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Meeting or Exceeding Customer Expectations Meeting or Conforming to Specifications Absence of Variation Degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfils requirements. (ISO [ANSI/ISO/ASQ Q 9000-2005]) Fitness for Use: takes into account product design, Features, as well as workmanship

Quality approaches
Two Aspects of Quality: Objective and Subjective Meaning of Quality Based on: Product: a precise and measurable variable User/customer :quality is whatever the customer says or wants Manufacturers: meeting specifications, conformance to requirements, etc. Value: cost or price of a product or service

Quality dimensions
Features Performance Reliability Conformance Durability Serviceability Aesthetics Perceived quality

Juran Trilogy ;Quality Planning QP; stems from a unity of purpose that spans all functions of an organization Quality Planning involves
Identifying customers, both internal and external Determining their needs Specifying the product features that satisfy those needs at minimum cost. Designing the processes that can reliably produce those features. Proving that the process can achieve its goals under operating conditions.

Juran Trilogy ;Quality Control

The process of managing operations to meet quality goals: Quality Control involves:
Choosing control subjects Choosing units of measurement Establishing a measurement procedure Measuring Interpreting differences between measurement and goal Taking action to correct significant differences

Juran Trilogy; Quality Improvement

Assuming the process is under control, any waste that occurs must be inherent in the design of the process Objective; to reduce chronic waste to a much lower level The steps in Quality Improvement: Prove the need for improvement Identify specific projects /tasks /activities for improvement Organize to guide the projects/activities Organize for diagnosis -- discovery of causes Diagnose the causes Provide remedies Prove that the remedies are effective under operating conditions Provide control to maintain the gains.

Juran: Costs of Quality

Prevention costs Appraisal costs Internal failure costs External failure costs

Jurans Philosophies
Definition(fitness for use) Mostly similar philosophy to Deming Evolutionary rather than Revolutionary Adapting the existing management system than instituting a new system 80% or more of defects in a system are management controllable NOT operator controllable(like Deming) Quality management approaches are Quality Trilogy

Jurans trilogy
Managing for quality consists of three basic quality-oriented processes: Quality planning: provides a system capable of meeting quality standards Quality control: used to determines when corrective action is required Quality improvement: seeks better ways of doing things All three are equally important like the legs of the stool

Crosby philosophies
Zero defects

Quality is free
Quality means conformance to requirements. The real costs of quality are the costs of non-conformance (such as rework, scrap, and warranty costs). Do it right the first time and we avoid these costs, thereby

improving profitability

Crosby: Absolutes of Quality

Quality is conformance to requirements The system of quality is prevention The performance standard is zero defects

The measurement of quality is the price of nonconformance

Crosby philosophies
Price of conformance and non-conformance The costs of quality (COQ) are similar to Jurans philosophy Prevention costs (design reviews, supplier evaluations, training, preventive maintenance) Appraisal costs (inspections and tests to determine conformance to requirements) Failure costs (rework, scrap, warranty costs, lost sales, product liability) Prevention: avoid failure and appraisal costs increase profits without increasing sales, buying new equipment, or hiring people.

Crosby philosophies
Doing things right is always cheaper than trying to fix defects after they have been created.(Quality is free) Cost of poor quality is higher than organizations realization

Workers improve the system(Deming disagree)

Crosby: 14 Steps to Quality Improvement

Management commitment Quality improvement teams Quality measurement Supervisor training

Cost of Quality evaluation

Quality awareness Corrective action

Zero Defects day Goal setting Error cause removal Recognition Quality councils Do it all over again

Zero defects program

Deming, Juran &Crosby Common philosophies

Customer Focused Commitment and Leadership from Top Management

Continuous Improvement Based on Facts

Team Based

Quality Terms
Quality Management: Aspect of all the overall management function that determines and implements the quality policy Quality System: The organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes, and resources for implementing quality management Quality Plan: A document setting out the specify quality practices, resources, and activities relevant to a particular product, service, contract, or a project. Quality Policy: The overall intentions and directions of an organization as formally expressed by top management

Quality Terms
Quality Assurance: All those planned or systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality. Quality Control: The operational techniques and activities required to fulfill the requirements for quality

Statistical Quality Control: The application of statistical techniques to the control of quality.

Quality Terms
Inspection: Activities such as measuring, examining, testing, gauging, one or more characteristics of a product or service, and comparing these with the specified requirements to determine conformity.

