• • • • Meeting or Exceeding Customer Expectations Meeting or Conforming to Specifications Absence of Variation Degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfils requirements. (ISO [ANSI/ISO/ASQ Q 9000-2005]) • Fitness for Use: takes into account product design, Features, as well as workmanship
• Two Aspects of Quality: Objective and Subjective Meaning of Quality Based on: • Product: a precise and measurable variable • User/customer :quality is whatever the customer says or wants • Manufacturers: meeting specifications, conformance to requirements, etc. • Value: cost or price of a product or service
• • • • • • • • Features Performance Reliability Conformance Durability Serviceability Aesthetics Perceived quality
Juran Trilogy ;Quality Planning • QP; stems from a unity of purpose that spans all functions of an organization • Quality Planning involves
– Identifying customers, both internal and external – Determining their needs – Specifying the product features that satisfy those needs at minimum cost. – Designing the processes that can reliably produce those features. – Proving that the process can achieve its goals under operating conditions.
Juran Trilogy ;Quality Control
• The process of managing operations to meet quality goals: • Quality Control involves:
– – – – – Choosing control subjects Choosing units of measurement Establishing a measurement procedure Measuring Interpreting differences between measurement and goal – Taking action to correct significant differences
to reduce chronic waste to a much lower level • The steps in Quality Improvement: – Prove the need for improvement – Identify specific projects /tasks /activities for improvement – Organize to guide the projects/activities – Organize for diagnosis -. Quality Improvement
• Assuming the process is under control.discovery of causes – Diagnose the causes – Provide remedies – Prove that the remedies are effective under operating conditions – Provide control to maintain the gains. any waste that occurs must be inherent in the design of the process • Objective.Juran Trilogy.
Juran: Costs of Quality
• • • • Prevention costs Appraisal costs Internal failure costs External failure costs
• • • • Definition(fitness for use) Mostly similar philosophy to Deming Evolutionary rather than Revolutionary Adapting the existing management system than instituting a new system • 80% or more of defects in a system are management controllable NOT operator controllable(……like Deming) • Quality management approaches are Quality Trilogy
Managing for quality consists of three basic quality-oriented processes: • Quality planning: provides a system capable of meeting quality standards • Quality control: used to determines when corrective action is required • Quality improvement: seeks better ways of doing things • All three are equally important like the legs of the stool
• Zero defects
• Quality is free
• Quality means conformance to requirements. • The real costs of quality are the costs of non-conformance (such as rework. • Do it right the first time and we avoid these costs. scrap. thereby
. and warranty costs).
Crosby: Absolutes of Quality
Quality is conformance to requirements The system of quality is prevention The performance standard is zero defects
The measurement of quality is the price of nonconformance
or hiring people. scrap. product liability) Prevention: • avoid failure and appraisal costs • increase profits without increasing sales. preventive maintenance) – Appraisal costs (inspections and tests to determine conformance to requirements) – Failure costs (rework. lost sales. training. buying new equipment. supplier evaluations.
• Price of conformance and non-conformance • The costs of quality (COQ) are similar to Juran’s philosophy – Prevention costs (design reviews. warranty costs.
(Quality is free) • Cost of poor quality is higher than organizations’ realization
• Workers improve the system(Deming disagree)
• Doing things right is always cheaper than trying to fix defects after they have been created.
Crosby: 14 Steps to Quality Improvement
• Management commitment • Quality improvement teams • Quality measurement • Supervisor training
• Cost of Quality evaluation
• Quality awareness • Corrective action
• • • • • •
Zero Defects day Goal setting Error cause removal Recognition Quality councils Do it all over again
• Zero defects program
Deming. Juran &Crosby Common philosophies
• Customer Focused • Commitment and Leadership from Top Management
• Continuous Improvement Based on Facts
• Team Based
• Quality Management: Aspect of all the overall management function that determines and implements the quality policy • Quality System: The organizational structure. and resources for implementing quality management • Quality Plan: A document setting out the specify quality practices. and activities relevant to a particular product. procedures. resources. service. • Quality Policy: The overall intentions and directions of an organization as formally expressed by top management
. responsibilities. or a project. contract. processes.
