You are on page 1of 21

INTRODUCTION OF MOTOR BEHAVIOR

*Motor Skill the ability to execute movement in an optimal fashion *Motor behavior study is trying to find out how motor skill is produce.
MOTOR BEHAVIOR

MOTOR DEVELOPMENT

MOTOR CONTROL

M.LEARNING

Motor development is the the study of changes in motor behavor which reflect the interaction of the maturation & the environment
Motor Control is the study of the neural , physical and behavioral aspects of movement. Primary neurological implication of movement. Motor Learning refer to the relatively permanent gains in motor skill capability associated with practice or experience.
2

Perbezaan Kawalan M. Perkembangan M. & Pembelajaran M.


Kawalan Motor

Perkembangan.M Perubahan keupayaan kawalan pergerakan dan prestasi motor yg berlaku sepanjang hayat.
-Perubahan = hasil proses semulajadi spt tumbesaran, kematangan penuaan

Pembelajaran M Kajian mengenai pergerakan manusia yg berfokus kepada perubahan dari segi keupayaan kawalan dan prestasi motor (kekal) yg berlaku hasil praktis dan latihan
3

Mekanisme sistem biologi yg menghasilkan lakuan motor

INTRODUCTION TO MOTOR CONTROL


The study of posture and movement and the mechanisms that underlie them (Rose,1997) All movement and posture, irrespective of quality are expression of motor control.

Jenis Jenis Lakuan Motor


1.Lakuan motor tanpa kemahiran (involuntari)
Dihasilkan secara luar kawalan, pelaku tidak mampu memilih/memodifikasikan lakuan yg terhasil (cth..)

2.Lakuan motor berkemahiran (voluntari)


Lakuan secara sedar/dalam kawalan, pelaku memilih dan menentukan ss pergerakan (cth..)

THEORIES OF MOTOR CONTROL

1. Reflex Theories
1. (Sherrington, 1857 1952) 2. Behaviorists (Skinner ; 1938; Thorndike, 1927)

2. Hierarchical Theories (Hughlings Jackson ,


1850; Keele, 1968, Schmidt, 1991)

3.

Dynamic System Theory (Bernstein, 1967)


6

REFLEX THEORY (Sherrington)


Sherrington considered the reflex to be the foundamental unit of motor control Sherrington (1906) the outcome of the normal reflex action of the organism is an orderly coadjustment and sequence of reaction Basic assumption :
physical events occurring in the environment served as the stimulus for action, triggering a chain of individual reflex circuits that responsible for producing a movement response
7

WEAKNEES OF REFLEX THEORIES


Cannot explain voluntary movement - require us

to anticipate changes in the environment inability to account for movement performed in the absence of sensory feedback (sensory feedback is not essential for the execution of all movement)

HIERARCHICAL THEORY ( Hugling Jackson, 1950) Assume that all aspects of movement planning and execution are the sole responsibility of one or more cortical center representing the highest command level within the hierarchy of the CNS ** Higher cortical centers command lower center to carry out prescribed movement

Model :
Hugglings Jackson (1850) - Top - Down (Hiterarchical Model - Greene, 1972) Keele(1968) - Motor program(a set of muscle command that are structured before a movement sequence begins). Smith (1991) - Generalized Motor Program (GMP) is more abstract in structure and can be applied to a broader range of movements and can be alter or modified. Reduces number of programs one must store in memory. Ability to achieve the same movement outcome using different muscle group (motor equivalence)
10

DYNAMIC SYSTEM THEORY (Bernstein, 1967) (Action System Theory)


Environment as an important source of imformation for action. *Motor behavior is self organized. Its result from the interaction of subsystem (neurological, biological, musculosketal *How Movement are controlled: Relationship between the performer and the environment in the planning and control of action (intentions of the performer and constraints imposed by the environment)
11

DST differs from others theories:


1.Role of environment as an important source of information for action 2.Motor behavior is self organized (do not believe that any such rigidly defined cortical mechanism is solely responsible for controlling action) 3.Greater role played by lower control centers provide a mechanism for automatic postural adjustments that accompany a number of voluntary movement
12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

TAJUK PERBINCANGAN

1. APAKAH ITU PEMBELAJARAN MOTOR 2. APAKAH PERBEZAAN ANTARA PEMBELAJARAN MOTOR, KAWALAN MOTOR, PERKEMBANGAN MOTOR DAN TINGKAHLAKU MOTOR 3. BAGAIMANA PEMBELAJARAN MOTOR DAPAT MEMBANTU GURU / JURULATIH DALAM MENGAJAR SESUATU KEMAHIRAN

21