Testing: A means of determining the capability of an item to meet specified requirements by subjecting the item to a set of physical, chemical, environmental, or operating actions and conditions.

Quality Management System

Quality management system set of coordinated activities used to: direct and control organizations continually improve organizations efficiency and effectiveness towards quality QMS aims: To direct and control an organization with regard to quality To structure organization in an effective and efficient manner Guiding principle in QMS is not simply assessment and control but quality culture Quality Management Organizational structure Procedures Processes and resources Quality policy Quality objectives

QMS; ISO Standards

Means to implement Quality Policy and Attain Quality Objective Quality planning Quality control Quality Assurance and Quality improvement Guiding principles of QMS

Quality standards
The ISO 9000 standards; a set of international quality management standards and guidelines ISO quality Standards: ISO 9000: applicable for service and product oriented institutions ISO 9001:2000 ISO 9001:2008 (Upgraded version)

QMS Principles
Customer focus Leadership Involvement of people Process approach System approach for management Continual improvement Factual approach for decision making Mutually beneficial supplier relations

QMS Principles
Benefits of the principles policy and strategy formulation goal and target setting operational management human resource management

Customer focus
Organizations should: understand current and future customer needs

meet customer requirements

strive to exceed customer expectations. Benefits: Increased revenue and market share by flexible and fast responses to market opportunities

Increased effectiveness in the use of resources to enhance

customer satisfaction Improved customer loyalty to business continuity.

Good leadership
Establish unity of purpose and direction of the organization

Create and maintain the internal environment in which people can become fully involved in achieving the organizations objectives Be proactive and leading by example Understand and respond to changes in the external environment Consider the needs of all stakeholders including customers, owners, people, suppliers, local communities and society at large

Good leadership
Establish a clear vision of the organization's future Establish shared values and ethical role models at all levels of the organization Build trust and eliminate fear Provide people with the required resources and freedom to act with responsibility and accountability

Inspire, encourage and recognize people's contributions Promote open and honest communication Educate, train and coach people Implement strategy to achieve these goals

Involvement of People
Accept ownership and responsibility to solve problems

Actively seek opportunities to make improvements

Actively seek opportunities to enhance competencies, knowledge and experience

Freely share knowledge and experience in teams

focus on the creation of value for customers

Involvement of People
Being innovative and creative in realizing the organizations objectives

Better representing the organization to customers, local communities and society at large Deriving satisfaction from their work

Be enthusiastic and proud to be part of the organization

Process Approach
Defining the process to achieve the desired result Identifying and measuring the inputs and outputs of the process, Identifying the interfaces of the process with the functions of the organization,

Evaluating possible risks, consequences and impacts of processes on customers, suppliers and other stakeholders of the process,

Process Approach
Establish clear responsibility, authority, and accountability for managing the process, Identify the internal and external customers, suppliers and other stakeholders of the process,

Consider process steps, activities, flows, control measures, training needs, equipments, methods, information, materials and other resources while designing the process

System Approach to Management

Defining the system by identifying or developing the processes that affect a given objective Structuring the system to achieve the objective in the most efficient way Understanding the interdependencies among the processes of the system Continually improving the system through measurement and evaluation Establishing resource constraints prior to action

Continual Improvement
Making continual improvement of products, processes and systems ---- every individuals objective Applying the basic improvement concepts ( incremental improvement and breakthrough improvement) Using periodic assessments against established criteria of excellence to identify areas of improvement Continually improving the efficiency and effectiveness of all processes

Continual Improvement
Promoting prevention based activities,

Providing appropriate education and training on methods & tools of continual improvement (for every one)
Establishing measures and goals to guide and track improvements

Recognizing improvements

Factual Approach to Decision Making

Collecting data and information ,taking measurements (relevant to the objective)

Ensure the data and information are sufficiently accurate, reliable and accessible Analyze the data and information using valid methods
Understand the value of appropriate statistical techniques(using statistical tools) Making decisions and taking action based on the results of logical analysis, experience and intuition

Mutually Beneficial Supplier Relationships

Identify and select key suppliers, Establish supplier relationships that balance short-term gains with long-term considerations( for the organization &society at large) Create clear and open communications Initiate joint development and improvement of products and processes Jointly establish a clear understanding of customers' needs Sharing information and future plans Recognizing supplier improvements and achievements

