FRANCHISE (WARALABA

)

By: THADEUS YUS, SH., MPA

DEFINISI
Franchising is the practice of using another firm's successful business model. The word 'franchise' is of anglo-French derivation - from franc- meaning free, and is used both as a noun and as a (transitive) verb.[1] For the franchisor, the franchise is an alternative to building 'chain stores' to distribute goods and avoid investment and liability over a chain. The franchisor's success is the success of the franchisees. The franchisee is said to have a greater incentive than a direct employee because he or she has a direct stake in the business.

DEFINISI European Code of Ethics for Franchising: Is a system of marketing goods and/or services and/or technology. within the framework and term of a written franchise agreement. know how. business and technical methods. supported by continuing provision of commercial and technical assistance. The right entitles and compels the individual franchisee. and/or trade mark and/or service mark. the franchisor and its individual franchisee. and imposes the obligation. to use the franchisor’s trade name. to conduct a business in accordance with the franchisors concept. which is based upon a close and ongoing collaboration between legally and financially separate and independent undertakings. and other industrial and/or intellectual property rights. in exchange for a direct and indirect consideration. whereby the franchisor grants its individual franchisee the right. procedural system. concluded between parties of this purpose .

A privilege granted or sold. right granted to offer cable television service 2. e. merchandising and management….” . training.A license from owner of a trademark or trade name permitting another to sell a product or service under the name or mark International Franchise Association (IFA) “….g. The right given by a manufacturer or supplier to retailer to use his products and name on terms and conditions mutually agreed upon 3. and which does not belong to citizens generally of common right..A special privilege to do certain things conferred by government or individual or corporation. such as to use a name or to sell product or services. plus assistance in organizing.DEFINISI Harry Campbell Black (Black’s Law Dictionary): 1.continuing relationship in which a franchisor provides a licensed privilege to do business.

FRANCHISE (WARALABA) Lloyd T. the franchisor grants to the franchisee a licensed right. continuing business relationship wherein for a consideration.” . merchandising. subject to agreed upon requirements and restrictions. and managing the business conducted pursuant to the licensee. Tanbutton: Franchise adalah: “A long term. and assistance in organizing. to conduct business utilizing the trade and/or service marks of the franchisor and also provides to the Franchisee advice.

whose laws apply. . State) laws covering franchise. franchise is considered a distribution system. Only Australia. Where there is no specific law.DEFINISI Except in the US. with the trademark (of the franchise system) covered by specific covenants. and now in China (2007) where there are explicit Federal (and in the US. France and Brazil have significant Disclosure laws but Brazil regulates franchises more closely. most of the world recognizes 'franchise' but rarely makes legal provisions for it. various provinces within Canada.

He must be protected by the franchisor from any trademark infringement by third-parties. The start-up and costs and working capital must be known before taking the license. They. along with the franchisor must develop a marketing plan or business plan. The fees must be fully disclosed and there should not be any hidden fees. A franchise attorney is required to assist the franchisee during negotiations . The franchisee must be seen as an independent merchant.DEFINISI The franchisee must carefully negotiate the license.

franchise agreements carry no guarantees or warranties and the franchisee has little or no recourse to legal intervention in the event of a dispute. Contracts are renewable at their sole option. they are generally protected from lawsuits from their franchisee because of the non-negotiable contracts that require franchisees to acknowledge.DEFINISI Also. Most franchisors make franchisees sign agreements waiving their rights under federal and state law. and that they have not been promised success or profits by the franchisor. in effect. and in some cases allowing the franchisor to choose where and under what law any dispute would be litigated. Franchise contracts tend to be unilateral contracts in favor of the franchisor. . that they are buying the franchise knowing that there is risk.

is granted the right to offer. Wherein the operation of the franchisee’s business franchise is subtantially associated with advertising or other commercial symbol designating the franchisor. sell. hereafter called the “franchisor” 3. and distribute goods or services organized and directed by the other person.Wherein the franchisee as an independent business constitutes a component of a franchisor’s distribution system 4. Wherein the operation of the franchisee’s business is substantially reliant on franchisors for the continued supply of food or services. Wherein a commercial relationship of define duration or continuing indefinite duration is involved 2. and 5. . either expressed or implied. hereafter called the “franchisee”. between two or more persons: 1. Wherein one person.DEFINISI Franchise Competitive Practice Act (USA) The term “franchise” shall mean a contract or agreement. whether oral or written.

