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# In this lecture we shall look at some miscellaneous LPPs.

Each problem will illustrate a certain idea which will be explained when the problem is discussed.

## Problem 6 Problem set 3.4A Page 97

Maximize

z 2 x1 4 x2 4 x3 3x4

## Subject to the constraints

x1 x2 x3 x1 4 x2 x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 0

x4 8

Normally, when there are equality constraints, we add artificial variables and use either Big M method or two phase method. But in this problem we already have a 2x2 identity submatrix in the coefficient matrix of the constraint equations. Hence there is no need to add artificial variables. We can start the Simplex algorithm with x3, x4 as basic variables.

Basic z

x1 -1 -2

x2 -12 -4

x3 0 -4

x4 0 3

Sol -8 0

x3
x4 z x3 x2

0
0 1 0 0

1
1 2 3/4 1/4

1
4 0 0 1

1
0 0 1 0

0
1 3 -1/4 1/4

4
8 16 2 2

## This is the Optimal tableau.

Optimal Soln: x1=0, x2=2, x3=2, x4=0 Max z = 16

Minimize

z 3x1 5 x2 3x3

## Subject to the constraints

x1 4 x2 x3 2 x1 x2 x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 0

x4 10

Minimize

z 3x1 5 x2 3x3

## Subject to the constraints

x1 4 x2 x3 2 x1 x2 x4

s1

s2 10

x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , s1 , s2 0

Since in this problem as we already have a 2x2 identity submatrix below the variables x3, x4 in the coefficient matrix of the constraint equations, there is no need to add artificial variables. We can start the Simplex algorithm with x3, x4 as basic variables.

Basic z

x1 0 -3

x2 7 -5

x3 0 -3

x4 0 0

s1 -3 0

s2 0 0

Sol. 21 0

x3
x4

0
0

1
2

4
1

1
0

0
1

-1
0

0
-1

7
10

z x2 x4

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

0 0 -1

## This is the Optimal tableau.

Optimal Soln: x1=0, x2=7/4, x3=0, x4=33/4 Min z = 35/4

Maximize

z x1 5 x2 3 x3

## Subject to the constraints

x1 2 x2 x3 3 2 x1 x2 x1 , x2 , x3 0 4

There is a unit vector column (coefficients of x3); so we will not add an artificial variable to the first constraint equation. However, to get a starting BFS (= for getting a 2x2 identity submatrix) we have to add an artificial variable to the second constraint equation. And then we solve it by big M method.

Thus we have to
Maximize

z x1 5 x2 3x3 MR2

## Subject to the constraints

x1 2 x2 x3 2 x1 x2 x1 , x2 , x3 , R2 0

3 R2 4

Basic z

x1

x2

x3 0 -3

R2 0 M

Sol -4M 0

-1-2M -5+M -1 -5

x3
R2 z x3 x1

0
0 1 0 0

1
2 0 0 1

2
-1 -11/2 5/2 -1/2

1
0 0 1 0

0
1 +M -1/2 1/2

3
4 2 1 2

Basic z

x1

x2

x3

R2

Sol

-11/2

+M

x3
x1 z x2 x1

0
0 1 0 0

0
1 0 0 1

5/2
-1/2 0 1 0

1
0 11/5 2/5 1/5

-1/2
1/2 -3/5 +M -1/5 2/5

1
2 21/5 2/5 11/5

## This is the Optimal tableau.

Optimal Soln: x1=11/5, x2=2/5, x3=0 Max z = 21/5

## Problem 9 Problem set 3.4A Page 98

Use the big M method to show that the following problem has no feasible solution: Maximize z 2 x1 5 x2

## Subject to the constraints

3x1 2 x2 6 2 x1 x2 2 x1 , x2 0

Maximize

z 2 x1 5 x2 M R1

## Subject to the constraints

3x1 2 x2 s1 R1 2 x1 x2 x1 , x2 , s1 , s2 , R1 0
We now start the Simplex algorithm.

6 s2 2

Basic z

x1

x2

s1 M 0

R1 0 M

s2 0 0

Sol. - 6M 0

-2-3M -5-2M -2 -5

R1
s2

0
0

3
2

2
1

-1
0

1
0

0
1

6
2

z R1 x1

1 0 0

0 0 1

M -1 0

## 0 1+3M/2 2-3M 1 0 -3/2 1/2 3 1

Basic z

x1

x2

s1

R1

s2

Sol.