• Quality Assurance: All those planned or systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality. • Quality Control: The operational techniques and activities required to fulfill the requirements for quality
• Statistical Quality Control: The application of statistical techniques to the control of quality.
chemical. testing. and comparing these with the specified requirements to determine conformity. gauging. examining. one or more characteristics of a product or service.
• Testing: A means of determining the capability of an item to meet specified requirements by subjecting the item to a set of physical.
. or operating actions and conditions.Quality Terms
• Inspection: Activities such as measuring. environmental.
Quality Management System
Quality management system set of coordinated activities used to: • direct and control organizations • continually improve organizations efficiency and effectiveness towards quality QMS aims: • To direct and control an organization with regard to quality • To structure organization in an effective and efficient manner Guiding principle in QMS • is not simply assessment and control but quality culture Quality Management • Organizational structure • Procedures • Processes and resources • Quality policy • Quality objectives
Means to implement Quality Policy and Attain Quality Objective • Quality planning • Quality control • Quality Assurance and • Quality improvement Guiding principles of QMS
a set of international quality management standards and guidelines • ISO quality Standards: ISO 9000: applicable for service and product oriented institutions ISO 9001:2000 ISO 9001:2008 (Upgraded version)
• The ISO 9000 standards.
• • • • • • • • Customer focus Leadership Involvement of people Process approach System approach for management Continual improvement Factual approach for decision making Mutually beneficial supplier relations
Benefits of the principles • policy and strategy formulation • goal and target setting • operational management • human resource management
Benefits: • Increased revenue and market share by flexible and fast responses to market opportunities
• Increased effectiveness in the use of resources to enhance
customer satisfaction • Improved customer loyalty to business continuity.
Organizations should: • understand current and future customer needs
• meet customer requirements
• strive to exceed customer expectations.
people. suppliers. local communities and society at large
• Establish unity of purpose and direction of the organization
• Create and maintain the internal environment in which people can become fully involved in achieving the organization’s objectives • Be proactive and leading by example • Understand and respond to changes in the external environment • Consider the needs of all stakeholders including customers. owners.
encourage and recognize people's contributions Promote open and honest communication Educate. train and coach people Implement strategy to achieve these goals
• Establish a clear vision of the organization's future • Establish shared values and ethical role models at all levels of the organization • Build trust and eliminate fear • Provide people with the required resources and freedom to act with responsibility and accountability
• • • •
knowledge and experience
• Freely share knowledge and experience in teams
• focus on the creation of value for customers
.Involvement of People
• Accept ownership and responsibility to solve problems
• Actively seek opportunities to make improvements
• Actively seek opportunities to enhance competencies.
Involvement of People
• Being innovative and creative in realizing the organizations objectives
• Better representing the organization to customers. local communities and society at large • Deriving satisfaction from their work
• Be enthusiastic and proud to be part of the organization
suppliers and other stakeholders of the process.
. consequences and impacts of processes on customers.
• Evaluating possible risks. • Identifying the interfaces of the process with the functions of the organization.Process Approach
• Defining the process to achieve the desired result • Identifying and measuring the inputs and outputs of the process.
training needs. equipments. information.Process Approach
• Establish clear responsibility. • Identify the internal and external customers. flows. materials and other resources while designing the process
• Consider process steps. activities. methods. authority. control measures. and accountability for managing the process. suppliers and other stakeholders of the process.
