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 Atomic structure


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geometrical atomic arrangement and also the interaction between atoms or molecules Each atom consist of nucleus composed of protons and neutrons which is encircled by moving electrons. The top most orbital electrons, valance electrons affect most material properties that are of interest to engineer.  E.g. chemical properties, nature of bonding size of an atom Both proton and electron are electrically charged with magnitude of 1.6*10^-19 C. Masses are infinitesimally small Mp & Mn =~ 1.67*10^-27Kg it is also called AMU(atomic mass unit) Me=~ 9.11*10^-31Kg Atomic Number(Z)_ Number of protons in the nucleus  for electrically neutral atom the atomic number can also be equal to number of electrons.  1<= atomic number <=92  1== hydrogen  92==uranium

 Important properties of the solid material depend on the

 It Is the sum of masses of proton and neutron inside the nucleus  Atomic mass is always measured in atomic mass unit(amu)  A=~Z+N . Atomic mass(A)_.

Exists in many substances like water along with primary bonds  Van der walls  Hydrogen .?  How atoms are arranged.?  Inter atomic bonds  Primary bonds  Secondary bonds  Primary bonds  they are relatively stronger &exists in almost all solids  Ionic  Covalant  Metallic  Secondary bonds  Relatively weaker bonds. Atomic bonding in solids  what makes atom to cluster together.

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 Metallic Bonds  Metals are characterized by high thermal and electrical conductivities. .  This bond comes into picture when a valance electrons are shared between number of atoms.e.  Unlike covalent bond shared electrons are not specific pair of atoms i. electrons are delocalized  Since the shared electrons are delocalized the metallic bonds are non directional  High thermal and electrical conductivity is the result of this delocalization.

e. each bond is between a specific pair of atoms. which share a pair of electrons  Covalent bonds are very strong and directional in nature  The diamond is the result of covalent bond where the carbon atom is covalently bonded with 4 neighbor atoms and each neighbor atom is bonded with equal number of atoms to form a rigid structure Red= electron from hydrogen blue= electron from carbon . thus acquire stability by saturating the valence configuration.  Covalent bonds are stereospecific i. Covalent bond  This bond comes into existence if valence electrons are shared between a pair of atoms.

NaCl  Na is +ve and Cl is –ve  They are the strongest bonds Usually exists in material along with the covalant bond . Ionic Bonds  Exists between 2 atoms when 1 is +ve and other is –ve charged.g.  +ve charged==loss of electron  -ve charged==extra electron  Strong direct attraction  They are non directional in nature  E. .

carbon tetrocloride  Hydrogen bond  Exists between the atoms/molecules having permanent dipole moment  E. Secondary bonds  Van der waals bond  Origin is quantum mechanical in nature & mainly due to the dipole     moment of atoms or molecules Usually atoms are neutral and hence no dipole moment Polarized atoms experience the van der waal forces Weak in nature E.in oxygen tens to concentrate away from hydrogen so the resulting charge difference between molecule allows the bonding of water molecule. Water  e.g.  More strong than vander waal forces  Important for life .g.

or ions which are arranged in orderly pattern extending in all 3 dimensions  Structures which are not crystalline are called as amorphous structures. • .molecules. Crystal  It is a material which constitute atoms.

 To analyze arrangement of atom we use 2 basic technique  Lattice and basis concept  Unit cell ASSUMPTION_ atoms as a hard sphere with fix radius  Lattice and basis  lattice_ its an arrangement of points such that surroundings of each point in the lattice are identical  Types_ 1D 2D 3D  Basis_ group of 1 or more atoms located in particular way with respect to each other and associated with each lattice point is known as basis.  Crystal structure  Atoms of basis placed on lattice point. . Crystal structure  Arrangement of crystals in specific order/pattern to form a 3D structure is called as crystal structure.

 Possible ways of arranging point in lattice structure  1D__ only 1 way 1 1D lattice  2D__ 5 ways  5 2D lattice structures  3D__ 14 ways  14 3D lattice structures To arrange a point in such a way that so as to have the same surrounding Known as Bravias lattices  These 14 structures are grouped into 7 crystal systems  Cubic_____________________ cube  Tetragonal_________________ square prism  Orthorhombic______________ rectangular prism  Hexagonal_________________ 120 degree rhombic prism  Trigonal___________________ parallelepiped  Monoclinic_________________ parallogramic prism  Triclinic____________________ parallelepiped .

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Base centered Atoms are arranged at the corner of the cube. Body centered . Based on the lattice point in the unit cell we have 4 types of Bravais lattice  Simple cubic. . Face centered.  • Face centered_ • atoms are arranged at the corner and at the each face of the cube.

.Body centered_ Atoms are arranged at each corner and at the center of the cube Base centered_ Atoms are arranged at each corner of the cube and 1 atom on each top and bottom plane of hexagon.

1 2 3 4 cubic Tetragonal Cube Square prism Y Y Y Y Orthorhombic Rect.Sr. Crystal system shape Bravais lattice SC FC Y BC Y Y Y Y Y Base C.No. Prism Hexagonal 120 degree rhombic prism 5 6 Trigonal Monoclinic Parallelepiped Parallogramic prism parallelepiped Y Y Y 7 Triclinic Y .

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https://www.psu.edu/matse201/node/8 .eeducation.

reproduces the entire crystal structure is called as unit cell.g 2D crystal  Rubik’s cube .  E. Unit cell  Main aim was to analyze the structure of the atom and to develop the notion to model the crystalline solid structures  Unit cell concept is different from lattice and basis but the end result is Representation of Crystal Structure_  Definition_  Single unit which when duplicated and translated.

 Concept of unit cell and 2D structure  In 2D structure we have (1/4) atom per corner  With 4 corners (1/4)*4=1 unit atom per unit cell  In 3D structure we have 8 corners and (1/8) atom at each corner  For simple cubic structure_ Base Upper layer .

 For body centered cubic structure .

 For face centered cubic structure .

t.r. Miller Indices_  Introduced by British mineralogist Willam mille in 1839.  They are defined w. any unit cell  Any crystal consist of an infinite planes seperated by perticular distance “a”  Miller indices are nothing but the numbers used to designate the palne in a crystal  As well as it gives the direction of the plane .

E.g… . Procedure to find miller indices  Consider a right handed co-ordinate system  Determine the co-ordinates that lie on the required direction  Subtract the co-ordinates of tail point from the head point to     obtained the number of lattice parameters traveled in that particular direction Clear fractions Enclose the number in square bracket [] If negative sign is produced then represent negative sign with bar over the number.