Development of QM concepts

QMS: Applies to all processes Interact with all processes Begins with identification of customer requirements Ends with ensuring customer satisfaction ISO Std demands issuance and maintenance of the following documented procedures
Control of Documents Control of Records Internal Audits Control of Nonconforming Product / Service Corrective Action Preventive Action

ISO 9000 Series(QMS)

ISO 9001:1994 ISO 9002:1994 ISO 9003:1994 ISO 9001:2000 ISO 9001:2008

Contents of ISO 9001:2008

Page iv: Foreword Pages v to vii: Section 0 Introduction Pages 1 to 14: Requirements Section 1: Scope Section 2: Normative Reference Section 3: Terms and definitions (specific to ISO 9001) Section 4: Quality Management System Section 5: Management Responsibility Section 6: Resource Management Section 7: Product Realization Section 8: Measurement, analysis and improvement Pages 15 to 22: Tables of Correspondence between ISO 9001 and other standards Page 23: Bibliography

QM process model

QMS requirements:
General requirements determines the processes and their application needed for QMS determines the sequence and interaction of the processes determines criteria and methods to ensure that both the operation and control of the processes are effective ensures the availability of resources and information to support the operation and monitoring of these processes monitors, measures and analyzes the processes implements actions to achieve improvement of these processes planned results and continual

QMS requirements:
Documentation Requirements

QMS documentation includes:

Documented statements of a QP and QO, Documented procedures and records (up to ISO 9001:2008 International Standard) Documents & records to ensure effective planning, operation and control of its processes

Quality manual Control of documents Control of records

Management responsibility Management Commitment Customer focus Quality policy Planning (quality objective, QMS Planning) Responsibility, authority and communication(Responsibility and Authority, Management Representative and Internal communication ) Management review(Review inputs and outputs)

Resource management Provision of resources(Competence, training, and awareness) Human resources Infrastructure Work environment

Product realization Planning of product realization Customer related processes

Determination of requirements related to the product Review of requirements related to the product Customer communication

Purchasing Product and service provision Control of monitoring and measuring equipment

Measurement Analysis and Improvement Monitoring and measurement

Customer satisfaction Internal Audits Monitoring and measurement of processes Control of nonconforming product

Analysis of Data Improvement

Continual improvement Corrective action Preventive action

ISO 9000 QMS implementation

14 steps Top Management Commitment Establish Implementation Team Start ISO 9000 Awareness Programs Provide Training Conduct Initial Status Survey Create a Documented Implementation Plan Develop Quality Management System Documentation Document Control Implementation Internal Quality Audit Management Review Pre-assessment Audit Certification and Registration Continual Improvement

Benefits of ISO 9001 QMS implementation

One-time and on-going savings Reduced defect rate Reduced cost of quality On-time delivery Improvement in customer satisfaction

QMS Benefits
Repeatable Processes Knowledgeable Staff Increased Business

Supplier Relationships
Customer Satisfaction

Total Quality Management (TQM)

Total Overall, the whole Quality Degree of excellence a product or service provide Management Act, art, or manner of planning, handling, controlling and directing Total quality management has evolved from the quality assurance methods

Total Quality Management (TQM)

The way of managing for the future wider in its application than just assuring product or service quality Aims to improve quality and performance which will meet or exceed customer expectations Operates by integrating all quality-related functions and processes throughout the company Managing people + Business processes=complete customer satisfaction at every stage (internally and externally) TQM + Effective leadership=an organization doing the right things right first time

Total Quality Management (TQM)

Foundations of TQM Commitment Communication culture Building blocks of TQM People Processes systems

TQM Principles
Executive Management the main driver for TQM Training training on the methods and concepts of quality Customer Focus Improvements to wards customer satisfaction Decision Making based on measurements Methodology and Tools to identify and solve nonconformances Continuous Improvement work towards improving quality procedures Company Culture The culture aim at developing employees ability to work together to improve quality Employee Involvement proactive in identifying and addressing quality related problems.

TQM implementation
Key elements: Foundation : Ethics, Integrity and Trust Building Bricks : Training, Teamwork and Leadership. Binding Mortar: Communication Roof : Recognition.

Components of TQM
Commitment & Leadership Cultural change Commitment from the leaders Involvement of all of the organizations people

Who is Effective leader in TQM?