System Approach to Management
• Defining the system by identifying or developing the processes that affect a given objective • Structuring the system to achieve the objective in the most efficient way • Understanding the interdependencies among the processes of the system • Continually improving the system through measurement and evaluation • Establishing resource constraints prior to action
processes and systems ---.Continual Improvement
• Making continual improvement of products.every individual’s objective • Applying the basic improvement concepts ( incremental improvement and breakthrough improvement) • Using periodic assessments against established criteria of excellence to identify areas of improvement • Continually improving the efficiency and effectiveness of all processes
• Promoting prevention based activities,
• Providing appropriate education and training on methods & tools of continual improvement (for every one)
• Establishing measures and goals to guide and track improvements
• Recognizing improvements
Factual Approach to Decision Making
• Collecting data and information ,taking measurements (relevant to the objective)
• Ensure the data and information are sufficiently accurate, reliable and accessible • Analyze the data and information using valid methods
• Understand the value of appropriate statistical techniques(using statistical tools) • Making decisions and taking action based on the results of logical analysis, experience and intuition
Mutually Beneficial Supplier Relationships
• Identify and select key suppliers, • Establish supplier relationships that balance short-term gains with long-term considerations( for the organization &society at large) • Create clear and open communications • Initiate joint development and improvement of products and processes • Jointly establish a clear understanding of customers' needs • Sharing information and future plans • Recognizing supplier improvements and achievements
Development of QM concepts
QMS: • Applies to all processes • Interact with all processes • Begins with identification of customer requirements • Ends with ensuring customer satisfaction ISO Std demands issuance and maintenance of the following documented procedures
– – – – – – Control of Documents Control of Records Internal Audits Control of Nonconforming Product / Service Corrective Action Preventive Action
ISO 9000 Series(QMS)
• ISO 9001:1994 • ISO 9002:1994 • ISO 9003:1994 • ISO 9001:2000 • ISO 9001:2008
analysis and improvement Pages 15 to 22: Tables of Correspondence between ISO 9001 and other standards Page 23: Bibliography
.Contents of ISO 9001:2008
• • • • • • • • • • • • • Page iv: Foreword Pages v to vii: Section 0 Introduction Pages 1 to 14: Requirements Section 1: Scope Section 2: Normative Reference Section 3: Terms and definitions (specific to ISO 9001) Section 4: Quality Management System Section 5: Management Responsibility Section 6: Resource Management Section 7: Product Realization Section 8: Measurement.
QM process model
measures and analyzes the processes • implements actions to achieve improvement of these processes planned results and continual
General requirements • determines the processes and their application needed for QMS • determines the sequence and interaction of the processes • determines criteria and methods to ensure that both the operation and control of the processes are effective • ensures the availability of resources and information to support the operation and monitoring of these processes • monitors.
• QMS documentation includes:
– Documented statements of a QP and QO, – Documented procedures and records (up to ISO 9001:2008 International Standard) – Documents & records to ensure effective planning, operation and control of its processes
• Quality manual • Control of documents • Control of records
Management responsibility • Management Commitment • Customer focus • Quality policy • Planning (quality objective, QMS Planning) • Responsibility, authority and communication(Responsibility and Authority, Management Representative and Internal communication ) • Management review(Review inputs and outputs)
Resource management • Provision of resources(Competence, training, and awareness) • Human resources • Infrastructure • Work environment
Product realization • Planning of product realization • Customer related processes
– Determination of requirements related to the product – Review of requirements related to the product – Customer communication
• Purchasing • Product and service provision • Control of monitoring and measuring equipment
Measurement Analysis and Improvement • Monitoring and measurement
– – – – Customer satisfaction Internal Audits Monitoring and measurement of processes Control of nonconforming product
• Analysis of Data • Improvement
– Continual improvement – Corrective action – Preventive action
ISO 9000 QMS implementation
14 steps • Top Management Commitment • Establish Implementation Team • Start ISO 9000 Awareness Programs • Provide Training • Conduct Initial Status Survey • Create a Documented Implementation Plan • Develop Quality Management System Documentation • Document Control • Implementation • Internal Quality Audit • Management Review • Pre-assessment Audit • Certification and Registration • Continual Improvement
Benefits of ISO 9001 QMS implementation
One-time and on-going savings Reduced defect rate Reduced cost of quality On-time delivery Improvement in customer satisfaction
• Repeatable Processes • Knowledgeable Staff • Increased Business
• Supplier Relationships
• Customer Satisfaction
the whole • Quality – Degree of excellence a product or service provide • Management – Act.Total Quality Management (TQM)
• Total – Overall. handling. controlling and directing • Total quality management has evolved from the quality assurance methods
. or manner of planning. art.
