Operating Characteristics of Nozzles

P M V Subbarao
Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department
I I T Delhi
From Takeoff to cruising ……
Realizing New Events of Physics…….
Converging Nozzle
p
0
p
b

p
b
= Back Pressure
Design Variables:
0 0
, , T p m

Outlet Condition:
exit exit b
M or A or p
Designed Exit Conditions
{ }
1
2
1
0 0
2
1
1
÷
÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
+ =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
exit
exit exit
M
T
T
p
p
( )
( ) 1 2
1
2
0
0
2
1
1
÷
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
+
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
exit
exit exit
M
M A
T
p
R
m

Under design conditions the pressure at the exit plane of the
nozzle is applied back pressure.
{ }
1
2
1
0 0
2
1
1
÷
÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
+ =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
exit
exit b
M
T
T
p
p
Profile of the Nozzle
( )
( ) 1 2
1
2
2
2
1
1
) (
2
1
1
) (
) (
÷
+
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷
+
÷
+
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
exit
exit
exit
M
x M
x M
M
A
x A
{ }
{ }
1
2
2
) ( 1 2
1 2 ) (
÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ +
÷ +
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
x M
M
p
x p
exit
b
{ }
{ }
1
2
2
) ( 1 2
1 2 ) (
÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ +
÷ +
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
x M
M
p
x p
exit
exit
At design Conditions:
Full Capacity Convergent Nozzle
{ }
1
2
,
) ( 1 2
1 ) (
÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ +
+
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
x M p
x p
critical b
( )
( ) 1 2
1
2
1
) (
2
1
1
) (
1 ) (
2
,
÷
+
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
+
÷
+
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
x M
x M A
x A
critical exit
Remarks on Isentropic Nozzle Design
• Length of the nozzle is immaterial for an isentropic nozzle.
• Strength requirements of nozzle material may decide the
nozzle length.
• Either Mach number variation or Area variation or
Pressure variation is specified as a function or arbitrary
length unit.
• Nozzle design attains maximum capacity when the exit
Mach number is unity.
Converging Nozzle
p
0
P
b,critical

1
,
0
2
1
÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
=
¸
¸
¸
critical b
p
p
1
0 ,
1
2
÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
=
¸
¸
¸
p p
critical b
Operational Characteristics of Nozzles
• A variable area passage designed to accelerate the a gas flow is
considered for study.
• The concern here is with the effect of changes in the upstream
and downstream pressures
• on the nature of the inside flow and
• on the mass flow rate through a nozzle.
• Four different cases considered for analysis are:
• Converging nozzle with constant upstream conditions.
• Converging-diverging nozzle with constant upstream conditions.
• Converging nozzle with constant downstream conditions.
• Converging-diverging nozzle with constant downstream
conditions.
Pressure Distribution in Under Expanded Nozzle
p
0

P
b,critical

p
b
=p
0

p
b,critical<
p
b1<
p
0

p
b,critical<
p
b2<
p
0

p
b,critical<
p
b3<
p
0

At all the above conditions, the pressure at the exit plane
of nozzle, p
exit
= p
b
.
Variation of Mass Flow Rate in Exit Pressure
0
p
p
b
0
p
p
e
1
1
0
,
p
p
critical b
0
,
p
p
critical e
Variation of in Exit Pressure
0
p
p
b
0
p
p
e
1
1
0
,
p
p
critical b
0
,
p
p
critical e
Variation of in Mass Flow Rate
0
p
p
b
m

1
0
,
p
p
critical b
choked
m

Low Back Pressure Operation
0
) (
p
x p
0
*
p
p
0 0
p
p
p
p
b exit
=
Convergent-Divergent Nozzle Under Design Conditions
Convergent-Divergent Nozzle with High Back Pressure
p
*
<
p
b1<
p
0

p
throat>
p
*

Convergent-Divergent Nozzle with High Back Pressure
• When p
b
is very nearly the same as p
0
the flow remains
subsonic throughout.
• The flow in the nozzle is then similar to that in a venturi.
• The local pressure drops from p
0
to a minimum value at the
throat, p
throat
, which is greater than p
*
.
• The local pressure increases from throat to exit plane of the
nozzle.
• The pressure at the exit plate of the nozzle is equal to the
back pressure.
• This trend will continue for a particular value of back
pressure.
Convergent-Divergent Nozzle with High Back Pressure
At all these back pressures
the exit plane pressure is
equal to the back pressure.
p
throat>
p
*