-4- M/2

1+3M/2 2-3M

R1
x1

0
0

0
1

1/2
1/2

-1
0

1
0

-3/2
1/2

3
1

z R1 x2

1 0 0

8+M -1 2

0 0 1

M -1 0

0 1 0

5+ 4M 10-2M -2 1 2 2

Thus we have reached the optimal tableau but the artificial variable R1 is present at non-zero level. This means the original LPP has no feasible solution. This can be checked graphically also as the next slide shows.

(0,3) (0,2)

3x1 2 x2 6

(1,0) (2,0)

2 x1 x2 2

## Consider the LPP

Minimize

z 2 x1 4 x2 3x3
5 x1 6 x2 2 x3 5 x1 3 x2 5 x3 8 2 x1 5 x2 4 x3 9 x1 , x2 , x3 0

z 2 x1 4 x2 3x3
5 8 s3 9

## Subject to the constraints

5 x1 6 x2 2 x3 s1 x1 3 x2 5 x3 2 x1 5 x2 4 x3 s2

x1 , x2 , x3 , s1 , s2 , s3 0

Normally we have to add two artificial variables, one to each of the first two constraint equations to get a starting BFS.
But by subtracting the first constraint from the second constraint equation, we get the equivalent LPP:

Minimize

z 2 x1 4 x2 3x3
3 8

## Subject to the constraints

6 x1 9 x2 3 x3 s1 s2 x1 3 x2 5 x3 2 x1 5 x2 4 x3 x1 , x2 , x3 , s1 , s2 , s3 0 s2

s3 9

Thus we need to add only one artificial variable to the second constraint equation

to get a starting BFS (= to get a 3x3 identity submatrix). Doing this , the LPP is Minimize

z 2 x1 4 x2 3x3
3 8 s3 9

## Subject to the constraints

6 x1 9 x2 3 x3 s1 s2 x1 3 x2 5 x3 2 x1 5 x2 4 x3 x1 , x2 , x3 , s1 , s2 , s3 0 s2 R2

## We shall solve this by two phase method. Phase I

Minimize r R2
Subject to the constraints

6 x1 9 x2 3 x3 s1 s2 x1 3 x2 5 x3 2 x1 5 x2 4 x3 x1 , x2 , x3 , s1 , s2 , s3 0 s2 R2

3 8 s3 9

Basic r

x1 -1 0

x2 3 0

x3 5 0

s1 0 0

s2 -1 0

R2 0 -1

s3 0 0

Sol. 8 0

s1
R2

0
0

-6
-1

9
3

3
5

1
0

-1
-1

0
1

0
0

3
8

s3
r x3 R2 s3

0
1 0 0 0

2
9 -2 9 -6

5
-12 3 -12 17

-4
0 1 0 0

0
-5/3 1/3 -5/3 4/3

0
2/3 -1/3 2/3 -4/3

0
0 0 1 0

1
0 0 0 1

9
3 1 3 13

Basic r

x1

x2

x3

s1

s2

R2

s3

Sol.

-12

-5/3

2/3

x3
R2

0
0

-2
9

3
-12

1
0

1/3
-5/3

-1/3
2/3

0
1

0
0

1
3

s3
r x3 x1 s3

0
1 0 0 0

-6
0 0 1 0

17
0 1/3 -4/3 9

0
0 1 0 0

4/3
0

-4/3
0

0
-1

1
0 0 0 1

13
0 5/3 1/3 15

## -1/27 -5/27 2/9 -5/27 2/27 1/9 2/9 -8/9 2/3

Phase I has ended. And we now start Phase II with the starting BFS obtained in the optimal tableau of Phase I. Also we do not carry the R2 column as it has served its purpose.

Basic z

x1 0 -2 0 1

x3

s1

s2

R2

s3 0 0 0 0

z x3
x1

1 0
0

## 0 -11/27 -13/27 -3 0 0 1 -1/27 -5/27 0 -5/27 2/27

s3
z x3 x1 x2

0
1 0 0 0

0
0 0 1 0

9
0 0 0 1

0
0 1 0 0

2/9
231 243 11 243 37 243

-8/9
43 243 37 243 14 243

15

2/81 -8/81

## This is the optimal tableau. And the optimal solution is

23 15 10 x1 , x2 , x3 9 9 9

16 Optimum z = Minimum z = . 9
It is clear that the same procedure can be applied to more than two constraints.