Total Quality Management (TQM)
• The way of managing for the future • wider in its application than just assuring product or service quality • Aims to improve quality and performance which will meet or exceed customer expectations • Operates by integrating all quality-related functions and processes throughout the company • Managing people + Business processes=complete customer satisfaction at every stage (internally and externally) • TQM + Effective leadership=an organization doing the right things right first time
Total Quality Management (TQM)
Foundations of TQM • Commitment • Communication • culture Building blocks of TQM • People • Processes • systems
• Executive Management – the main driver for TQM • Training –training on the methods and concepts of quality • Customer Focus – Improvements to wards customer satisfaction • Decision Making – based on measurements • Methodology and Tools – to identify and solve nonconformances • Continuous Improvement – work towards improving quality procedures • Company Culture – The culture aim at developing employees ability to work together to improve quality • Employee Involvement –proactive in identifying and addressing quality related problems.
Key elements: • Foundation : Ethics.
. Teamwork and Leadership. Integrity and Trust • Building Bricks : Training. • Binding Mortar: Communication • Roof : Recognition.
Components of TQM
Commitment & Leadership Cultural change Commitment from the leaders Involvement of all of the organization’s people
values and objectives.Who is Effective leader in TQM?
• Develop and publish corporate beliefs. motivate and support people and encourage effective employee participation
. often as a mission statement
• Personal involvement and acting as role models for a culture of total quality • Develop clear and effective strategies and support plans for achieving the missions and objectives
• Review and improve the management system • Communicate.
• a long-term commitment to continuous improvement • philosophy of zero defects /right first time culture
• Train people to understand the customer/supplier relationships
• Systems improvements must be managed • Adopt modern methods of supervising and training
• Improve communications and teamwork
• Eliminate goals without methods • Develop experts in the organization----retrain and Educate • Develop a systematic approach to manage the implementation of TQM
Conversion process in an organization
what prevents this from happening when the capability exists?) • How do I monitor changes in their needs and expectations?
. what must I do to improve this capability?) • Do I continually meet their needs and expectations? • (If not. Customers (internal and external) -----key Questions • Who are my customers? • What are their true needs and expectations? • How can I measure my ability to meet their needs and expectations? • Do I have the capability to meet their needs and expectations? • (If not.Customers and suppliers interfaces
The ability to meet customers’ (external and internal) requirements is vital.
Customers and suppliers interfaces
Suppliers (internal and external) ---key questions • Who are my internal suppliers? • What are my true needs and expectations? • How do I communicate my needs and expectations to my suppliers? • Do my suppliers have the capability to measure and meet these needs and expectations? • How do I inform them of changes in my needs and expectations?
reactive behavior The “It’s not my problem” attitude
.Poor practices in TQM
• • • • • • • • Leaders not giving clear direction Ignoring competitive positions Each department working only for itself Trying to control people through systems Confusing quality with grade Accepting that a level of defects or errors is inevitable Firefighting.
Quality Improvement Cycle
Questions to be addressed by the team: • What are the requirements of the output from the process? • Who are the customers of the output? (internal and external customers ) • What are the objectives of the improvement effort?
Plan helps to focus the effort of the improvement team on the process.
Implement (Do) The implementation effort will have the purpose of: • Defining the processes that will be improved • Identifying and selecting opportunities for improvement The improvement steps during implementation: • Define the scope of the system to be improved and map or flowchart the processes within this system • Identify the key processes that will contribute to the objectives identified in the planning stage • Identify the customer–supplier relationships for the key processes
so the data collection adds to current knowledge. if found stable • Determine the impact of unplanned events on the improvement efforts • Update the maps/flowcharts and cause and effect diagrams.
