chromosomes: determines the sex of the individual. The sex chromosomes are the 23rd pair of chromosomes.

XX = female

XY = male

Which parent determines the sex of an offspring?

DAD

Why? All moms have the genotype XX. When egg cells are made, they will all carry a single X chromosome.

All dads have the genotype XY. When sperm cells are made, 50% will have an X chromosome and 50% will have a Y chromosome. Therefore, males and females are born in roughly a 50:50 ratio.

SEX-LINKED TRAITS: those traits that are controlled by genes on the X or Y chromosomes.
NOTE: The Y chromosome is much smaller than the X chromosome and only contains a few genes. Most sex-linked traits are on the X chromosome.

In humans, hemophilia is a sex-linked trait. Having hemophilia is recessive (Xh) to being normal (XH). The heterozygous female is called a carrier. Cross a carrier female with a normal male.
XHXh X _____

In humans, hemophilia is a sex-linked trait. Having hemophilia is recessive (Xh) to being normal (XH). The heterozygous female is called a carrier. Cross a carrier female with a normal male.
XH Xh X XH Y

H X

h X

H X

H X

h X

H X

H H X X

H X

h X

H X

H H X X

H h X X

H X

h X

H X

H H X X
H X Y

H h X X

H X

h X

H X

H H X X
H X Y

H h X X
h XY

Genotypic ratio: 1 XHXH :1XHXh :1XHY :1XhY Phenotypic ratio: 2 normal females: 1normal male: 1 male with hemophilia

Cross a carrier female with a male with hemophilia.


XHXh X _____

Cross a carrier female with a male with hemophilia.


XHXh X XhY

H X

h X

h X

H X

h X

h X

H h X X

H X

h X

h X

H h X X

h h XX

H X

h X

h X

H h X X
H X Y

h h XX

H X

h X

h X

H h X X
H X Y

h h XX
h XY

Genotypic ratio: 1 XHXh :1XhXh :1XHY :1XhY Phenotypic ratio: 1 normal female: 1 female with hemophilia:1 normal male: 1 male with hemophilia

In humans, red-green colorblindness is a sexlinked trait. People with red-green colorblindness can not tell the difference between red and green. Colorblindness is the result of a recessive allele. Cross a female with colorblindness with a male with normal vision. XnXn X _____

In humans, red-green colorblindness is a sexlinked trait. People with red-green colorblindness can not tell the difference between red and green. Colorblindness is the result of a recessive allele. Cross a female with colorblindness with a male with normal vision. X nX n X X N Y

n X

n X

N X

n X

n X

N X

N n X X

n X

n X

N X

N n X X

N n X X

n X

n X

N X

N n X X
n XY

N n X X

n X

n X

N X

N n X X
n XY

N n X X
n XY

Genotypic ratio: 2 XNXn : 2 XnY Phenotypic ratio: 2 normal females: 2 males with colorblindness

Why are sex-linked traits more common in males than in females? Because a male only has to inherit ONE recessive allele in order to get a sex-linked trait and a female has to inherit TWO recessive alleles in order to acquire the sex-linked trait.

It is easier to inherit one recessive allele than two. If the female only inherits one recessive allele, then they are a carrier but have the normal phenotype.