Develop and publish corporate beliefs, values and objectives, often as a mission statement

Personal involvement and acting as role models for a culture of total quality Develop clear and effective strategies and support plans for achieving the missions and objectives
Review and improve the management system Communicate, motivate and support people and encourage effective employee participation

Leaders consider..
a long-term commitment to continuous improvement philosophy of zero defects /right first time culture

Train people to understand the customer/supplier relationships

Systems improvements must be managed Adopt modern methods of supervising and training

Improve communications and teamwork

Eliminate goals without methods Develop experts in the organization----retrain and Educate Develop a systematic approach to manage the implementation of TQM

Conversion process in an organization

Customers and suppliers interfaces

The ability to meet customers (external and internal) requirements is vital. Customers (internal and external) -----key Questions Who are my customers? What are their true needs and expectations? How can I measure my ability to meet their needs and expectations? Do I have the capability to meet their needs and expectations? (If not, what must I do to improve this capability?) Do I continually meet their needs and expectations? (If not, what prevents this from happening when the capability exists?) How do I monitor changes in their needs and expectations?

Customers and suppliers interfaces

Suppliers (internal and external) ---key questions Who are my internal suppliers? What are my true needs and expectations? How do I communicate my needs and expectations to my suppliers? Do my suppliers have the capability to measure and meet these needs and expectations? How do I inform them of changes in my needs and expectations?

Poor practices in TQM

Leaders not giving clear direction Ignoring competitive positions Each department working only for itself Trying to control people through systems Confusing quality with grade Accepting that a level of defects or errors is inevitable Firefighting, reactive behavior The Its not my problem attitude

Quality Improvement Cycle

Deming Cycle
Plan helps to focus the effort of the improvement team on the process. Questions to be addressed by the team: What are the requirements of the output from the process? Who are the customers of the output? (internal and external customers ) What are the objectives of the improvement effort?

Deming Cycle
Implement (Do) The implementation effort will have the purpose of: Defining the processes that will be improved Identifying and selecting opportunities for improvement The improvement steps during implementation: Define the scope of the system to be improved and map or flowchart the processes within this system Identify the key processes that will contribute to the objectives identified in the planning stage Identify the customersupplier relationships for the key processes

Deming Cycle
Data (Check) The data collection phase has the following objectives: Collect data to check the process stability Determine the stability of the process using the appropriate control chart method(s) Determine the capability of the process, if found stable Determine the impact of unplanned events on the improvement efforts Update the maps/flowcharts and cause and effect diagrams, so the data collection adds to current knowledge.

Deming Cycle
Analyze (Act) Determine the action on the process: identify the inputs or combinations of inputs that will need to be improved Develop greater understanding of the causes and effects Ensure the agreed changes have anticipated impact on the specified objectives Identify the areas to be involved in analysis, implementation and management of the recommended changes Determine the objectives for the next round of improvement (Problems and opportunities discovered can be objectives for future efforts)

Total Quality Management

Total Quality Management (TQ, QM or TQM) and Six Sigma (6) are culture change efforts to position a company for: greater customer satisfaction profitability competitiveness TQM : managing the entire organization so that it excels on all dimensions of products and services that are important to the customer

TQM is about conformance quality, not features.

Total Quality management

Meeting Our Customers Requirements Doing Things Right the First Time (Freedom from Failure or Defects) Consistency (Reduction in Variation) Continuous Improvement Quality in Everything We Do

A Quality Management System

A belief in:
employees are able to solve problems(Training) people doing the work are best able to improve it(Empowerment) everyone is responsible for quality(involvement)

Elements for Success

Management Support Mission Statement Proper Planning Customer and Bottom Line Focus


Teamwork/Effective Meetings
Continuous Process Improvement Dedicated Resources

The Continuous Improvement Process


Empowerment/ Shared Leadership



Customer Satisfaction Business Results

Team Management

Process Improvement/ Problem Solving


Define Quality Management System Write benefits of QMS Discuss the three quality Trilogy as stated by Juran?(Explain Each) What are TQM Foundations and Building blocks Why continuous improvement is needed?