Data (Check) The data collection phase has the following objectives: • Collect data to check the process stability • Determine the stability of the process using the appropriate control chart method(s) • Determine the capability of the process.
implementation and management of the recommended changes • Determine the objectives for the next round of improvement (Problems and opportunities discovered can be objectives for future efforts)
Analyze (Act) • Determine the action on the process: identify the inputs or combinations of inputs that will need to be improved • Develop greater understanding of the causes and effects • Ensure the agreed changes have anticipated impact on the specified objectives • Identify the areas to be involved in analysis.
Total Quality Management
Total Quality Management (TQ. not features.
. QM or TQM) and Six Sigma (6) are “culture change” efforts to position a company for: • greater customer satisfaction • profitability • competitiveness • TQM : managing the entire organization so that it excels on all dimensions of products and services that are important to the customer
• TQM is about conformance quality.
Total Quality management
• Meeting Our Customer’s Requirements • Doing Things Right the First Time (Freedom from Failure or Defects) • Consistency (Reduction in Variation) • Continuous Improvement • Quality in Everything We Do
A Quality Management System
A belief in:
• employee’s are able to solve problems(Training) • people doing the work are best able to improve it(Empowerment) • everyone is responsible for quality(involvement)
Elements for Success
• Management Support • Mission Statement • Proper Planning • Customer and Bottom Line Focus
• Teamwork/Effective Meetings
• Continuous Process Improvement • Dedicated Resources
The Continuous Improvement Process
Empowerment/ Shared Leadership
Customer Satisfaction Business Results
Process Improvement/ Problem Solving
• Define Quality Management System • Write benefits of QMS • Discuss the three quality Trilogy as stated by Juran?(Explain Each) • What are TQM Foundations and Building blocks • Why continuous improvement is needed?
Chapter 2: QA in Garment industry
Quality Assurance: • all the planned and systematic activities implemented within the quality system • Provide adequate confidence that a product or service will fulfill requirements Quality control: • Deals with the operational techniques and activities used to fulfill requirements QA can be internal or External • Internal quality assurance: -provides confidence to the management • External quality assurance: .provides confidence to the external customers
garment appearance. development and trim confirmation. and to develop initial fit parameters • Pre-production sample inspection: for accurate fit measurements during production pattern corrections.) are applied correctly
. etc. how the fabrics and trims will work in the style. pressing or label selection & placement
• Finished product inspection confirms proper garment construction. spec. yield a consistency of fit and finish In-line (in-process) quality inspection E.Quality in the manufacturing process
• Pattern making and first sample inspection: to identify how the garment will look. hangtags. and ensures that the purchase order is finished properly and that all packaging (labels.g. proper garment construction. seams. E.g. stitching.
Improving Garment Product Quality
Why quality improvement ? • to satisfy customers • • to control production cost to save Resources
Improving product quality requires:
• Deliberate and ongoing attention
• Commitment of every individuals (from the person who
cleans the floor to the most senior manager)
everyone’s role in achieving and maintaining right quality) • Maintaining a clean and dry workplace(e.g. storage rooms and shipping areas) • Selecting and utilizing proper equipment for each manufacturing activities • Providing the proper tools and training to each worker.Quality improvement Actions
• Communicating: (the importance of quality. and communicating quality performance expectations from management • Planning and conducting an ongoing program of machine maintenance • Establishing agreed-upon quality standards with before purchase:(procedures for rejecting/returning unacceptable goods)
. compared to agreed-upon (or buyer imposed) shade tolerances
2. jump stitch. variable gathering etc. open seam. Visual inspection by a trained inspector running every roll of fabric Color shade check. machine embroidery.(matching cut panels with original pattern.
• Rejection and return of all goods that don’t meet agreedupon quality standards • 100% inspection of value added processes like panel printing. broken seam.) • 100% inspection of work in process and finished garments – to ensure adherence to size specifications
– to control stitching related defects(needle cutting. hand embroidery etc • Checking the cut components.Quality improvement Actions
• 100% inspection of all incoming goods
1. fabric related defects etc. shade variation.
or assembly) type Operator/machine number
• Analysis of defect data to identify sources of quality problems Corrective measures: • Replace – replace underperforming suppliers. • Repair – repair ill-functioning equipment.Quality improvement Actions
• Record defects based on:
– – – – production lot source (fabric. • Retrain – retrain underperforming workers and • Reward – reward high performing workers
. cutting. equipment.