Istilah Franchise berasal dari bhs.) 3. Beraktivitas di atas tanahnya (misalnya berburu. FTC mengeluarkan dokumen “The Uniform Offering Cirkular” (UFOC). Hotel dan fast food.Sejarah Franchise Internasional 1. spt.1978.) 4. dll. 1951 di AS: perusahaan mesin jahit “Singer” memberikan license untuk menjual mesin-2 “Singer” dg perjanjian tertulis (pelopor franchise modern) 6. Konsep franchise berkembang subur di AS 8. Hak monopoli bisnis yang diberikan raja kepada seseorang untuk menjalan aktivitas bisnisnya (membangun jalan. dsb. 7. IFA kemudian bekerjasama dengan Federal Trade Commision AS untuk memperbaiki hubungan antara F-sor dan F-see 10. 9. saluran air. franchise berkembang di Jerman: hak khusus untuk menjual minuman. Perancis kuno yang berarti “bebas”. 5. setelah PDII: terjadi peningkatan kebutuhan yang luar biasa terhadap segala jenis produk barang dan jasa. . Model Franchise masih sederhana: pemberian hak untuk pendistribusian produk dan menjual produk-produk hasil manufaktur. Era “baby boomer” (1960-1970). Tahun 1880. Pada abad pertengahan istilah Franchise bearti “hak utama” atau “kebebasan” (hak khusus dari “Lord” kepada rakyat utk. berkedudukan di Washington DC bernaggotakan negara-negara yg bertujuan utk mengangkat pamor franchise. 2. Dibentuk The International Franchise Association (IFA). dokumen yang harus dibuat franchisor berisi informasi yang terinci dan jelas mengenai hal-hal penting yang harus diketahui franchisee.

Sejarah Franchise di Indonesia 1. Franchise international Dimulai awal tahun 1990an (1996: 119 FI) 2. Franchise Lokal: Pelopor Pertamina dan Jamu Nyonya Meener (1996: 32 FL) .

Adanya penetapan wilayah tertentu 5. Adanya pelatihan awal dan berkelanjutan . Franchisee: yang menerima hak eksklusif dari franchisor 3.FRANCHISE (WARALABA) Elemen-Elemen Pokok Franchise: 1. Adanya penyerahan hak eksklusif 4. Adanya standard mutu dan supervisi 7. Franchisor: Pemilik/Produsen barang atau Jasa/merek tertentu 2. Adanya imbal-prestasi (initial fee dan royalty) 6.

Product Franchise: Manufacturers use the product franchise to govern how a retailer distributes their product. The store owner must pay a fee or purchase a minimum inventory of stock in return for these rights. ada 4 jenis Franchise mendasar di AS: 1. This type of franchise is found most often in the food and beverage industri Most bottlers of sofr drink receive a franchise from a company and most use its ingredients to produce. Manufacturing Franchises This type of franchises provide an organization with the right to manufacture a product and sell it to a public. bottle. . Some tire stores are good examples of this type of franchise” 2.Jenis dan Pola FRANCHISE (WARALABA) Menurut IFA. The manufacturer grants the store owner by the manufacturer and allows the owner to use the name and trademark owned by the manufacturer. and distribute the soft drinks. using the franchisor’s name and trademark.

Vending machine. a company also requires the owner to purchase supplies from the company. The company must provide customers or accounts to the business owners . and. in return. In this approach.” 4. the business owner pays a fee or other consideration as compensation.Jenis dan Pola FRANCHISE (WARALABA) 3. Typically. Business Format Franchising This is the most popular form of franchising. The business owner pays a fee or royalty in return. The company will usually provide significant amount of assistance to the business owner in starting and managing the company. Business Opportunity Ventures: These ventures typically require that a business owner purchase and distribute the products for one specific company. a company provides a business owner with a proven method for operating a business using the name and trademark of the company. For ex. .

800 in 2010 5.000 – $15. H&R Block (Tax Preparation and e-Filing)| Startup Costs $26.483 establishments in the United States in 2008: 1.FRANCHISE (WARALABA) Franchised businesses operated 767.200 partners in 2004) 4.300 in 2010 8.823 .835. (11.427 .200 partners in 2004) 7.000 .148. Great Clips (Hair Salons) | Startup Costs $109.750 . $995.000 partners worldwide in 2004) 9. Servpro (Insurance and Disaster Restoration and Cleaning) | Startup Costs $102.$35.250 .842.700 (37.300 – $258. Jani-King (Commercial Cleaning) | Startup Costs $11.$1.400 .$203.$7.300 (22000 partners worldwide in 2004).$161. McDonald's | Startup costs in 2010.000 in 2010 6. (Convenience Stores) |Startup Costs $40. 2.615. Dunkin Donuts | Startup Costs $537.775. Subway (Sandwiches and Salads) | Startup costs $84.150 in 2010 10.500.765. 7-Eleven Inc.094 (11. Hampton Inns & Suites (Midprice Hotels) |Startup costs $3.050.$84.065 in 2010 .300 partners in 2010) 3.716.300 in 2010.900 – $1.(28. MiniMarkets (Convenience Store and Gas Station) | Startup Costs $1.