Chapter 2: QA in Garment industry

Quality Assurance: all the planned and systematic activities implemented within the quality system Provide adequate confidence that a product or service will fulfill requirements Quality control: Deals with the operational techniques and activities used to fulfill requirements QA can be internal or External Internal quality assurance: -provides confidence to the management External quality assurance: - provides confidence to the external customers

Quality in the manufacturing process

Pattern making and first sample inspection: to identify how the garment will look, how the fabrics and trims will work in the style, and to develop initial fit parameters Pre-production sample inspection: for accurate fit measurements during production pattern corrections, spec. development and trim confirmation, proper garment construction, yield a consistency of fit and finish In-line (in-process) quality inspection E.g. stitching, seams, pressing or label selection & placement

Finished product inspection confirms proper garment construction. E.g. garment appearance, and ensures that the purchase order is finished properly and that all packaging (labels, hangtags, etc.) are applied correctly

Improving Garment Product Quality

Why quality improvement ? to satisfy customers to control production cost to save Resources

Improving product quality requires:

Deliberate and ongoing attention

Commitment of every individuals (from the person who

cleans the floor to the most senior manager)

Quality improvement Actions

Communicating: (the importance of quality, everyones role in achieving and maintaining right quality) Maintaining a clean and dry workplace(e.g. storage rooms and shipping areas) Selecting and utilizing proper equipment for each manufacturing activities Providing the proper tools and training to each worker, and communicating quality performance expectations from management Planning and conducting an ongoing program of machine maintenance Establishing agreed-upon quality standards with before purchase:(procedures for rejecting/returning unacceptable goods)

Quality improvement Actions

100% inspection of all incoming goods
1. Visual inspection by a trained inspector running every roll of fabric Color shade check, compared to agreed-upon (or buyer imposed) shade tolerances


Rejection and return of all goods that dont meet agreedupon quality standards 100% inspection of value added processes like panel printing, machine embroidery, hand embroidery etc Checking the cut components;(matching cut panels with original pattern, shade variation, fabric related defects etc.) 100% inspection of work in process and finished garments to ensure adherence to size specifications
to control stitching related defects(needle cutting, open seam, broken seam, jump stitch, variable gathering etc.)

Quality improvement Actions

Record defects based on:
production lot source (fabric, cutting, or assembly) type Operator/machine number

Analysis of defect data to identify sources of quality problems Corrective measures: Replace replace underperforming suppliers, equipment, Repair repair ill-functioning equipment, Retrain retrain underperforming workers and Reward reward high performing workers

Quality Assurance procedures

Reporting and Quality Approval Procedures(reporting to buyers to get approval at different stages)

Factory Quality Control Procedures (factory inline and finished product inspection)

Reporting & Quality Approval Procedures

Receipt of the purchase order initiates the pre-production process for each style Result an approved pre-production sample a set of specifications (specs) a trim card of actual trims and swatches for all components of each style At 20% completion of the purchase order, the supplier must submit purchase order samples for approval Result Approval (approved as submitted, approved with modifications, or not approved) The Finished Product Inspection Report sent to buyers Quality Assurance office Result a Certificate of Approval prior to shipment

Factory Quality Control Procedures

Factory in-line inspection In-line inspection is a critical aspect of a good quality program. Problems discovered early in production allow for early correction and prevention of costly final audit failures. In-line inspection is ongoing and continuous process

It requires sampling pieces from the bundles to check against construction

and measurement standards Timeline Checking all components prior to sewing Checking during the assembly of the product(sewing) Checking during the washing, finishing and packaging processes

Factory Quality Control Procedures

Finished product inspection (At two levels)

100% inspection
Checking of all quality requirements (stitching, seams and pressing) as the production completed Mark defectives and send it back to the floor for repair No defective garments should be shipped to buyers

Statistical inspection audits

To determine if each purchase order meets all quality standards Select statistical quantities(for construction, finish and packaging, and the measurement, fit for each color)

Finished product inspection

Final inspection audit Visual Construction/measurement/fit Packaging Why Final Inspection Audit? to verify that the product meets standards as related to: Technical (Specification) Package Fit Measurements /construction Visual Appearance Packaging Requirements

Visual Quality Audit----AQL

Measurement ----AQL

Inspection Procedure
Find out the number of units packed at the time of audit from the factory management Pull, at random, the quantity of garments proportionally by size and color, to be examined, based on purchase order size quantities Make sure that the packaging materials meet specified standards. Inspect the product for defects related to visual, construction and packaging Defects observed are to be listed on the Finished Product Inspection Report form. The number of defects observed is reviewed against the amount allowed in AQL table Complete the Finished Product Inspection Report form for Visual / Construction / Packaging. If the audit fails for visual, construction, or packaging, the purchase order must be 100% inspected by the quality inspector If problems are found that create any shipping delays, notify the buyers Import department immediately.

Organizational structure of quality department

Who Assure Quality?

