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but is also a cause of poverty and a major hindrance to economic development. the majority of whom are young children in Sub-Saharan Africa. and Africa.Ninety percent of malaria-related deaths occur in Sub-Saharan Africa. including parts of the America. . Asia.Introduction To Malaria Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. there are approximately 515 million cases of malaria. killing between one and three million people. Malaria is commonly associated with poverty. Each year.

There are four types of plasmodium parasite which can infect humans. The most serious forms of diseases are caused by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. This group of human-pathogenic.Cause Of Malaria The causative agent (the organism which causes the disease) of malaria is the protozoan parasite Plasmodium. falciparum culture A Plasmodium sporozoite . Plasmodium species is usually referred to as malaria parasites. P. The other two are types are Plasmodium ovale and malariae.

and will continue throughout the night until taking a meal. Only female mosquitoes feed on blood. which contains microscopic malaria parasites. About one week later. these parasites mix with the mosquito's saliva and are injected into the person being bitten. although this is rare. The females of the genus Anopheles prefer to feed at night and usually start searching for a meal at dusk. When a mosquito bites an infected person.Transmission Of Malaria Malaria is transmitted by female mosqiutos of the genus Anopheles.They can only transmit malaria and have been infected through a previous blood meal taken on an infected person. Plasmodium Anopheles Mosquito .This mosquito is itself a parasite. Malaria parasites can also be transmitted by blood transfusions. thus males do not transmit the disease. the females visiting humans for occasional meals of blood. when the mosquito takes its next blood meal. a small amount of blood is taken.

Passage Of Plasmodium An immature form of Plasmodium(the sporozoite) is injecteed into the blood of humans by the mosquito. Each parasite cell in a red blood cell undergoes further division. The red blood cells burst and the released parasite cells can enter other cells.Here it multiplies to produce large numbers of a form(the merozoite) which can infect other liver cells.Some of the parasites transform into male and female forms of the parasite (gametocytes) .particularly the liver.millions of parasites can be present in the blood.This form disappears form the bloodstream as it enters various cells of the body. As a result of the extensive division. Finally it leaves the liver and enters the red blood cells.

ovale infections. cerebral ischemia. arthralgia (joint pain). Renal failure may cause blackwater fever. Over the longer term. hypoglycemia. developmental impairments have been documented in children who have suffered episodes of severe malaria. anemia. malariae. The classic symptom of malaria is cyclical occurrence of sudden coldness followed by rigor and then fever and sweating lasting 4 to 6 hours.Consequences of severe malaria include coma and death if untreated—young children and pregnant women are especially vulnerable. vomiting. hepatomegaly (enlarged liver). Severe malaria is almost exclusively caused by P. falciparum can have recurrent fever every 36–48 hours or a less pronounced and almost continuous fever. retinal damage. This neurologic damage results from cerebral malaria to which children are more vulnerable. shivering. occurring every 2 days in P.Signs & Symptoms Symptoms of malaria include fever. and haemoglobinuria with renal failure may occur. Splenomegaly (enlarged spleen). severe headache.and convulsions. vivax and P. while every 3 for P. where haemoglobin from lysed red blood cells leaks into the urine. . Children with malaria frequently exhibit abnormal posturing. falciparum infection and usually arises 6–14 days after infection.It causes widespread anemia during a period of rapid brain development and also direct brain damage. P.

Life Cycle of Mosquito .

Malaria transmission can be reduced by preventing mosquito bites by wearing long sleeves and trousers and sleeping under a mosquito net. and also possess partial immunity (resistance). A drug called Fansidar and another called Lariam (mefloquine) are effective against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium.Prevention & Treatment Although some are under development. and such adults may become susceptible to severe malaria if they have spent a significant amount of time in non-endemic areas (Endemic: describes a disease which is always present at a low level in a given population or region). this tree contains quinine . The dose must also be taken for 6 months after leaving the area. The usually accepted prevention is chloroquine or mefloquine which is taken weekly before and during a visit to endemic areas. can be used by people entering areas endemic for malaria. the effectiveness of these drugs are decreasing as the parasite is becoming resistant to these drugs. the resistance reduces with time. However. that is the use of medicines (drugs) to prevent disease. no vaccine is currently available for malaria. Other synthetic drugs are proguanil hydrochloride and pyrimethamine. Prophyhlaxis. which tends to recur. Cinchona tree. Most adults from endemic areas have a degree of long-term infection. preventive drugs must be taken continuously to reduce the risk of infection.

However the process is expensive and incomplete because rural populations must ensure that ponds.Eradication Of Malaria • Drainage Of Stagnant Water: Larval stages of the malaria live in stagnant water. The simplest method is a thin layer of oil spread over the water surface to block the breathing tubes. Thus any method of blocking these tubes will result in the death if the intermediate life stages of the mosquito. Destruction Of the adult mosquitoes: This is aimed at killing the mosquitoes that enter the houses.falciparum eventually die out in infected patients. • • . This method was used in Brazil in 1938 and eliminated the Anopheles gambiae by 1940.vivax and P. Thus the indoor surfaces are sprayed with a persistent insecticide. so drainage removes breeding sites. Destruction Of the breeding stages of the mosquito: The larvae and the pupae of the mosquitoes obtain their oxygen by the means of small tubes which are pushed through the water surface film. If the dwellings are sprayed for three years the cycle of the manmosquito-man can be disrupted because P. ditches and even container holding water are not allowed to provide breeding places for mosquitoes.. Petroleum oil sprayed from back packs is used. This has done some success.

sickle-cell disease. it is likely to become deformed and be destroyed before the daughter parasites emerge. However. but also have a greatly reduced chance of serious malaria infection. individuals heterozygous for the mutated allele. . The existence of four haplotypes of sickle-type haemoglobin suggests that this mutation has emerged independently at least four times in malaria-endemic areas. and its metabolism changes the internal chemistry of the red blood cell. In the merozoite stage of its life cycle. the malaria parasite lives inside red blood cells.Protection Against Malaria due to Sickle Cell The most-studied influence of the malaria parasite upon the human genome is a hereditary blood disease. if the red cell contains a mixture of sickle and normal haemoglobin. Individuals homozygous for the mutation have full sickle-cell disease and in traditional societies rarely live beyond adolescence. in populations where malaria is endemic. the frequency of sickle-cell genes is around 10%. This is a classic example of heterozygote advantage. Thus. further demonstrating its evolutionary advantage in such affected regions. known as sickle-cell trait. The sickle-cell trait causes disease. Infected cells normally survive until the parasite reproduces. but. may have a low and usually-unimportant level of anaemia. but even those only partially affected by sickle-cell have substantial protection against malaria.