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Social Tensions?

In the years that followed the Restoration

• Only four other towns had populations over 100. • Restoration government saw high tariffs – protected domestic companies but not exports (notably wine industry) .000 • Cholera epidemics hit large towns in 1832 and 1848.000 in 1815 and over a million by 1846. • Paris = 600.General facts • 1815 population was 29 million (15% of Europe’s entire population) – slow increase to 35. • France was the most industrialised nation in the world in 1815 but over 75% of population were rural.4 million by 1846 (slower than rest of Europe). Therefore small scale businesses.

• By 1815 owned no land – clergy were paid employees of the government (Bishops and Archbishops still drawn from noble families). • Priests roamed France preaching the ‘evils’ of the Revolution. . • Anti-church books burnt – Voltaire etc. • According to the Charter the Catholic Church became the state religion of France – however.The Church: The st 1 Estate • Pre-1789 had owned 10% of France and had enjoyed considerable privileges. Missionary crosses littered the countryside. did not reclaim sold church land from 1790s.

• 1825 the Ultras used their dominance to introduce a state loan to compensate those who had lost their land during the Revolution. • Remained the largest landowners and the wealthiest men throughout the period 1815-70.. • Some modern Historians therefore claim that the Revolution did little to change the ruling elite in France. • Napoleon had been conciliatory – allowed Nobles to buy back unsold land.. The Nobles: The 2nd Estate . • 1814 Nobles owned 20% of land (25% in 1789).• Generally suffered in the years that followed the Revolution -especially those that fled into exile – lost land.

• Generally.Emerging bourgeoisie: The 3rd Estate • New ruling elite chosen by wealth – so some bankers. • Socially ancien regime nobles shunned Napoleonic and ‘new’ money. businessmen and industrialists played a key role in both the National Assembly and local councils – 17% of deputies by the late 1820s change from ancien regime. . everyone didn’t want another Revolution in 1815 and so the priority was to maintain stability.

• Championed the Catholic Church • Many wanted a return to the ancien regime • Dominated the Chamber of Deputies in 1815 and led to the White Terror The Ultras . comte d’Artois • Deeply suspicious of bourgeoisie – new ‘liberal’ and ‘immoral’ group.• Championed by the heir to the throne – Charles.