What is Translation?

Week 1

Introducing Translation Studies. 4-14 .Jeremy Munday (2001).. Translation. An Advanced Resource Book.Basil Hatim and Jeremy Munday (2004). Routledge: London & New York pp. Routledge: London & New York Section A Chapter: 1 Section B Chapter: 1 .

speech. in another language 1. The act or an instance of translating 2. A written or spoken expression of the meaning of a word. etc. Product .The Concise Oxford English Dictionary Translation: 1. Process 2. book.

For example. one may talk of translation as a process or a product. technical translation. moreover. subtitling and machine translation. while more typically it just refers to the transfer of written texts. the term sometimes also includes interpreting. . and identify such subtypes as literary translation.Dictionary of Translation Studies Translation An incredibly broad notion which can be understood in many different ways.

got. gotten. at weekends .British English: biscuits. sherbet lemons. football. on weekends . soccer. Mummy. Mommy.American English: cookies. rounders. baseball. lemon drops.• Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone • Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone . dove. dived.

which results from that process and which functions in the sociocultural context of the TL. conducted by translator. 2. linguistic. The cognitive. or translators. Hatim & Munday.The ambit of translation: 1. visual. The process of transferring a written text from SL to TL. or TT. 2004. 6 . 3. The written product. p. in a specific socio-cultural context. cultural and ideological phenomena which are an integral part of 1 and 2.

Holmes.What is Translation Studies? • James S.” . 1972 A new discipline concerned with “the complex of problems clustered round the phenomenon of translating and translations. ‘The Name and Nature of Translation Studies’.


Process-oriented DTS ..Product-oriented DTS .Function-oriented DTS .Pure areas of research: 1) The description of the the phenomena of translation (descriptive translation theory) 2) The establishment of general principles to explain and predict such phenomena (translation theory) .


TRANSLATION AIDS IT APPLICATIONS DICTIONARIES GRAMMARS Translation software On-line databases Use of Internet .


‘On linguistic Aspects of Translation’.Roman Jakobson. 1959 3 ways of interpreting a verbal sign: 1) It may be translated into other signs of the same language (Intralingual translation or rewording) 2) It may be translated into another language (Interlingual translation or translation proper) 3) It may be translated into a nonverbal system of symbols (Intersemiotic translation or transmutation) .

neologisms or semantic shifts. by circumlocution’. Whenever there is deficiency . terminology may be qualified and amplified by loanwords or loantranslations. .‘screw’ = ‘rotating nail’ (Northeast Siberian language) .‘electrical horsecar ’ = ‘horseless street car’ (Russian) .Untranslatability and translatability ‘All cognitive experience and its classification is conveyable in any existing language. and finally.

its meaning may be translated into this language by lexical means’.‘No lack of grammatical device in the language translated into makes impossible a literal translation of the entire conceptual information contained in the original *…+. . two …) .Choice . If some grammatical device is absent in a given language.What happens when translating ‘She has brothers’ into a language which discriminate dual and plural? . the smaller the loss of information’) .Supplementary information (‘the richer the context of a message.Dual forms like old Russian constructions can be translated with the help of a numeral (e.g.

‘All cognitive experience and its classification is conveyable in any existing language’ ‘Only poetry by definition is untranslatable’. as the form contributes to the construction of the meaning of the text. Dichotomy Sense/content form/style Examples Names .

Tom Marvolo Riddle (I am Lord Voldemort) Tom Orvoloson Riddle (Son io Lord Voldemort) .Dumbledore Silente .‘Conventional’ and ‘loaded’ proper names (Hermans.Fluffy Fuffi . 1988) .• Meaningful names .Muggles Babbani .

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