FRANCHISE (WARALABA) According to the International Franchise Association approximately 4% of all businesses in the United States are franchisee-worked. trucking stations involve substantial investment and require all the attention of a business.hotels. gasoline stations. The midi-franchises like restaurants. spas. There are also the large franchises . hospitals .

FRANCHISE (WARALABA) Businesses for which franchising work best have one or several of the following characteristics:  A good track record of profitability.  Around a unique or unusual concept.  Detailed systems. A fee for "Disclosure" is separate and is always a "front-end fee".  Broad geographic appeal. . These two fees may be combined in a single 'management' fee. processes and procedures. Two important payments are made to a franchisor: (a) a royalty for the trade-mark and (b) reimbursement for the training and advisory services given to the franchisee.  Relatively easy to operate.  Relatively inexpensive to operate.  Easily duplicated.

Business Opportunity Ventures Franchisee mendistribusikan produk barang/jasa yang dihasilkan franchisor. 2. Product Franchise Franchisor memproduksi suatu produk/jasa. Contoh: keagenan sepatu. Contoh: hotel.FRANCHISE (WARALABA) Menurut Pedoman Pelaksanaan Keterkaitan Kemitraan di Bidang Industri Kecil. real estate. fast food . ada 3 bentuk Franchise: 1. Business Format Franchising: Franchisee diberi lisensi untuk memasarkan product milik franchisor sesuai dengan sistem yang ditetapkan dan menggunakan merek dagang/nama perusahaan franchisor. dimana franchisee mengikuti sistem yang ditetapkan franchisor. Franchisee membentuk outlet utk memasarkan produk tersebut. Contoh: dealer kendaraan bermotor 3.

Agen bukan karyawan principal. ia hanya kuasa principal. Barang yang dipesan akan dikirim langsung oleh principal kepada pembeli dan pembayaran langsung kepada principal. Fungsi agen adalah sebagai perantara yang menjual barang/jasa untuk dan atas nama principal. Principal akan bertanggung jawab atas tindakan-tindakan yang dilakukan oleh seorang agen. sepanjang agen bertindak dalam batas-batas wewenang yang diberikan kepadanya oleh principal. atas perbuatannya itu mendapatkan imbalan. (Wewenang yang dimiliki agen adalah bertindak untuk dan atas nama principal.AGEN Seorang atau Badan Hukum yang usahanya menjadi perantara yang diberi kuasa untuk melakukan perbuatan tertentu. . Agen mendapatkan komisi berdasarkan hasil penjualan barang/jasa principal. Misalnya membuat perjanjian dengan pihak ketiga untuk dan atas nama principal. Jadi hubungan hukum yang terjadi adalah antara principal dan pihak ketiga.

Hubungan usaha sebagaimana diatur pada pasal 1457 KUH Perdata mengenai jual beli Principal akan bertanggung jawab atas tindakan-tindakan yang dilakukan oleh seorang agen. tetapi ia bertindak untuk dan atas namanya sendiri dan segala akibat perbuatannya ditanggung sendiri.DISTRIBUTOR Seorang atau Badan Hukum yang ditunjuk oleh principal untuk membeli barang-barangnya dan memasarkan atau menjualnya dalam wilayah tertentu. sepanjang agen bertindak dalam batas-batas wewenang yang diberikan kepadanya oleh principal. .

metode tehnis. dan lainlain Resiko yang terjadi menjadi tanggung jawab sepenuhnya pihak Franchisee. bisnis. Franchisor memberikan hak untuk menggunakan merek dagang. royalti. sistem dan prosedur. keculai diperjanjikan lain. . dan/atau merek jasa.FRANCHISE Kerjasama antara Franchisor dan Franchisee. know how. Franchisor memberikan haknya untuk membuka unit usaha yang serupa (franchisor) kepada pihak lain yang menerima hak (franchisee) Kerjasama bersifar tertutup dan terus menerus antara para pelaku yang terpisah secara hukum dan keuangan. atau HMI dan industrial yang didukung oleh bantuan tehnis secara terus menerus kepada franchisee untuk melaksanakan bisnisnya sesuai dengan konsep dari franchisor. karena pada dasarnya franchisee merupakan pihak yang mandiri. untuk semua itu francisor mendapatkan initial fee.

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