Characteristics :

Complex Simplest method of feeding is by hand Solid chemicals may be preweighed Solid chemicals may be poured into tank

Typical Kinds of Chemicals used:

Lime Alum Activated Carbon

Description of Equipment:

A dry installation consists of the following: Feeder A dissolver tank Storage bin or hopper

Types of dry feeders:

Volumetric type Gravimetric type

Volumetric feeders

-used where low initial cost and low feed rates desired -less accuracy acceptable -deliver constant, preset volume of chemical -do not respond to changes in material density -trial and error calibration -positive displacement category

Positive Displacement


-use some form of moving cavity of a specific or variable size -belt, screw or auger can provide cavity -chemical falls into the cavities -chemical fed governed by the rate at which cavity moves and empties and the cavity size



-occurs when chemical is forced through the feeder in an uncontrolled fashion -especially important for those feeding from bins or large hoppers Prevention Rotary valves or other devices required upstream

Figure 1. Typical Screw Type Volumetric feeder5

Gravimetric or Weigh Feeder


-used for extreme accuracy and reliability -automatically compensates for difference of form, size or density of material -not “official”scales -feeder feeds first and then checks and adjusts the feed through weighing -should be checked regularly

GF classifications:

Pivoted-belt group Rigid-belt group Loss-in-weight group

Installations between the bin/hopper and the feeder : Slide gates Knife gate valves Other devices

Installations below the gate or valve : Flexible coupling

Dissolvers - key component of dry-feed systems

Small dissolving tank- for material discharging

Typical Types of Dry feeder:

Belt type Grooved-disk type Screw type Oscillating-plate type

Typical material flow control devices for feeders:

Movable gate Rotary inlet

Operational considerations:

Dry chemical feeder output should be checked periodically by taking a “catch ”

Feed curve should be developed

Figure 3. Typical dry feed system


Characteristics: Require pumps for conveyance Typical chemicals fed as liquids: Sodium hypochlorite Some polymers Phosphoric acid Ferric chloride Caustic soda Hydrogen peroxide

NaOCl solution has become prevalent in many plants today as a replacement for chlorine gas as disinfectant Advantages: -more safe to use than chlorine gas -less toxic


-massive volume required -decompose over time -requires suitable storage -high pH -severe skin and eye irritant -decomposition by action of metals

Description of Equipment:

A typical solution-feed system consists of the following: Bulk storage tank Transfer pump Day tank (sometimes used for dilution) Liquid feeder

Dilution When not diluted: • Day tank is not necessary When diluted: • Day tank is necessary • Prevents plugging • Reduce delivery time • Help mix the chemical with the wastewater • Disadvantage: can cause scaling when water is not softened

Liquid feeders are typically metering pumps -positive displacement type -use of plungers or diaphragms -chemical addition rate can be set manually -obtaining or develop a set of calibration curves showing %full stroke vs pump discharge Automatic feed systems can be designed to control feed flow based on a process variable such as influent flow, residual chlorine concentration, or pH

Points to remember:
Pressure relief should be provided for positivedisplacement metering pumps to prevent line failures if all discharge valves or pump isolation valves are closed.

Most metering pumps should have 34 to 69 kPa (5 to 10 psi) differential across the valves. Discharge line pressure gauge is used for monitoring pressure at the pump.

Pulsation dampeners are located in discharge piping as close to the pump discharge connection as possible or in the suction side of the pump.

Polymers added to aid settling require special attention for adequate mixing.

Operational considerations: -presence of calibration cylinder for feeder delivery monitoring -strainers are helpful in removing large particulates but require periodic flushing -piping and valve arrangements should allow the system to be isolated -allowance for tees(T) and wye(Y) cleanouts -specialized metering pumps to handle offgassing

Figure 3. Typical Solution feed system

Figure 4. Diaphragm pump

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