0
2
2
) (
) ( T C
x u
x T C
p p
= +
1 2
) (
1
) (
2
0
2 2
÷
= +
÷ ¸ ¸
c x u x c
| | | | 1 2
1
0
1 2
0
2
1
0 0
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
÷ ÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
¸ ¸
¸
µ
µ x
p
x p
T
x T
c
x c
{ } ) (
1
2
1
) (
1
2 ) (
2 2
0
2 2
0
2
x c c
x c c
x u ÷
÷
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
÷
÷
=
¸ ¸ ¸
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
÷
=
2
0
2 2
0
2
) (
1
1
2
) (
c
x c c
x u
¸
| |
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
÷
=
÷1
0
2
0
2
) (
1
1
2
) (
¸
¸
¸ p
x p c
x u
| |
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
÷
=
÷1
0
0
2
) (
1
1
2
) (
¸
¸
¸
¸
p
x p RT
x u
( )
| |
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
÷
=
÷1
0 0
0
2
) (
1
1
2
) (
¸
¸
µ ¸
¸
p
x p p
x u
( )
| |
2 / 1
1
0 0
0
) (
1
1
2
) (
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
÷
=
÷ ¸
¸
µ ¸
¸
p
x p p
x u
( )
| |
2 / 1
1
0 0
0
0
0
) (
1
1
2
) (
) (
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
÷
=
÷ ¸
¸
µ ¸
¸
µ
µ
µ
p
x p p
x A
x
m

) ( ) ( ) ( x u x A x m µ =

) ( ) (
) (
0
0
x u x A
x
m
µ
µ
µ =

( )
| |
2 / 1
1
0 0
0
1
0
0
) (
1
1
2
) (
) (
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
÷ ¸
¸
¸
µ ¸
¸
µ
p
x p p
x A
p
x p
m

At exit with high back pressure p
b

( )
| |
2 / 1
1
0 0
0
1
0
0
1
1
2
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
÷ ¸
¸
¸
µ ¸
¸
µ
p
p p
A
p
p
m
exit
exit
b

At throat with high back pressure p
b

( )
| |
2 / 1
1
0 0
0
*
1
0
0
1
1
2
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
÷ ¸
¸
¸
µ ¸
¸
µ
p
p p
A
p
p
m
t t

| | | |
2 / 1
1
0
*
1
0
2 / 1
1
0
1
0
1 1
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ ÷ ¸
¸
¸ ¸
¸
¸
p
p
A
p
p
p
p
A
p
p
t t b
exit
b
•For a given value of high back pressure corresponding
throat pressure can be calculated.
•As exit area is higher than throat area throat pressure
is always less than exit plane pressure.
•An decreasing exit pressure produces lowering throat
pressure
Variation of Mass Flow Rate in Exit Pressure
0
p
p
b
0
p
p
e
1
1
0
,
p
p
critical b
0
,
p
p
critical e
Variation of in Mass Flow Rate
0
p
p
b
m

1
0
,
p
p
critical b
choked
m

Numerical Solution for Mach Number Caluculation
• Use “Newton’s Method” to extract numerical solution

• At correct Mach number (for given A/A*) …
F(M) = 0
F(M) ÷
1
M
2
¸ +1
|
\

|
.
|
1+
¸ ÷1
( )
2
M
2
|
\

|
.
|

¸

(
¸
(
¸ +1
2 ¸ ÷1 ( )
÷
A
A
*
• Define:
• Expand F(M) is Taylor’s series about some arbitrary Mach
number M
(j)

F(M) = F(M
( j )
) +
cF
cM
|
\

|
.
|
( j )
M ÷ M
( j )
( )
+
c
2
F
cM
2
|
\

|
.
|
( j )
M ÷ M
( j )
( )
2
2
+ ...O M ÷ M
( j )
( )
3
• Solve for M
M = M
( j )
+
F(M) ÷ F(M
( j )
) ÷
c
2
F
cM
2
|
\

|
.
|
( j )
M ÷ M
( j )
( )
2
2
+ ...O M ÷ M
( j )
( )
3

¸

(
¸
(
(
(
(
(
cF
cM
|
\

|
.
|
( j )
• From Earlier Definition , thus

F(M) = 0
M = M
( j )
÷
F(M
( j )
) +
c
2
F
cM
2
|
\

|
.
|
( j )
M ÷ M
( j )
( )
2
2
+ ...O M ÷ M
( j )
( )
3

¸

(
¸
(
(
(
(
(
cF
cM
|
\

|
.
|
( j )
• if M
(j)
is chosen to be “close” to M
M ÷ M
( j )
( )
2
<< M ÷ M
( j )
( )
And we can truncate after the first order terms with “little”
Loss of accuracy
Still exact expression
• First Order approximation of solution for M

• However; one would anticipate that
“Hat” indicates that solution is no longer exact
M
^
= M
( j )
÷
F(M
( j )
)
cF
cM
|
\

|
.
|
( j )
M ÷ M
^
< M ÷ M
( j )
“estimate is closer than original guess”
• And we would anticipate that
“refined estimate” …. Iteration 1
M
^
^
= M
^
÷
F(M
^
)
cF
cM
|
\

|
.
|
| M
^
M ÷ M
^
^
< M ÷ M
^
• If we substitute back into the approximate expression

M
^
• Abstracting to a “j
th
” iteration
Iterate until convergence
j={0,1,….}
M
^
( j +1)
= M
^
( j )
÷
F(M
^
( j )
)
cF
cM
|
\

|
.
|
|( j )
1
M
^
( j +1)
2
¸ +1
|
\

|
.
|
1+
¸ ÷1
( )
2
M
^
( j +1)
2
|
\

|
.
|

¸

(
¸
(
¸ +1
2 ¸ ÷1 ( )
÷
A
A
*
A
A
*
< c
• Drop from loop when