Quality-conscious companies philosophy: Employees at all levels of planning and production are able to:

Identify the causes of defects Propose solutions to problems

Quality control methods

Two basic controlling techniques Testing Inspection Controlling stages: Piece goods quality control Cutting quality control (Spreading, after cutting) In process quality control(sewing) Finishing quality control
Process inspection: Two hourly audits: Days final audit: Lot final audit:

Role of QA department

Responsibilities of quality Team

Setting quality standards for the factory for each departments and processes. (after buyers requirements are known)

Establish SOPs for production and preparatory processes to get right first time quality from each process
Develop MIS for quality measurement and Recording When established quality standards exist in a company follow them and control the factory quality standard Monitor the quality of the product through the various stages of production Train newly hired quality personnel on company quality policies and how to use quality tools.

Responsibilities of quality Team

Pre-production: Auditing inward fabric and trims and ensuring only quality goods are accepted. Involvement in product development and sampling stage and take care of quality aspects of samples. Ensure that no faulty fabric is sent for cutting.

Preparing audit report of the fabric and trims quality.

Conducting pre-production meeting before production start.

Responsibilities of quality Team

Production: Perform inline inspection and end-of-line inspection in sewing floor. Perform inline inspection, pre-final audit and final inspection in finishing department Audit of the packed goods prior to buyer QA Audit Prepare quality analysis reports and prepare improvement plan Ensure the right quality of the outward garment by conducting quality audits

Department wise quality checking

Standards and specifications

Discussions Definitions Differences


Discuss the difference between quality assurance and Quality control. What is the advantage and disadvantage of Statistical quality Audits and 100% inspections? Design a quality parameter for each department in Garment Industry.

CH3: Inspection and Testing

Inspection: the visual examination or review of raw materials, partially finished components and completely finished garments in relation to some standards, specifications, or requirements. Aims to monitor and regulate quality, most quality programs include The careful examination of fabric, garment parts, and completed garments at varying stages in the production cycle

Inspection loop

Inspection procedure
To facilitate inspection of packed goods the following information's are needed Order quantity: The quantity available for inspection accords to the order quantity. Packaging and folding: The style is boxed, packaged and folded as per the specification Labeling : All labels will be evaluated based on the specifications outlined in labeling section of the specification. Labels are checked for correct brand name, fiber content, care instruction and country of origin and its placement. Styling: The garment should include all features as approved in the sealer / pre-production sample. Visual defects: Visual and functional defects will be evaluated using the parameters set forth in the specification

Inspection stages
Raw material Inspection(Fabrics, Trims) In process Inspection(PM ,MM, Spreading, cutting ,Sewing , pressing/Finishing) Final inspection( visual appearance, folding, Packaging, hangers, hangtags)
Correct measurements Garment symmetry , Seam pucker, seam allowance Pressing/fusing defects ,Cleanness, Loose threads Correct matching of fabrics and accessories Shade variation Correct fitting and alignment of closures Correct placement of labels

Inspection steps/how to conduct inspection

Three fundamental concepts to inspect: Inspection levels The AQL ,for decision making When to inspect?(time) Benefits: Help for informed decisions based on an inspection report Ensure the inspection plan meets the needs of buyers and manufacturers

Inspection levels (How much to inspect?)

Checking 100% of the quantity would be long and expensive But how many samples to select Checking only a few pieces might prevent the inspector from noticing quality issues The objective is to keep the inspection short by reducing the number of samples to check Sampling Normal Levels Reduced levels(Level I) Normal level (level II) Tightened level(Level III)

Inspection levels (How much to inspect?)

Special Levels In some cases the tests can only be performed on very few samples, for two reasons: They might take a long time They end up in product destruction. (e.g. unstitching a jacket to check the lining fabric).

Inspection levels (How much to inspect?)

Garment inspection stages/when to inspect?