Quality Assurance procedures
• Reporting and Quality Approval Procedures(reporting to buyers to get approval at different stages)
• Factory Quality Control Procedures (factory inline and finished product inspection)
Reporting & Quality Approval Procedures
Receipt of the purchase order initiates the pre-production process for each style Result • an approved pre-production sample • a set of specifications (specs) • a trim card of actual trims and swatches for all components of each style At 20% completion of the purchase order. “approved with modifications”. or “not approved”) The Finished Product Inspection Report sent to buyers Quality Assurance office Result • a Certificate of Approval prior to shipment
. the supplier must submit purchase order samples for approval Result • Approval (“approved as submitted”.
finishing and packaging processes
. • In-line inspection is ongoing and continuous process
• It requires sampling pieces from the bundles to check against construction
and measurement standards Timeline • Checking all components prior to sewing • Checking during the assembly of the product(sewing) • Checking during the washing. • Problems discovered early in production allow for early correction and prevention of costly final audit failures.Factory Quality Control Procedures
Factory in-line inspection • In-line inspection is a critical aspect of a good quality program.
and the measurement. seams and pressing…) as the production completed – Mark defectives and send it back to the floor for repair – No defective garments should be shipped to buyers
Statistical inspection audits
To determine if each purchase order meets all quality standards – Select statistical quantities(for construction.Factory Quality Control Procedures
Finished product inspection (At two levels)
– Checking of all quality requirements (stitching. fit for each color)
. finish and packaging.
Finished product inspection
Final inspection audit • Visual • Construction/measurement/fit • Packaging Why Final Inspection Audit? to verify that the product meets standards as related to: • Technical (Specification) Package • Fit Measurements /construction • Visual Appearance • Packaging Requirements
Visual Quality Audit----AQL
based on purchase order size quantities • Make sure that the packaging materials meet specified standards. at random. or packaging.Inspection Procedure
• Find out the number of units packed at the time of audit from the factory management • Pull. to be examined. construction and packaging • Defects observed are to be listed on the Finished Product Inspection Report form. notify the buyers Import department immediately. • If the audit fails for visual.
. the quantity of garments proportionally by size and color. • The number of defects observed is reviewed against the amount allowed in AQL table • Complete the Finished Product Inspection Report form for Visual / Construction / Packaging. construction. the purchase order must be 100% inspected by the quality inspector • If problems are found that create any shipping delays. • Inspect the product for defects related to visual.
Organizational structure of quality department
Who Assure Quality?
Quality-conscious companies philosophy: Employees at all levels of planning and production are able to:
• Identify the causes of defects • Propose solutions to problems
after cutting) • In process quality control(sewing) • Finishing quality control
– – – – Process inspection: Two hourly audits: Day’s final audit: Lot final audit:
.Quality control methods
Two basic controlling techniques • Testing • Inspection Controlling stages: • Piece goods quality control • Cutting quality control (Spreading.
Role of QA department
Responsibilities of quality Team
• Setting quality standards for the factory for each departments and processes.
. (after buyer’s requirements are known)
• Establish SOPs for production and preparatory processes to get right first time quality from each process
• Develop MIS for quality measurement and Recording • When established quality standards exist in a company follow them and control the factory quality standard • Monitor the quality of the product through the various stages of production • Train newly hired quality personnel on company quality policies and how to use quality tools.
Responsibilities of quality Team
Pre-production: • Auditing inward fabric and trims and ensuring only quality goods are accepted.
• Conducting pre-production meeting before production start.
. • Involvement in product development and sampling stage and take care of quality aspects of samples.
• Preparing audit report of the fabric and trims quality. • Ensure that no faulty fabric is sent for cutting.
