power amp

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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power amp

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Power Amplifiers

Power Amplifiers are used in the transmitter

There are different classes for the power

amplifier

Class A, Class B, Class AB, Class C, Class D

and Class E

Those amplifier differs in their angle of

conduction, efficiency, linearity and the in the

amount of distortion they introduce to the

system

2

Power Amplifiers

Class A

The amplifier conducts through the full

360 of the input. The Q-point is set near

the middle of the load line.

Class B

The amplifier conducts through 180 of the

input. The Q-point is set at the cutoff point.

3

Power Amplifiers

Class AB

This is a compromise between the class A

and B amplifiers. The amplifier conducts

somewhere between 180 and 360 . The Q-

point is located between the mid-point and

cutoff.

Class C

The amplifier conducts less than 180 of the

input. The Q-point is located below the cutoff

level.

4

Power Amplifiers

Class D

This is an amplifier that is biased especially

for digital signals.

5

Class C power amplifiers

Class C amplifier is obtained if the output

current conduction angle is less than 180

Class C have a greater efficiency than both

class A and class B

Class C also have larger distortion compared

with the A and B

Class C amplifier is used when there is no

variation in signal amplitude and the output

circuit contains a tuned circuit to filter out the

harmonics

Class C amplifier is used for applications

similar to FM Modulation

6

Class C power amplifiers

The output of the class C conducts for less

than 180 of the AC cycle

The Q-point is below cutoff as shown below

7

Power Amplifiers Class C

8

Class C power amplifier

The circuit

shown to the left

will be

considered in

analysis of the

class C amplifier

9

Class C power amplifier

The amplifier efficiency can be computed from

the following equation

The output power is the AC power flowing in

the load resistance

The input power is the supply power which can

be determined from the multiplication of the

supply voltage and the average collector current

The main step in the analysis is to compute the

average collector current which is explained in

the next slide

DC

AC

i

o

P

P

P

P

= = q

10

Class C power amplifier

According to the

figure shown to

the left, the

collector current is

given by

Where I

D

is given

by

11

Class C power amplifier

The direct collector current is determined by its

average value which is given by

It is desired to find the current as a function of

the angles

1

and

2

rather than t

1

and t

2

This can be achieved by using the following

mapping and

}

=

2

1

) sin (

1

t

t

D p Cav

dt I t I

T

I e

e

u

1

1

= t

e

u

2

2

= t

12

Class C power amplifier

The average collector current can be rewritten as

By evaluating this equation we may have the

following expression

To simplify the notation, the conduction angle

will be defined as

}

=

e

u

e

u

e

2

1

) sin (

1

dt I t I

T

I

D p Cav

I

Cav

13

Class C power amplifier

By substituting the conduction angle expression

into the average collector current equation we

get

Now the supplied input power can be written as

If the output RLC circuit is a narrow band filter

tuned to the fundamental frequency of the

current pulses, then the output power will be

) cos (sin u u u

t

= =

p

CC

Cav CC i

I

V

I V P

) cos (sin u u u

t

=

p

Cav

I

I

14

Class C power amplifier

Where I

1

is the amplitude of the fundamental

current components which is determined by the

trigonometric Fourier series as shown below

By solving the previous equation we may have

The output power now can be written as

) 2 sin 2 (

4

1 2

1

2

1 2

1

u u

t

= = =

p CC

CC O

I V

I V RL I P

15

Class C power amplifier

The efficiency of the amplifier can be written as

A plot of the efficiency as a a function of the

conduction angle is shown below

) cos (sin 4

2 sin 2

1 2

1

u u u

u u

q

= = =

Cav CC

CC

i

O

I V

I V

P

P

16

Class C power amplifier design

There are four important design parameters

are of great importance for PA design in

general

These parameters are

The output power

Transistor power dissipation

Maximum collector to emitter voltage V

CEmax

The maximum transistor output current I

p

17

Class C power amplifier design

The maximum collector current is given by

Since

The collector current can be rewritten as

The maximum current in terms of the output

current can be written as

Note that the value of the collector voltage

V

CC

can be written as

18

Class C power amplifier design

Now the maximum collector current can be

rewritten as

A normalized peak collector current is

defined as

19

Class C power amplifier design

A plot of the normalized peak current versus

the conduction angle is shown below

20

Class C power amplifier design

The power dissipated in the transistor is given

by

Note the value of I

p

can be expressed as

From we can conclude that

If the value of I

p

is substituted in the P

T

equation then

2

) cos (

1

I V

Sin

I V

P P P

CC P CC

O i T

= = u u u

t

u cos 1

=

M

p

I

I

u u

t

2 sin 2

2

1

=

I

I

p

21

Class C power amplifier design

The power dissipated in the transistor is given

by

Or P

T

can be rewritten as

2

)

2 sin 2

cos sin

( 2

1

1

I V

I V P

CC

CC T

=

u u

u u u

22

Class C power amplifier design

A normalized plot of P

T

/P

O

versus theta is

shown below

23

Class C power amplifier design

example

Example: Design a class C amplifier that will

deliver 5-W average power to a 50 load at a

frequency of 1 MHz using a transistor with a

safe power dissipation rating of 0.5 W

Solution:

The average output power is given by

Or

V P R VCC

O L

4 . 22 5 50 2 2 = = =

24

Class C power amplifier design

example

Solution:

Since the allowable power dissipation is

The maximum conduction angle can be found

from the graph shown in slide 19 or by

solving the P

T

/P

O

equation

The value of the normalized current corresponds

to this angle is refer to the figure in

slide 16

The peak collector current is given by

5 . 57 = u

25

Class C power amplifier design

An alternate design procedure for class C

amplifiers is

Select the power supply

Select the transistor

Determine the maximum output power without

exceeding the transistor ratings

The transistor then can be driven to its maximum

allowed value of output current

Determine the value of the load resistance that twill

result in the maximum current according to

26

Class C power amplifier design

Now the transistor power equation can be

modified as

The normalized transistor power dissipation

is given by

Where

u

u u u u u

u

cos 1

) 2 sin 2 ( ) cos (sin 4

) (

= f

27

Class C power amplifier design

28

Class C power amplifier design

example 2

Example 2: Determine the maximum output

power and the conduction angle of a class C

amplifier using a transistor with maximum

power dissipation rating of 4 W and a

maximum output current of 1.5 A. The supply

voltage is 48 V

Solution:

The normalized maximum transistor dissipation

is given by

29

Class C power amplifier design

example 2

Solution:

The conduction angle for maximum normalized

transistor power P

T

is found to be as

If we refer back (P

T

/P

O

vs ) plot we find that the

value of P

T

/P

O

which corresponds to this

angle is

The output power now can be found as

30

Class C power amplifier design

example 2

Solution:

Finally the value of the load resistance that

results in this output power is given by

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