Garment inspection
Visual inspection Thorough check of seams for stitching defects including pocket pouches, side to side symmetry of plackets, evenness of inseam lengths Proper functioning of buttons, snaps, zippers, Velcro Embroidery quality Lock stitching of button holes Pocket placement ,shape and evenness-garment to garment consistency Garment labeling information Shade variation Measurement Inspection Auditor performs critical measurement inspection Packaging inspection Hang tag/price tag information and placement Style, color and quantity per carton Packaging-flat pack vs. hanger pack Missing or unreadable UPC Carton size and markings

CH4 Fabric and garment Defects

Defects Defects are all those non-conformances that are not acceptable by end customer

Defective Pieces Defective pieces are those pieces, which are separated for alteration during checking due to non conformance to requirements

Classification of Defects
Garment defects: based on source or origin Fabric defects: (Knit and woven, either manufacturing or processing) Are major source of finished garments rejection/sub-standard quality Persist throughout the sewing process As fabric contributes to major part of production cost, its failure affects the price of the garment Therefore, Fabric should conform to the specification and the standards to reduce failure of garments Challenges for garment manufacturers: o Reduced product lead-time o Improved productivity and quality Fabric defects : color defects construction defects cleanliness /soiling

Classification of Defects
Garment (Workmanship and handling) defects: caused by production section; cutting and sewing Trims, accessories and embellishment defects: (labels, color of sewing thread, screen print and embroidery designs and placements) Garment quality depends on number and type of Defects Defects can be measured by: Defects per hundred units (DHU) percentage defective(% defective) Defects per hundred units (DHU) number of total defects in 100 checked garments. DHU = Total no. of defects found X 100 / Total pieces checked Percent Defective (%) Total number of defective pieces in 100 checked garments Percentage defective = Total no. of defective pieces X 100 / Total pieces checked

Defects categories
Depending on the severity, defects can be classified as: Critical Major Minor Critical defects: Defects which could result in hazardous or unsafe conditions for individuals using or maintaining the products as well as defects violet legal regulations. They are defects that are not allowed to be shipped and are the most serious of defects e.g. Children Safety Care , flammability instruction

Defects categories
Major defects: This is a defect which is sufficient to cause the garment to be considered as seconds quality A defect which is obvious Affects the salability or serviceability which worsens with wear and time Varies significantly from the approval garment specification Minor Defects: It would not normally be identified by the customer, but is, however less than the agreed quality standard. A defect which Does not affect the performance of the garments in normal conditions Is not noticeable to the customer on purchasing Is not noticeable to the wearer of the garment, or others Will not worsen with time and wear

Fabric defects
Fabric manufacturing defects; weaving, knitting Fabric processing and finishing defects; dyeing, printing, finishing, folding,Batching

Process defects
Marking Defects Shaded Parts Pieces not Symmetrical Not Marked by Directional Lines Skimpy marking Notches and Punch Marks Too wide Marker Too narrow Marker Mismatched Plaids Misdirected Napping

Process defects
Spreading Defects Uneven Spreading: Narrow Fabric: Missed Sectional Breaks: Improper Tension: Mismatching Plaids: Misdirected Napping: Improper Matching of Face of Material:

Process defects
Cutting Defects Opening Slits Improper Cutting Notches Oil Spots Improper Knife Sharpening Knife or Scissor Cut Sorting/ Bundling inspection Defects Not Stacked in Numerical Order: Matching Linings: Wrong size or wrong material

Process defects
Sewing Room Defects

Scissors or Knife Cut: Tear: Incorrect Material Shading: Spots or Stains: Loose Threads:

Puckered Seams:

Pleated Seams:
Thread Breaks:

Insecure Backstitching:
Wrong Shade of Thread:

Open Seams:

Process defects: Finishing Defects

Trimming Defects Threads not Trimmed to Specified Length scissor Cuts Seam Tear Soil Streaks Pressing Defects Pressing Omitted, Burned or Scorched Garments Inadequate Pressing Garments not Thoroughly Dried Improper Pressing over Zippers or Other Closures: Pockets or Linings not Pressed Correctly: Pressing Producing a Shine in Fabric

Process defects
Folding Defects Garment not folded to Specification: Self-explanatory.

Garment not folded with proper Materials: Cardboard, tissue

or other specified packaging material omitted Pins or Folds in Garment Incorrect: Pins in wrong location or folds not correctly aligned for package. Garments not Buttoned, Flys not Closed, Incorrect Number of Pins: Self exp1anatory. Label not showing: Garment not positioned in package to

show label on top surface.

Causes and Remedial Solutions

Discussion Points Fabric construction, improper yarn quality, inefficient fabric manufacturing processes(E.g End out, Knots, jerk in, Missing yarn, thick place, thin place) Fabric processing(dyeing, printing, finishing, washing, packaging,) Accessories and trims Garment processes(marking, spreading, cutting, sewing, finishing, trimming, washing, pressing, packaging )