• Perform inline inspection.Responsibilities of quality Team
Production: • Perform inline inspection and end-of-line inspection in sewing floor. pre-final audit and final inspection in finishing department • Audit of the packed goods prior to buyer QA Audit • Prepare quality analysis reports and prepare improvement plan • Ensure the right quality of the outward garment by conducting quality audits
Department wise quality checking
Standards and specifications
Discussions • Definitions • Differences
• Discuss the difference between quality assurance and Quality control. • What is the advantage and disadvantage of Statistical quality Audits and 100% inspections? • Design a quality parameter for each department in Garment Industry.
garment parts. specifications. and completed garments at varying stages in the production cycle
. • Aims to monitor and regulate quality. or requirements. most quality programs include • The careful examination of fabric. partially finished components and completely finished garments in relation to some standards.CH3: Inspection and Testing
Inspection: • the visual examination or review of raw materials.
To facilitate inspection of packed goods the following information's are needed • Order quantity: The quantity available for inspection accords to the order quantity. • Visual defects: Visual and functional defects will be evaluated using the parameters set forth in the specification
. • Packaging and folding: The style is boxed. • Styling: The garment should include all features as approved in the sealer / pre-production sample. Labels are checked for correct brand name. care instruction and country of origin and its placement. packaged and folded as per the specification • Labeling : All labels will be evaluated based on the specifications outlined in labeling section of the specification. fiber content.
• Raw material Inspection(Fabrics. Packaging. cutting .MM. hangtags)
– – – – – – – Correct measurements Garment symmetry . hangers. seam allowance Pressing/fusing defects . Spreading. Trims) • In process Inspection(PM . Loose threads Correct matching of fabrics and accessories Shade variation Correct fitting and alignment of closures Correct placement of labels
.Sewing . pressing/Finishing) • Final inspection( visual appearance.Cleanness. Seam pucker. folding.
Inspection steps/how to conduct inspection
Three fundamental concepts to inspect: • Inspection levels • The AQL .for decision making • When to inspect?(time) Benefits: • Help for informed decisions based on an inspection report • Ensure the inspection plan meets the needs of buyers and manufacturers
Inspection levels (How much to inspect?)
• Checking 100% of the quantity would be long and expensive But how many samples to select • Checking only a few pieces might prevent the inspector from noticing quality issues • The objective is to keep the inspection short by reducing the number of samples to check Sampling Normal Levels • Reduced levels(Level I) • Normal level (level II) • Tightened level(Level III)
Inspection levels (How much to inspect?)
Special Levels • In some cases the tests can only be performed on very few samples. unstitching a jacket to check the lining fabric).
.g. (e. for two reasons: • They might take a long time • They end up in product destruction.
Inspection levels (How much to inspect?)
Garment inspection stages/when to inspect?
• • • •
PPI IPI MPI FRI
Velcro • Embroidery quality • Lock stitching of button holes • Pocket placement . color and quantity per carton • Packaging-flat pack vs. side to side symmetry of plackets. snaps.shape and evenness-garment to garment consistency • Garment labeling information • Shade variation Measurement Inspection • Auditor performs critical measurement inspection Packaging inspection • Hang tag/price tag information and placement • Style. hanger pack • Missing or unreadable UPC • Carton size and markings
. zippers. evenness of inseam lengths • Proper functioning of buttons.Garment inspection
Visual inspection • Thorough check of seams for stitching defects including pocket pouches.
which are separated for alteration during checking due to non conformance to requirements
.CH4 Fabric and garment Defects
Defects – Defects are all those non-conformances that are not acceptable by end customer
Defective Pieces – Defective pieces are those pieces.
either manufacturing or processing) – Are major source of finished garments rejection/sub-standard quality – Persist throughout the sewing process – As fabric contributes to major part of production cost.Classification of Defects
Garment defects: based on source or origin • Fabric defects: (Knit and woven. Fabric should conform to the specification and the standards to reduce failure of garments Challenges for garment manufacturers: o Reduced product lead-time o Improved productivity and quality Fabric defects : color defects construction defects cleanliness /soiling
. its failure affects the price of the garment Therefore.
of defects found X 100 / Total pieces checked • Percent Defective (%) – Total number of defective pieces in 100 checked garments • Percentage defective = Total no. of defective pieces X 100 / Total pieces checked
. cutting and sewing • Trims. color of sewing thread. screen print and embroidery designs and placements) Garment quality depends on number and type of Defects Defects can be measured by: – Defects per hundred units (DHU) – percentage defective(% defective) • Defects per hundred units (DHU) – number of total defects in 100 checked garments.Classification of Defects
• Garment (Workmanship and handling) defects: caused by production section. accessories and embellishment defects: (labels. • DHU = Total no.
defects can be classified as: • Critical • Major • Minor Critical defects: Defects which could result in hazardous or unsafe conditions for individuals using or maintaining the products as well as defects violet legal regulations.Defects categories
Depending on the severity. flammability instruction
.g. • They are defects that are not allowed to be shipped and are the most serious of defects • e. Children Safety Care .
A defect which • Does not affect the performance of the garments in normal conditions • Is not noticeable to the customer on purchasing • Is not noticeable to the wearer of the garment. or others • Will not worsen with time and wear
. however less than the agreed quality standard.Defects categories
Major defects: This is a defect which is sufficient to cause the garment to be considered as second’s quality • A defect which is obvious • Affects the salability or serviceability which worsens with wear and time • Varies significantly from the approval garment specification Minor Defects: • It would not normally be identified by the customer. but is.
printing. folding. finishing. weaving.Fabric defects
• Fabric manufacturing defects. knitting • Fabric processing and finishing defects.Batching
Marking Defects • • • • • • • • • Shaded Parts Pieces not Symmetrical Not Marked by Directional Lines Skimpy marking Notches and Punch Marks Too wide Marker Too narrow Marker Mismatched Plaids Misdirected Napping
Spreading Defects • Uneven Spreading: • Narrow Fabric: • Missed Sectional Breaks: • Improper Tension: • Mismatching Plaids: • Misdirected Napping: • Improper Matching of Face of Material:
Cutting Defects • Opening Slits • Improper Cutting • Notches • Oil Spots • Improper Knife Sharpening • Knife or Scissor Cut Sorting/ Bundling inspection Defects • Not Stacked in Numerical Order: • Matching Linings: Wrong size or wrong material
Sewing Room Defects
• Scissors or Knife Cut: • Tear: • Incorrect Material Shading: • Spots or Stains: • Loose Threads:
• Puckered Seams:
• Pleated Seams:
• Thread Breaks:
• Insecure Backstitching:
• Wrong Shade of Thread:
Process defects: Finishing Defects
Trimming Defects • Threads not Trimmed to Specified Length • scissor Cuts • Seam Tear • Soil • Streaks Pressing Defects • Pressing Omitted. Burned or Scorched Garments • Inadequate Pressing • Garments not Thoroughly Dried • Improper Pressing over Zippers or Other Closures: • Pockets or Linings not Pressed Correctly: • Pressing Producing a Shine in Fabric
• Label not showing: Garment not positioned in package to
show label on top surface. Flys not Closed. tissue
or other specified packaging material omitted • Pins or Folds in Garment Incorrect: Pins in wrong location or folds not correctly aligned for package. • Garments not Buttoned.
• Garment not folded with proper Materials: Cardboard. Incorrect Number of Pins: Self exp1anatory.Process defects
Folding Defects • Garment not folded to Specification: Self-explanatory.
improper yarn quality. thin place) • Fabric processing(dyeing. inefficient fabric manufacturing processes(E. washing.) • Accessories and trims • Garment processes(marking.Causes and Remedial Solutions
Discussion Points • Fabric construction. Knots. Missing yarn. jerk in. finishing. packaging. thick place. packaging )
. trimming. washing. sewing. spreading. cutting. pressing. printing. finishing.g End out.